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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(5): 874-881, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38666581

RESUMO

Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) is a mosquitoborne orthobunyavirus in the California serogroup that circulates throughout Canada and the United States. Most JCV exposures result in asymptomatic infection or a mild febrile illness, but JCV can also cause neurologic diseases, such as meningitis and encephalitis. We describe a case series of confirmed JCV-mediated neuroinvasive disease among persons from the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Quebec, and Nova Scotia, Canada, during 2011-2016. We highlight the case definitions, epidemiology, unique features and clinical manifestations, disease seasonality, and outcomes for those cases. Two of the patients (from Quebec and Nova Scotia) might have acquired JCV infections during travel to the northeastern region of the United States. This case series collectively demonstrates JCV's wide distribution and indicates the need for increased awareness of JCV as the underlying cause of meningitis/meningoencephalitis during mosquito season.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia , Encefalite da Califórnia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Canadá/epidemiologia , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia/genética , Encefalite da Califórnia/epidemiologia , Encefalite da Califórnia/virologia , História do Século XXI
2.
J Wildl Dis ; 60(2): 375-387, 2024 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345469

RESUMO

Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) in the Upper Peninsula (UP) of Michigan, USA, occupy the southern periphery of the species' range and are vulnerable to climate change. In the eastern UP, hares are isolated by the Great Lakes, potentially exacerbating exposure to climate-change-induced habitat alterations. Climate change is also measurably affecting distribution and prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in North America, and increases in disease occurrence and prevalence can be one signal of climate-stressed wildlife populations. We conducted a serosurvey for vector-borne pathogens in snowshoe hares that were captured in the Hiawatha National Forest in the eastern UP of Michigan, USA, 2016-2017. The most commonly detected antibody response was to the mosquito-borne California serogroup snowshoe hare virus (SSHV). Overall, 24 (51%) hares screened positive for SSHV antibodies and of these, 23 (96%) were confirmed positive by plaque reduction neutralization test. We found a positive association between seroprevalence of SSHV and live weight of snowshoe hares. Additionally, we detected a significant effect of ecological land type group on seroprevalence of SSHV, with strong positive support for a group representing areas that tend to support high numbers of hares (i.e., acidic mineral containing soils with cedar, mixed swamp conifers, tamarack and balsam fir as common overstory vegetation). We also detected and confirmed antibodies for Jamestown Canyon virus and Silverwater virus in a single hare each. We did not detect antibodies to other zoonotic vector-borne pathogens, including Lacrosse encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Borrelia burgdorferi, Powassan virus, and Francisella tularensis. These results provide a baseline for future serological studies of vector-transmitted diseases that may increase climate vulnerability of snowshoe hares in the UP of Michigan, as well as pose a climate-related zoonotic risk.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia , Lebres , Animais , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Michigan/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores
3.
Viruses ; 16(2)2024 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399996

RESUMO

Snowshoe hare virus (SSHV) is a zoonotic arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) circulating in colder areas of the Northern Hemisphere. SSHV is maintained in an enzootic cycle between small mammals and mosquitoes, assumably of the genera Aedes and Culiseta. Symptoms of SSHV human infection can range from asymptomatic to severe neuroinvasive disease. Studies on SSHV transmission are limited, and there is no information available on whether mosquitoes of the genus Culex are able to transmit SSHV. Therefore, we investigated six mosquito species via salivation assay for their vector competence. We demonstrated that SSHV can be transmitted by the abundant European Culex species Cx. pipiens biotype pipiens, Cx. pipiens biotype molestus, and Cx. torrentium with low transmission efficiency between 3.33% and 6.67%. Additionally, the invasive species Ae. albopictus can also transmit SSHV with a low transmission efficiency of 3.33%. Our results suggest that local transmission of SSHV after introduction to Europe seems to be possible from a vector perspective.


Assuntos
Aedes , Culex , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia , Animais , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores , Europa (Continente) , Mamíferos
4.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 108(4): 116161, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38219377

RESUMO

Background seropositivity rates for specific antibodies to Jamestown Canyon Virus (JCV) can exceed 25 % in certain geographic areas in the United States. This can potentially lead to diagnostic confusion, as apparently illustrated by a patient from New Jersey with Powassan virus encephalitis, who also tested positive for antibodies to JCV.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia , Encefalite da Califórnia , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos , Encefalite , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Encefalite da Califórnia/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Antivirais
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2339, 2024 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281985

