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1.
J Virol Methods ; 298: 114294, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547343

RESUMO

Feline coronavirus (FCoV) contains two serotypes, feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). FECV and feline parvovirus (FPV) can cause similar clinical symptoms in cats, such as diarrhea. The objective of this study was to establish a duplex SYBR Green I-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for rapid and simultaneous detection of FPV and FCoV. Two pairs of specific PCR primers were designed to target fragments of the VP2 gene of FPV and of the 5' UTR gene of FCoV, respectively. The assay distinguished between the two viruses based on the melting curves (melting temperatures 77.0 ± 0.5 °C [FPV] and 80.5 ± 0.5 °C [FCoV]). The minimum limits of FPV and FCoV detection were 4.74 × 101 copies/µL and 7.77 × 101 copies/µL, respectively. The assay showed excellent reproducibility and reliability, based on the mean coefficient of variation. In conclusion, this novel duplex SYBR Green I-based qPCR assay is sensitive and can specifically, reliably, and rapidly detect FPV and FCoV (co-)infections.


Assuntos
Coronavirus Felino , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina , Animais , Benzotiazóis , Gatos , Coronavirus Felino/genética , Diaminas , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina , Quinolinas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Acta Vet Hung ; 69(2): 194-203, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138750

RESUMO

Feline calicivirus (FCV), feline alphaherpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) as well as retroviral agents such as feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are important viral pathogens of cats. The aim of this study was to detect and characterise FHV-1, FPLV, FeLV, FIV and feline foamy virus (FFV) in oropharyngeal, nasal and conjunctival swabs from 93 cats that had been screened for FCV previously. We wanted to determine the possible risk factors for infection with these viruses. The prevalence was found to be 12.9% for FHV-1 and 9.7% for FPLV. FIV was detected only in two samples and FeLV in one sample, whereas the presence of FFV was not demonstrated in any of the clinical samples. The statistical analysis of the results showed that breed, age, health status, and lifestyle are important predisposing factors to FHV-1 (P < 0.05). For FPLV, only clinically unhealthy animals were found to be at risk (P < 0.001). Sequence analysis revealed that the two FIV-positive samples in this study contained different (A and B) subtypes of the virus. This is the first report on the occurrence of subtype A FIV in Turkey.


Assuntos
Calicivirus Felino , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Vírus , Animais , Calicivirus Felino/genética , Gatos , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/genética , Vírus da Leucemia Felina
3.
Arch Virol ; 166(8): 2273-2278, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059971

RESUMO

Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a highly contagious infectious pathogen of cats globally. However, there is no information on the molecular identification and characterization of FPV in Bangladesh. Here, 8.16% (8/98) and 18.37% (18/98) of diarrheic cats tested positive for FPV by an immunochromatography (IC) test and PCR, respectively. The IC test showed 44.44% sensitivity and 100% specificity in comparison with PCR. Our newly sequenced Bangladeshi FPV strain (MN826076) showed the highest (99.71%) sequence identity to strains from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Strain MN826076 contained two characteristic amino acid variations in VP2 identifying it as an FPV strain: valine at position 103 and aspartic acid at position 323. Phylogenetically, the VP2 of strain MN826076 was found to be closely related to 19 FPV strains, sharing the same clade.