RESUMO

Mosquito-borne diseases pose ongoing global health concerns, demanding more cost-efficient methods to detect pathogens to support enhanced surveillance efforts. This study introduces an adapted TRIzol-based high-throughput RNA extraction protocol, tailored for the detection of California serogroup viruses in pooled mosquito samples in a rapid and cost-effective manner. This approach provided consistent RNA yields and sensitive viral detection relative to two commercial extraction kits (QIAGEN RNeasy Mini Kit and MACHEREY-NAGEL NucleoSpin RNA Plus Kit). The incorporation of a user-friendly and non-spiking-based RT-qPCR internal control designed for the 18S rRNA gene in mosquitoes minimizes potential false positives/negatives, improving the fidelity of viral detection outcomes. Effective RNA yields, purity, and successful target amplification across 25 mosquito species and varied pool sizes (1-50 mosquitoes per tube) affirm the reliability of our approach. The extraction method is cost-effective, with an incurred cost of $0.58 CAD per sample, in contrast to the $5.25 CAD cost per sample of the two kits, rendering it promising for mosquito-borne disease surveillance initiatives.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia , Animais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Sorogrupo , RNA , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia/genética , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/análise
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 109(6): 1329-1332, 2023 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37972332

RESUMO

Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) (Peribunyavirdae; Orthobunyavirus) is a mosquito-borne pathogen endemic to North America. The genome is composed of three segmented negative-sense RNA fragments designated as small, medium, and large. Jamestown Canyon virus is an emerging threat to public health, and infection in humans can cause severe neurological diseases, including encephalitis and meningitis. We report JCV mosquito surveillance data from 2001 to 2022 in New York state. Jamestown Canyon virus was detected in 12 mosquito species, with the greatest prevalence in Aedes canadensis and Anopheles punctipennis. Detection fluctuated annually, with the highest levels recorded in 2020. Overall, JCV infection rates were significantly greater from 2012 to 2022 compared with 2001 to 2011. Full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were also performed with representative JCV isolates collected from 2003 to 2022. These data demonstrated the circulation of numerous genetic variants, broad geographic separation, and the first identification of lineage B JCV in New York state in 2022.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia , Encefalite da Califórnia , Animais , Humanos , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia/genética , New York/epidemiologia , Filogenia
7.
J Med Entomol ; 60(6): 1252-1261, 2023 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37862052

RESUMO

Snowshoe hare virus (SSHV), within the California serogroup of the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Peribunyaviridae, was first isolated from a snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) in Montana, United States, in 1959. The virus, closely related to LaCrosse virus (LACV) and Chatanga virus (CHATV), occurs across Canada and the northern latitudes of the United States, primarily in the northern tier of states bordering Canada. Reports of SSHV in northern Europe and Asia are probably the closely related to CHATV, or the less closely related Tahyna virus. Vertebrate associations include snowshoe hares and ground squirrels, demonstrated by field isolation of virus from wild-caught animals, seroconversion of snowshoe hares, seroconversion of sentinel rabbits, isolation of virus from sentinel rabbits, and experimental infections demonstrating viremia. Isolations of virus from field populations of mosquitoes include primarily univoltine and boreal mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, Culiseta impatiens and Culiseta inornata; and, rarely, certain multivoltine floodwater Aedes species. Experimental transmission studies in mosquitoes show infection in and transmission by boreal Aedes and Culiseta inornata. Isolation of SSHV from larval Aedes on three occasions, and experimentation in Culiseta inornata, reveal transovarial transmission of the virus in mosquitoes. Serosurveys reveal exposure to SSHV in human and domestic animals, with rates of seropositivity commonly high in some settings in Alaska and Canada, but disease in humans or horses has rarely been reported, only in Canada.


Assuntos
Aedes , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia , Lebres , Animais , Coelhos , Humanos , Cavalos , Mosquitos Vetores , Animais Selvagens , Sciuridae
8.
J Med Entomol ; 60(6): 1242-1251, 2023 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37862091

RESUMO

This review examines the epidemiology, ecology, and evolution of Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) and highlights new findings from the literature to better understand the virus, the vectors driving its transmission, and its emergence as an agent of arboviral disease. We also reanalyze data from the Connecticut Arbovirus Surveillance Program which represents the largest dataset on JCV infection in mosquitoes. JCV is a member of the California serogroup of the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Peribunyaviridae, and is found throughout much of temperate North America. This segmented, negative-sense RNA virus evolves predominately by genetic drift punctuated by infrequent episodes of genetic reassortment among novel strains. It frequently infects humans within affected communities and occasionally causes febrile illness and neuroinvasive disease in people. Reported human cases are relatively rare but are on the rise during the last 20 yr, particularly within the northcentral and northeastern United States. JCV appears to overwinter and reemerge each season by transovarial or vertical transmission involving univoltine Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) species, specifically members of the Aedes communis (de Geer) and Ae. stimulans (Walker) Groups. The virus is further amplified in a mosquito-deer transmission cycle involving a diversity of mammalophilic mosquito species. Despite progress in our understanding of this virus, many aspects of the vector biology, virology, and human disease remain poorly understood. Remaining questions and future directions of research are discussed.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arbovírus , Cervos , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia , Humanos , Animais , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia/genética , Mosquitos Vetores
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(9): e0011616, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37669272

RESUMO

Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), a negative-sense arbovirus, is increasingly common in the upper Midwest of the USA. Transmitted by a range of mosquito genera, JCV's primary amplifying host is white-tailed deer. Aedes aegypti is responsible for transmitting various positive-sense viruses globally including dengue (DENV), Zika, chikungunya, and Yellow Fever. Ae. aegypti's distribution, once confined to the tropics, is expanding, in part due to climate change. Wolbachia, an insect endosymbiont, limits the replication of co-infecting viruses inside insects. The release and spread of the symbiont into Ae. aegypti populations have been effective in reducing transmission of DENV to humans, although the mechanism of Wolbachia-mediated viral blocking is still poorly understood. Here we explored JCV infection potential in Ae. aegypti, the nature of the vector's immune response, and interactions with Wolbachia infection. We show that Ae. aegypti is highly competent for JCV, which grows to high loads and rapidly reaches the saliva after an infectious blood meal. The mosquito immune system responds with strong induction of RNAi and JAK/STAT. Neither the direct effect of viral infection nor the energetic investment in immunity appears to affect mosquito longevity. Wolbachia infection blocked JCV only in the early stages of infection. Wolbachia-induced immunity was small compared to that of JCV, suggesting innate immune priming does not likely explain blocking. We propose two models to explain why Wolbachia's blocking of negative-sense viruses like JCV may be less than that of positive-sense viruses, relating to the slowdown of host protein synthesis and the triggering of interferon-like factors like Vago. In conclusion, we highlight the risk for increased human disease with the predicted future overlap of Ae. aegypti and JCV ranges. We suggest that with moderate Wolbachia-mediated blocking and distinct biology, negative-sense viruses represent a fruitful comparator model to other viruses for understanding blocking mechanisms in mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Aedes , Coinfecção , Cervos , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia , Wolbachia , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 253(Pt 2): 126678, 2023 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37666399

RESUMO

Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) is a deadly viral infection transmitted by various mosquito species. This mosquito-borne virus belongs to Bunyaviridae family, posing a high public health threat in the in tropical regions of the United States causing encephalitis in humans. Common symptoms of JCV include fever, headache, stiff neck, photophobia, nausea, vomiting, and seizures. Despite the availability of resources, there is currently no vaccine or drug available to combat JCV. The purpose of this study was to develop an epitope-based vaccine using immunoinformatics approaches. The vaccine aimed to be secure, efficient, bio-compatible, and capable of stimulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, the protein sequence of JCV was obtained from the NCBI database. Various bioinformatics methods, including toxicity evaluation, antigenicity testing, conservancy analysis, and allergenicity assessment were utilized to identify the most promising epitopes. Suitable linkers and adjuvant sequences were used in the design of vaccine construct. 50s ribosomal protein sequence was used as an adjuvant at the N-terminus of the construct. A total of 5 CTL, 5 HTL, and 5 linear B cell epitopes were selected based on non-allergenicity, immunological potential, and antigenicity scores to design a highly immunogenic multi-peptide vaccine construct. Strong interactions between the proposed vaccine and human immune receptors, i.e., TLR-2 and TLR-4, were revealed in a docking study using ClusPro software, suggesting their possible relevance in the immunological response to the vaccine. Immunological and physicochemical properties assessment ensured that the proposed vaccine demonstrated high immunogenicity, solubility and thermostability. Molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the strong binding affinities, as well as dynamic and structural stability of the proposed vaccine. Immune simulation suggest that the vaccine has the potential to effectively stimulate cellular and humoral immune responses to combat JCV infection. Experimental and clinical assays are required to validate the results of this study.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia , Animais , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Epitopos de Linfócito T/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Epitopos de Linfócito B , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Vacinas de Subunidades Antigênicas , Biologia Computacional/métodos
11.
Viruses ; 15(6)2023 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37376542