Assuntos
Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/classificação , Panleucopenia Felina/diagnóstico , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bangladesh , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Gatos , China , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/genética , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Portugal , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tailândia , Emirados Árabes Unidos
4.
J Vet Sci ; 22(3): e38, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus, and panleukopenia (FVRCP) vaccine, prepared from viruses grown in the Crandell-Rees feline kidney cell line, can induce antibodies to cross-react with feline kidney tissues. OBJECTIVES: This study surveyed the prevalence of autoantibodies to feline kidney tissues and their association with the frequency of FVRCP vaccination. METHODS: Serum samples and kidneys were collected from 156 live and 26 cadaveric cats. Antibodies that bind to kidney tissues and antibodies to the FVRCP antigen were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and kidney-bound antibody patterns were investigated by examining immunofluorescence. Proteins recognized by antibodies were identified by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: The prevalences of autoantibodies that bind to kidney tissues in cats were 41% and 13% by ELISA and immunofluorescence, respectively. Kidney-bound antibodies were observed at interstitial cells, apical border, and cytoplasm of proximal and distal tubules; the antibodies were bound to proteins with molecular weights of 40, 47, 38, and 20 kDa. There was no direct link between vaccination and anti-kidney antibodies, but positive antibodies to kidney tissues were significantly associated with the anti-FVRCP antibody. The odds ratio or association in finding the autoantibody in cats with the antibody to FVRCP was 2.8 times higher than that in cats without the antibody to FVRCP. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results demonstrate an association between anti-FVRCP and anti-cat kidney tissues. However, an increase in the risk of inducing kidney-bound antibodies by repeat vaccinations could not be shown directly. It will be interesting to expand the sample size and follow-up on whether these autoantibodies can lead to kidney function impairment.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Autoanticorpos/análise , Calicivirus Felino/imunologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/imunologia , Varicellovirus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Gatos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Panleucopenia Felina/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Imunofluorescência/veterinária , Infecções por Herpesviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Rim/virologia , Masculino , Risco
5.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916759

RESUMO

Cats are susceptible to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Whilst a number of studies have been performed worldwide on owned cats, limited data are available on stray, colony or shelter cats. We investigated SARS-CoV-2 infection in a stray cat population before and during human outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 in cities in the Lombardy region in northern Italy, a high endemic region for SARS-CoV-2, using serological and molecular methods. A cohort of different samples were collected from 241 cats, including frozen archived serum samples from 136 cats collected before the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and serum, pharyngeal and rectal swab samples from 105 cats collected during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. All pre-pandemic samples tested seronegative for antibodies against the nucleocapsid of SARS-CoV-2 using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test, while one serum sample collected during the pandemic was seropositive. No serological cross-reactivity was detected between SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and antibodies against feline enteric (FECV) and infectious peritonitis coronavirus (FIPC), Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), Feline Calicivirus (FCV), Feline Herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), Feline Parvovirus (FPV), Leishmania infantum, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Toxoplasma gondii or Chlamydophila felis. No pharyngeal or rectal swab tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA on real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Our data show that SARS-CoV-2 did infect stray cats in Lombardy during the COVID-19 pandemic, but with lower prevalence than found in owned cats. This should alleviate public concerns about stray cats acting as SARS-CoV-2 carriers.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Calicivirus Felino/imunologia , Gatos , Chlamydia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Panleucopenia Felina/epidemiologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/imunologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Leishmania infantum , Masculino , Prevalência , Rickettsia , SARS-CoV-2
6.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247266, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651823

RESUMO

Carnivore protoparvovirus-1 (CPPV-1), a viral species containing feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) variants, are widely spread among domestic and wild carnivores causing systemic fatal diseases. Wild fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), a globally vulnerable species, have been found dead. Postmortem examination of the carcasses revealed lesions in intestine, spleen and kidney. CPPV-1 antigen identification in these tissues, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), supported the infection by the virus. PCR- and IHC-positivity in kidney tissues revealed atypical localization of the virus while in situ hybridization (ISH) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with the pop-off technique confirmed the first description of viral localization in kidneys. Complete genome characterization and deduced amino acid analysis of the obtained CPPV-1 from the fishing cats revealed FPV as a causative agent. The detected FPV sequences showed amino acid mutations at I566M and M569R in the capsid protein. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of complete coding genome sequences revealed that the fishing cat CPPV-1 genomes are genetically clustered to the FPV genomes isolated from domestic cats in Thailand. Since the 1970s, these genomes have also been shown to share a genetic evolution with Chinese FPV strains. This study is the first evidence of CPPV-1 infection in fishing cats and it is the first to show its localization in the kidneys. These findings support the multi-host range of this parvovirus and suggest fatal CPPV-1 infections may result in other vulnerable wild carnivores.