RESUMO

The Arctic is warming at four times the global rate, changing the diversity, activity and distribution of vectors and associated pathogens. While the Arctic is not often considered a hotbed of vector-borne diseases, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) and Snowshoe Hare virus (SSHV) are mosquito-borne zoonotic viruses of the California serogroup endemic to the Canadian North. The viruses are maintained by transovarial transmission in vectors and circulate among vertebrate hosts, both of which are not well characterized in Arctic regions. While most human infections are subclinical or mild, serious cases occur, and both JCV and SSHV have recently been identified as leading causes of arbovirus-associated neurological diseases in North America. Consequently, both viruses are currently recognised as neglected and emerging viruses of public health concern. This review aims to summarise previous findings in the region regarding the enzootic transmission cycle of both viruses. We identify key gaps and approaches needed to critically evaluate, detect, and model the effects of climate change on these uniquely northern viruses. Based on limited data, we predict that (1) these northern adapted viruses will increase their range northwards, but not lose range at their southern limits, (2) undergo more rapid amplification and amplified transmission in endemic regions for longer vector-biting seasons, (3) take advantage of northward shifts of hosts and vectors, and (4) increase bite rates following an increase in the availability of breeding sites, along with phenological synchrony between the reproduction cycle of theorized reservoirs (such as caribou calving) and mosquito emergence.


Assuntos
Aedes , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia , Animais , Humanos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo , Regiões Árticas , Mosquitos Vetores , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia/genética
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 108(6): 1256-1263, 2023 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37127267

RESUMO

Keystone orthobunyavirus (KEYV), a member of the genus Orthobunyavirus, was first isolated in 1964 from mosquitoes in Keystone, Florida. Although data on human infections are limited, the virus has been linked to a fever/rash syndrome and, possibly, encephalitis, with early studies suggesting that 20% of persons in the Tampa, Florida, region had antibodies to KEYV. To assess the distribution and diversity of KEYV in other regions of Florida, we collected > 6,000 mosquitoes from 43 sampling sites in St. Johns County between June 2019 and April 2020. Mosquitoes were separated into pools by species and collection date and site. All pools with Aedes spp. (293 pools, 2,171 mosquitoes) were screened with a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay that identifies KEYV and other closely related virus species of what was previously designated as the California encephalitis serogroup. In 2020, screening for KEYV was expanded to include 211 pools of Culex mosquitoes from sites where KEYV-positive Aedes spp. had been identified. rRT-PCR-positive samples were inoculated into cell cultures, and five KEYV isolates from Aedes atlanticus pools were isolated and sequenced. Analyses of the KEYV large genome segment sequences revealed two distinct KEYV clades, whereas analyses of the medium and small genome segments uncovered past reassortment events. Our data documented the ongoing seasonal circulation of multiple KEYV clades within Ae. atlanticus mosquito populations along the east coast of Florida, highlighting the need for further studies of the impact of this virus on human health.


Assuntos
Aedes , Culex , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia , Orthobunyavirus , Animais , Humanos , Florida/epidemiologia , Orthobunyavirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Mosquitos Vetores
13.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 70(5): 371-382, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37128975

RESUMO

Tahyna virus (TAHV) is an orthobunyavirus and was the first arbovirus isolated from mosquitoes in Europe and is associated with floodplain areas as a characteristic biotope, hares as reservoir hosts and the mammal-feeding mosquitoes Aedes vexans as the main vector. The disease caused by TAHV ("Valtice fever") was detected in people with acute flu-like illness in the 1960s, and later the medical significance of TAHV became the subject of many studies. Although TAHV infections are widespread, the prevalence and number of actual cases, clinical manifestations in humans and animals and the ecology of transmission by mosquitoes and their vertebrate hosts are rarely reported. Despite its association with meningitis in humans, TAHV is a neglected human pathogen with unknown public health importance in Central Europe, and a potential emerging disease threat elsewhere in Europe due to extreme summer flooding events.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arbovírus , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia , Humanos , Animais , Mosquitos Vetores , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Mamíferos
14.
J Med Entomol ; 60(4): 778-788, 2023 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37071925

RESUMO

Jamestown Canyon virus disease (JCVD) is a potentially neuroinvasive condition caused by the arbovirus Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV). Human cases of JCVD have increased in New Hampshire (NH) over the past decade, but vector surveillance is limited by funding and person power. We conducted mosquito surveillance with a focus on human JCVD cases south central NH during 2021. Routine surveillance with CDC miniature traps baited with CO2 (lights removed) was supplemented by a paired trapping design to test the collection efficiency of octenol, and New Jersey light traps. We performed virus testing, blood meal analysis, and compared morphological identification with DNA barcoding. Over 50,000 mosquitoes were collected representing 28 species. Twelve JCV-positive pools were derived from 6 species of more than 1,600 pools tested. Of those, Aedes excrucians/stimulans (MLE 4.95, Diptera: Culicidae, Walker, 1856, 1848), and Aedes sticticus (MLE 2.02, Meigen, 1838) had the highest JCV infection rates, and Aedes canadensis (MLE 0.13, Theobold, 1901) and Coquillettidia perturbans (0.10, Diptera: Culicidae, Walker, 1856) had the lowest infection rates. One hundred and fifty-one blood meals were matched to a vertebrate host. All putative vectors fed on the amplifying host of JCV, white-tailed deer (36-100% of bloodmeals). Putative vectors that fed on human hosts included Aedes excrucians (8%), Anopheles punctipennis (25%, Diptera: Culicidae, Say, 1823), and Coquillettidia perturbans (51%). CDC traps baited with CO2 were effective for collecting putative vectors. DNA barcoding enhanced morphological identifications of damaged specimens. We present the first ecological overview of JCV vectors in NH.


Assuntos
Aedes , Anopheles , Infecções por Bunyaviridae , Culicidae , Cervos , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia , Ochlerotatus , Humanos , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono , New Hampshire , Mosquitos Vetores
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(1): 54-63, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36573538

RESUMO

Northern Canada is warming at 3 times the global rate. Thus, changing diversity and distribution of vectors and pathogens is an increasing health concern. California serogroup (CSG) viruses are mosquitoborne arboviruses; wildlife reservoirs in northern ecosystems have not been identified. We detected CSG virus antibodies in 63% (95% CI 58%-67%) of caribou (n = 517), 4% (95% CI 2%-7%) of Arctic foxes (n = 297), 12% (95% CI 6%-21%) of red foxes (n = 77), and 28% (95% CI 24%-33%) of polar bears (n = 377). Sex, age, and summer temperatures were positively associated with polar bear exposure; location, year, and ecotype were associated with caribou exposure. Exposure was highest in boreal caribou and increased from baseline in polar bears after warmer summers. CSG virus exposure of wildlife is linked to climate change in northern Canada and sustained surveillance could be used to measure human health risks.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia , Rena , Ursidae , Animais , Humanos , Raposas , Ecossistema , Sorogrupo , Animais Selvagens , Canadá/epidemiologia
16.
J Neuroimmunol ; 373: 577997, 2022 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403434

RESUMO

We present a case of a rare viral encephalitis due to Jamestown Canyon virus precipitating a severe phenotype of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) with novel neuroimaging findings.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia , Encefalite Viral , Humanos , Tratos Piramidais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem , Fenótipo
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2330-2333, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36286231

RESUMO

Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus that circulates in North America. We detected JCV in 4 pools of mosquitoes collected from midcoastal Maine, USA, during 2017-2019. Phylogenetic analysis of a JCV sequence obtained from Aedes cantator mosquitoes clustered within clade A, which also circulates in Connecticut, USA.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arbovírus , Culicidae , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia , Animais , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia/genética , Filogenia , Maine/epidemiologia
18.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0158722, 2022 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36165787