Assuntos
Felidae/virologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/genética , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/patogenicidade , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Evolução Biológica , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Carnívoros/genética , Gatos , Evolução Molecular , Panleucopenia Felina/virologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Rim/patologia , Rim/virologia , Mutação , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus/genética , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Tailândia
7.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(2): 279-282, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084531

RESUMO

We used unbiased next-generation sequencing (NGS) to detect unknown viruses in cats. Serum or plasma samples were obtained from clinically ill cats with suspected acute viral infections. Nucleic acid was extracted from serum or plasma samples to construct a complementary DNA library for NGS. Comprehensive nucleotide sequencing analyses enabled detection of the genomes of various viruses, including the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, feline morbillivirus, parvovirus, and Torque teno felis virus. Our findings indicate that comprehensive nucleotide analyses of serum or plasma samples can be used to detect infections with unknown viruses in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/veterinária , Phlebovirus/isolamento & purificação , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia/veterinária , Anelloviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/isolamento & purificação , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia/diagnóstico , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia/virologia
8.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(2): 656-666, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657506

RESUMO

Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a major enteric pathogen of dogs worldwide that emerged in the late 1970s from a feline parvovirus (FPV)-like ancestral virus. Shortly after its emergence, variant CPVs acquired amino acid (aa) mutations in key capsid residues, associated with biological and/or antigenic changes. This study aimed to identify and analyse CPV variants and their capsid mutations amongst Australian dogs, to gain insights into the evolution of CPV in Australia and to investigate relationships between the disease and vaccination status of dogs from which viruses were detected. CPV VP2 sequences were amplified from 79 faecal samples collected from dogs with parvoviral enteritis at 20 veterinary practices in five Australian states. The median age at diagnosis was 4 months (range 1-96 months). Only 3.7% of dogs with vaccination histories had completed recommended vaccination schedules, while 49% were incompletely vaccinated and 47.2% were unvaccinated. For the first time, CPV-2b has emerged as the dominant antigenic CPV variant circulating in dogs with parvoviral enteritis in Australia, comprising 54.4% of viruses, while CPV-2a and CPV-2 comprised 43.1% and 2.5%, respectively. The antigenic variant CPV-2c was not identified. Analysis of translated VP2 sequences revealed a vast repertoire of amino acid (aa) mutations. Several Australian CPV strains displayed signatures in the VP2 protein typical of Asian CPVs, suggesting possible introduction of CPV strains from Asia, and/or CPV circulation between Asia and Australia. Canine parvoviruses were identified containing aa residues typical of FPV at key capsid (VP2) positions, representing reverse mutations or residual mutations retained from CPV-2 during adaptation from an FPV-like ancestor, suggesting that evolutionary intermediates between CPV-2 and FPV are circulating in the field. Similarly, intermediates between CPV-2a-like viruses and CPV-2 were also identified. These findings help inform a better understanding of the evolution of CPV in dogs.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Variação Antigênica , Antígenos Virais/genética , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Ásia , Austrália , Gatos , Cães , Enterite/veterinária , Enterite/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Fezes/virologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/genética , Mutação , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus Canino/classificação , Parvovirus Canino/imunologia , Filogenia
9.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(6): 880-886, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996420

RESUMO

Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) often cause acute enteric disease in their hosts. A simple, rapid, and effective method for the on-site detection of these viruses would be useful. We used a denaturation bubble-mediated strand exchange amplification (SEA) method to successfully detect CPV-2 and FPLV in fecal samples. SEA could detect as little as 3.6 pg/µL of CPV-2 and 6.6 pg/µL of FPLV genomic DNA following a 40-min incubation at an isothermal temperature of 61°C. Unlike PCR, SEA does not require complicated equipment, and positive samples produce a color change that can be visualized by the naked eye. Additionally, SEA is simpler than PCR because no extraction is needed, and heating of the fecal sample at 98°C can be performed with a heating block or water bath. This rapid and effective nucleic acid detection platform could be used as a point-of-care test for the detection of CPV-2 and FPLV.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Panleucopenia Felina/diagnóstico , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Panleucopenia Felina/virologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/genética , Infecções por Parvoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
10.
Vet Pathol ; 57(5): 706-713, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880233

RESUMO

Carnivore protoparvovirus-1 (CPPV-1) infection has been reported frequently in both domestic and wildlife species including wild carnivores. Fifty-five captive small Indian civets (Viverricula indica), farmed for perfume production in Eastern Thailand, showed clinical signs of acute bloody diarrhea, anorexia, vomiting, circling, and seizures. The disease spread within the farm and resulted in the death of 38 of the 55 civets (69% mortality) within a month. Fecal swabs were collected from the 17 surviving civets, and necropsy was performed on 7 of the dead civets. Pathologic findings were severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis with generalized lymphadenopathy. CPPV-1 was identified in both fecal swabs and postmortem samples by species-specific polymerase chain reaction. Further whole-gene sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis suggested feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) as the causative agent. The viral tropism and tissue distribution were confirmed by immunohistochemistry, with immunolabeling in the cytoplasm and nucleus of small intestinal crypt epithelial cells, villous enterocytes, histiocytes in lymphoid tissues, myenteric nerve plexuses, and cerebral and cerebellar neurons. Phylogenetic analysis of civet-derived CPPV-1 indicated a genetic similarity close to the FPV HH-1/86 strain detected in a jaguar (Panthera onca) in China. To our knowledge, this mass die-off of civets is the first evidence of disease associated with CPPV-1 infection in the subfamily Viverrinae. These findings support the multi-host range of parvovirus infection and raises awareness for CPPV-1 disease outbreaks in wildlife species.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Gastroenterite/veterinária , Hemorragia/veterinária , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus/isolamento & purificação , Viverridae/virologia , Animais , Carnívoros , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/genética , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/patologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Hemorragia/patologia , Hemorragia/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/patologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Especificidade da Espécie , Tailândia/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 275, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is an etiologic pathogen of feline panleukopenia that infects all members of Felidae including tigers (Panthera tigris). Vaccinations against FPV among wild felid species have long been practiced in zoos worldwide. However, few studies have assessed the tiger immune response post-vaccination due to the absence of a serological diagnostic tool. To address these limitations, this study aimed to develop an in-house indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the monitoring of tiger antibody levels against the feline panleukopenia vaccine by employing the synthesized subunit capsid protein VP2. An in-house horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated rabbit anti-tiger immunoglobulin G (IgG) polyclonal antibody (HRP-anti-tiger IgG) was produced in this study and employed in the assay. It was then compared to a commercial HRP-conjugated goat anti-cat IgG (HRP-anti-cat IgG). Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated using the Bayesian model with preferential conditional dependence between HRP-conjugated antibody-based ELISAs and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests. RESULTS: The posterior estimates for sensitivity and specificity of two indirect ELISA HRP-conjugated antibodies were higher than those of the HI test. The sensitivity and specificity of the indirect ELISA for HRP-anti-tiger IgG and HRP-anti-cat IgG were 86.5, 57.2 and 86.7%, 64.6%, respectively, while the results of the HI test were 79.1 and 54.1%. In applications, 89.6% (198/221) and 89.1% (197/221) of the tiger serum samples were determined to be seropositive by indirect ELISA testing against HRP-anti-tiger and HRP-anti-cat, respectively. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, the specific serology assays for the detection of the tiger IgG antibody have not yet been established. The HRP-anti-tiger IgG has been produced for the purpose of developing the specific immunoassays for tigers. Remarkably, an in-house indirect ELISA based on VP2 subunit antigen has been successfully developed in this study, providing a potentially valuable serological tool for the effective detection of tiger antibodies.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Tigres/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Gatos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Panleucopenia Felina , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/imunologia , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação/veterinária , Imunoglobulina G , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Tigres/virologia
12.
J Vet Med Sci ; 82(9): 1243-1246, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759574