RESUMO

Several viruses can be transmitted by mosquitoes. We searched some of these viruses in 20,778 mosquitoes, collected in 95 traps on the plains of Emilia-Romagna (North of Italy) in 2021. We detected West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) in pools of Culex (Cx.) pipiens. In addition, we detected two insect-specific flaviviruses in three pools of Aedes (Ae.) caspius and in two of Ae. vexans. Tahyna virus (TAHV) was detected in six pools, three of Ae. caspius and three of Cx. pipiens, and one isolated strain was obtained from one of the Ae. caspius pools. Moreover, we detected TAHV in pools of several mosquito species (Ae. caspius, Ae. vexans, Ae. albopictus, Anopheles maculipennis s.l.) collected in the previous year of surveillance. Our data indicate Ae. caspius as the species most infected with TAHV in the surveyed area. Together with the likely plasticity of the cycle, we reported strong genome stability of the TAHV, probably linked to a successful adaptation of the virus to its ecological niche. Interestingly, in six pools of Cx. pipiens we detected two associated viruses among USUV, WNV, TAHV and all the three viruses in two pools. This result allows us to assume the presence of particular conditions that prompt the circulation of arboviruses, creating the conditions for viral hot spots. While no human diseases related to Tahyna virus were reported in Italy, its detection over the years suggests that it is worth investigating this virus as a potential cause of disease in humans in order to assess its health burden. IMPORTANCE We reported in this work the detection of three Arboviruses (Arthropod-borne viruses) in mosquitoes collected in Emilia-Romagna in 2021. In addition to West Nile and Usutu viruses, which were reported from more than 10 years in the study area, we detected and isolated Tahyna virus (TAHV). We also reported detections of TAHV obtained in previous years of surveillance in different species of mosquitoes. TAHV is the potential causative agent of summer influenza-like diseases and also of meningitis. Even if human cases of disease referable to this virus are not reported in Italy, its relevant presence in mosquitoes suggests investigating the possibility they could.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arbovírus , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Humanos , Arbovírus/genética , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia
19.
Virol J ; 19(1): 99, 2022 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne viruses pose a serious threat to humans worldwide. There has been an upsurge in the number of mosquito-borne viruses in Europe, mostly belonging to the families Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus (Sindbis, Chikungunya), Flaviviridae (West Nile, Usutu, Dengue), and Peribunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, California serogroup (Inkoo, Batai, Tahyna). The principal focus of this study was Inkoo (INKV) and Sindbis (SINV) virus circulating in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and some parts of Russia. These viruses are associated with morbidity in humans. However, there is a knowledge gap regarding reservoirs and transmission. Therefore, we aimed to determine the prevalence of INKV and SINV in blood sucking insects and seroprevalence for INKV in semi-domesticated Eurasian tundra reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Norway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 213 pools containing about 25 blood sucking insects (BSI) each and 480 reindeer sera were collected in eight Norwegian reindeer summer pasture districts during 2013-2015. The pools were analysed by RT-PCR to detect INKV and by RT-real-time PCR for SINV. Reindeer sera were analysed for INKV-specific IgG by an Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (n = 480, IIFA) and a Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (n = 60, PRNT). RESULTS: Aedes spp. were the most dominant species among the collected BSI. Two of the pools were positive for INKV-RNA by RT-PCR and were confirmed by pyrosequencing. The overall estimated pool prevalence (EPP) of INKV in Norway was 0.04%. None of the analysed pools were positive for SINV. Overall IgG seroprevalence in reindeer was 62% positive for INKV by IIFA. Of the 60 reindeer sera- analysed by PRNT for INKV, 80% were confirmed positive, and there was no cross-reactivity with the closely related Tahyna virus (TAHV) and Snowshoe hare virus (SSHV). CONCLUSION: The occurrence and prevalence of INKV in BSI and the high seroprevalence against the virus among semi-domesticated reindeer in Norway indicate that further studies are required for monitoring this virus. SINV was not detected in the BSI in this study, however, human cases of SINV infection are yearly reported from other regions such as Rjukan in south-central Norway. It is therefore essential to monitor both viruses in the human population. Our findings are important to raise awareness regarding the geographical distribution of these mosquito-borne viruses in Northern Europe.


Assuntos
Aedes , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia , Flavivirus , Rena , Animais , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia/genética , Imunoglobulina G , Noruega/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sindbis virus/genética , Tundra
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 226, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV; Peribunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) is a mosquito-borne pathogen belonging to the California serogroup. The virus is endemic in North America and increasingly recognized as a public health concern. In this study, we determined the vector competence of Anopheles (An.) quadrimaculatus and Aedes (Ae.) albopictus for five JCV strains belonging to the two lineages circulating in the Northeast. METHODS: An. quadrimaculatus and Ae. albopictus were fed blood meals containing two lineage A strains and three lineage B strains. Vector competence of both mosquito species was evaluated at 7- and 14-days post-feeding (dpf) by testing for virus presence in bodies, legs, and saliva. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are a competent vector for both lineages, with similar transmission levels for all strains tested. Variable levels of infection (46-83%) and dissemination (17-38%) were measured in An. quadrimaculatus, yet no transmission was detected for the five JCV strains evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that establishment of Ae. albopictus in the Northeast could increase the risk of JCV but suggest An. quadrimaculatus are not a competent vector for JCV.


Assuntos
Aedes , Anopheles , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia , Animais , Vírus da Encefalite da Califórnia/genética , Mosquitos Vetores , New England
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