RESUMO

Feces obtained from 204 domestic cats with gastrointestinal symptoms were genetically examined for feline astrovirus (FeAstV) and feline parvovirus (FPV), both of which are known feline gastroenteric viruses. FeAstV detection rates were significantly higher in winter (44.4%) than in other seasons, and in cats under a year old (27.8%) than in a year or older ones (12.4%) (P<0.05). In contrast, no significant seasonal and age differences were obtained in FPV detection rates. Upon FeAstV ORF2 sequence analysis, the 23 present isolates were classified into the same clade (Mamastrovirus 2) as the 18 reference strains from other countries. Our findings suggest that FeAstV is already circulating in Japan, and it is more prevalent in juvenile cats in winter, unlike FPV.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina , Panleucopenia Felina/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino , Animais , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Panleucopenia Felina/virologia , Feminino , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Prevalência
13.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 86: 106752, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634697

RESUMO

Feline parvovirus virus (FPV) causes severe diarrhea and leukopenia in felines, and threatening the health of wild and domestic felines. Currently, specific drugs to treat FPV have not yet been developed. In this study, IgG was extracted from inactivated FPV-immunized dog sera. Canine F(ab')2 fragments were obtained from pepsin-digested IgG and then purified by protein-G column chromatography. The results showed that canine immunoglobulin F(ab')2 fragments showed efficient neutralizing activity in vitro against FPV and had therapeutic and prophylactic effects in FPV infected cats. The anti-FPV-specific F(ab')2 fragment can significantly alleviate the clinical symptoms of FPV infected cats and reduce the viral loads of the intestinal tract. These results indicated that the F(ab')2 fragment prepared from inactivated FPV-immunized felines may be used as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent for diseases caused by FPV.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/fisiologia , Panleucopenia Felina/imunologia , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Intestinos/imunologia , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Imunização , Intestinos/virologia , Carga Viral
14.
J Vet Sci ; 21(3): e43, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopenia (FPV) cause severe intestinal disease and leukopenia. OBJECTIVES: In Korea, there have been a few studies on Korean FPV and CPV-2 strains. We attempted to investigate several genetic properties of FPV and CPV-2. METHODS: Several FPV and CPV sequences from around world were analyzed by Bayesian phylo-geographical analysis. RESULTS: The parvoviruses strains were newly classified into FPV, CPV 2-I, CPV 2-II, and CPV 2-III genotypes. In the strains isolated in this study, Gigucheon, Rara and Jun belong to the FPV, while Rachi strain belong to CPV 2-III. With respect to CPV type 2, the new genotypes are inconsistent with the previous genotype classifications (CPV-2a, -2b, and -2c). The root of CPV-I strains were inferred to be originated from a USA strain, while the CPV-II and III were derived from Italy strains that originated in the USA. Based on VP2 protein analysis, CPV 2-I included CPV-2a-like isolates only, as differentiated by the change in residue S297A/N. Almost CPV-2a isolates were classified into CPV 2-III, and a large portion of CPV-2c isolates was classified into CPV 2-II. Two residue substitutions F267Y and Y324I of the VP2 protein were characterized in the isolates of CPV 2-III only. CONCLUSIONS: We provided an updated insight on FPV and CPV-2 genotypes by molecular-based and our findings demonstrate the genetic characterization according to the new genotypes.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/virologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/fisiologia , Genótipo , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Panleucopenia Felina/virologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/genética , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Parvovirus Canino/fisiologia , Filogenia , República da Coreia
15.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545689

RESUMO

Feline parvovirus (FPV) causes severe gastroenteritis and leukopenia in cats; the outcome is poor. Information regarding specific treatments is lacking. Class A CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-A) are short single-stranded DNAs, stimulating type I interferon production. In cats, CpG-A induced an antiviral response in vivo and inhibited FPV replication in vitro. The aim was to prospectively investigate the effects of CpG-A on survival, clinical score, hematological findings, antiviral response (cytokines), viremia, and fecal shedding (real-time qPCR) in cats naturally infected with FPV. Forty-two FPV-infected cats were randomized to receive 100 µg/kg of CpG-A (n = 22) or placebo (n = 20) subcutaneously, on admission and after 48 h. Blood and fecal samples were collected on admission, after 1, 3, and 7 days. All 22 cats showed short duration pain during CpG-A injections. The survival rate, clinical score, leukocyte and erythrocyte counts, viremia, and fecal shedding at any time-point did not differ between cats treated with CpG-A (50%) and placebo (40%). Antiviral myxovirus resistance (Mx) gene transcription increased in both groups from day 1 to 3 (p = 0.005). Antibodies against FPV on admission were associated with survival in cats (p = 0.002). In conclusion, CpG-A treatment did not improve the outcome in cats with FPV infection. FPV infection produced an antiviral response.


Assuntos
Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/efeitos dos fármacos , Panleucopenia Felina/tratamento farmacológico , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Gatos , Contagem de Células , Panleucopenia Felina/sangue , Panleucopenia Felina/mortalidade , Panleucopenia Felina/virologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/fisiologia , Feminino , Leucócitos/citologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(6): 2329-2335, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511839

RESUMO

In order to analyse the prevalence of cat viral diseases in China, including feline parvovirus (FPV), feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), feline leukaemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), a total of 1,326 samples of cats from 16 cities were investigated from 2016 to 2019. Collectively, 1,060 (79.9%) cats were tested positive for at least one virus in nucleotide detection, and the positive rates of cat exposure to FeLV, FPV, FHV-1, FCV, FIV and FIPV were 59.6%, 19.2%, 16.3%, 14.2%, 1.5% and 0.5%, respectively. The prevalence of FHV-1 and FPV was dominant in winter and spring. Cats from north China showed a higher positive rate of viral infection than that of cats from south China. The virus infection is not highly correlated with age, except that FPV is prone to occur within the age of 12 months. In the serological survey, the seroprevalences of 267 vaccinated cats to FPV, FCV and FHV-1 were 83.9%, 58.3% and 44.0%, respectively. Meanwhile, the seroprevalences of 39 unvaccinated cats to FPV, FCV and FHV-1 were 76.9% (30/39), 82.4% (28/34) and 58.6% (17/29), respectively. This study demonstrated that a high prevalence of the six viral diseases in China and the insufficient serological potency of FCV and FHV-1 remind the urgency for more effective vaccines.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Viroses/veterinária , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Calicivirus Felino/imunologia , Calicivirus Felino/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Coronavirus Felino/imunologia , Coronavirus Felino/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/imunologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/imunologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/imunologia , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Varicellovirus/imunologia , Varicellovirus/isolamento & purificação , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/genética , Vírus/imunologia
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 245: 108691, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456817

RESUMO

Feline panleukopenia is an acute, highly contagious, and fatal infectious disease caused by feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and has led to severe consequences on pets, economically important animals, and the wildlife industry. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play significant roles in the host-pathogen interaction by modulating cellular factors expression which are essential for viral replication or host innate immune response to infection. However, the role of host miRNA response in FPV infection remains to be discovered. In this study, we screened nine host miRNAs associated with FPV infection that were previously implicated in innate immunity or antiviral functions. We found that miR-1343-5p overexpression strongly promoted FPV-BJ04 genomic DNA. Subsequently, the expression of host miR-1343-5p was upregulated by FPV-BJ04 infection in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we demonstrated that miR-1343-5p was a negative regulator of the IFN-I signaling pathway, thereby promoting FPV infection. Bioinformatic analysis combined with molecular biological assay indicated that interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) is a putative target of miR-1343-5p. Collectively, our findings emphasize the importance of miR-1343-5p in host defense against FPV, thus, enhancing our understanding of its pathogenic mechanism.


Assuntos
Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/genética , MicroRNAs/imunologia , Replicação Viral/imunologia , Animais , Gatos , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima
18.
Viruses ; 12(3)2020 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188115

RESUMO

Multiple, epizootic outbreaks of feline panleukopenia (FPL) caused by feline parvovirus(FPV) occurred in eastern Australia between 2014 and 2018. Most affected cats were unvaccinated.We hypothesised that low population immunity was a major driver of re-emergent FPL. The aim ofthis study was to (i) determine the prevalence and predictors of seroprotective titres to FPV amongshelter-housed and owned cats, and (ii) compare the prevalence of seroprotection between a regionaffected and unaffected by FPL outbreaks. FPV antibodies were detected by haemagglutinationinhibition assay on sera from 523 cats and titres ≥1:40 were considered protective. Socioeconomicindices based on postcode and census data were included in the risk factor analysis. The prevalenceof protective FPV antibody titres was high overall (94.3%), even though only 42% of cats wereknown to be vaccinated, and was not significantly different between outbreak and non-outbreakregions. On multivariable logistic regression analysis vaccinated cats were 29.94 times more likelyto have protective FPV titres than cats not known to be vaccinated. Cats from postcodes of relativelyless socioeconomic disadvantage were 5.93 times more likely to have protective FPV titres. Thepredictors identified for FPV seroprotective titres indicate targeted vaccination strategies in regionsof socioeconomic disadvantage would be beneficial to increase population immunity. The criticallevel of vaccine coverage required to halt FPV transmission and prevent FPL outbreaks should bedetermined.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/imunologia , Panleucopenia Felina/epidemiologia , Panleucopenia Felina/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Austrália/epidemiologia , Gatos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Panleucopenia Felina/prevenção & controle , Panleucopenia Felina/virologia , Feminino , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais
19.
Viruses ; 12(3)2020 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188011

RESUMO

Feline panleukopenia, caused by feline parvovirus (FPV), is a highly infectious disease characterized by leucopenia and hemorrhagic gastroenteritis that severely affects the health of large wild Felidae. In this study, tiger FPV virus-like particles (VLPs) were developed using the baculovirus expression system. The VP2 gene from an infected Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) was used as the target gene. The key amino acids of this gene were the same as those of FPV, whereas the 101st amino acid was the same as that of canine parvovirus. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) results demonstrated that the VP2 protein was successfully expressed. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting (WB) results showed that the target protein band was present at approximately 65 kDa. Electron micrograph analyses indicated that the tiger FPV VLPs were successfully assembled and were morphologically similar to natural parvovirus particles. The hemagglutination (HA) titer of the tiger FPV VLPs was as high as 1:218. The necropsy and tissue sections at the cat injection site suggested that the tiger FPV VLPs vaccine was safe. Antibody production was induced in cats after subcutaneous immunization, with a >1:210 hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer that persisted for at least 12 months. These results demonstrate that tiger FPV VLPs might provide a vaccine to prevent FPV-associated disease in the tiger.


Assuntos
Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/genética , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/imunologia , Panleucopenia Felina/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Tigres/virologia , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Gatos , Panleucopenia Felina/patologia , Panleucopenia Felina/virologia , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Infecções por Parvoviridae/patologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Parvovirus Canino/imunologia , Células Sf9 , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227705, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945103

RESUMO

Protoparvoviruses, widespread among cats and wild animals, are responsible for leukopenia. Feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) in domestic cats is genetically diverse and some strains may differ from those used for vaccination. The presence of FPLV in two domestic cats from Hebei Province in China was identified by polymerase chain reaction. Samples from these animals were used to isolate FPLV strains in CRFK cells for genome sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to compare our isolates with available sequences of FPLV, mink parvovirus (MEV) and canine parvovirus (CPV). The isolated strains were closely related to strains of FPLV/MEV isolated in the 1960s. Our analysis also revealed that the evolutionary history of FPLV and MEV is characterized by local adaptations in the Vp2 gene. Thus, it is likely that new FPLV strains are emerging to evade the anti-FPLV immune response.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Gatos/virologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/genética , Panleucopenia Felina/virologia , Genes Virais/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Antígenos Virais/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , China , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Cães/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Fezes/virologia , Panleucopenia Felina/imunologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/imunologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/patogenicidade , Vison/virologia , Mutação , Filogenia
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