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1.
Food Chem ; 372: 131188, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624779

RESUMO

The present study assessed the nutritional composition of coffee silverskin (CSS) obtained from arabica roasted coffee. Following validated analytical methods, CSS resulted to be a high source of proteins (14.2 g/100 g) and dietary fibers (51.5 g/100 g). Moreover, the mineral analysis revealed high contents of calcium (1.1 g/100 g) and potassium (1.0 g/100 g). To date, this study provided the widest mineral profile of CSS with 30 minerals targeted including 23 microminerals with high levels of iron (238.0 mg/kg), manganese (46.7 mg/kg), copper (37.9 mg/kg), and zinc (31.9 mg/kg). Moreover, vitamins B2 (0.18-0.2 mg/kg) and B3 (2.5-3.1 mg/kg) were studied and reported for the first time in CSS. ß-sitosterol (77.1 mg/kg), campesterol, stigmasterol, and Δ5-avenasterol, were also observed from the phytosterol analysis of CSS with a total level of 98.4 mg/kg. This rich nutritional profile highlights the potential values of CSS for innovative reuses in bioactive ingredients development.


Assuntos
Fitosteróis , Complexo Vitamínico B , Café , Minerais , Estigmasterol
2.
Elife ; 102021 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951405

RESUMO

Many animals are dependent on microbial partners that provide essential nutrients lacking from their diet. Ticks, whose diet consists exclusively on vertebrate blood, rely on maternally inherited bacterial symbionts to supply B vitamins. While previously studied tick species consistently harbor a single lineage of those nutritional symbionts, we evidence here that the invasive tick Hyalomma marginatum harbors a unique dual-partner nutritional system between an ancestral symbiont, Francisella, and a more recently acquired symbiont, Midichloria. Using metagenomics, we show that Francisella exhibits extensive genome erosion that endangers the nutritional symbiotic interactions. Its genome includes folate and riboflavin biosynthesis pathways but deprived functional biotin biosynthesis on account of massive pseudogenization. Co-symbiosis compensates this deficiency since the Midichloria genome encompasses an intact biotin operon, which was primarily acquired via lateral gene transfer from unrelated intracellular bacteria commonly infecting arthropods. Thus, in H. marginatum, a mosaic of co-evolved symbionts incorporating gene combinations of distant phylogenetic origins emerged to prevent the collapse of an ancestral nutritional symbiosis. Such dual endosymbiosis was never reported in other blood feeders but was recently documented in agricultural pests feeding on plant sap, suggesting that it may be a key mechanism for advanced adaptation of arthropods to specialized diets.


Assuntos
Francisella/metabolismo , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Rickettsiales/metabolismo , Animais , Francisella/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Rickettsiales/genética , Simbiose/fisiologia , Complexo Vitamínico B/biossíntese
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764114

RESUMO

A middle-aged woman was diagnosed with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome based on her clinical symptoms, elevated norepinephrine levels and positive tilt-table test. The patient was refractory to conventional treatment and improved only after she was treated with methylated B vitamins for her heterozygous catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Taquicardia Postural Ortostática , Complexo Vitamínico B , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norepinefrina , Síndrome da Taquicardia Postural Ortostática/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Taquicardia Postural Ortostática/genética , Teste da Mesa Inclinada , Complexo Vitamínico B/uso terapêutico
4.
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(42): e27548, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678889

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Progressive encephalopathy with brain edema and/or leukoencephalopathy-1 is an infantile, lethal neurometabolic disorder caused by a NAD(P)HX epimerase (NAXE) gene mutation. It is characterized by a fluctuating disease course with repeated episodes of improvement and regression. In this report, we present a rare case of NAXE gene mutation-related encephalopathy with unexpected neurological recovery and long survival time. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 20-month-old girl presented with progressively unsteady gait and bilateral hand tremors after a trivial febrile illness. Her disease rapidly progressed to consciousness disturbance, 4-limb weakness (muscle power: 1/5 on the Medical Research Council scale), and respiratory failure. The patient gradually recovered 2 months later. However, another episode of severe fever-induced encephalopathy developed 2 years after the initial presentation. DIAGNOSES: Results of laboratory investigations, including complete blood count, blood chemistry, inflammatory markers, and cerebral spinal fluid analysis were unremarkable. Electroencephalography and nerve conduction velocity studies yielded normal results. Brain magnetic resonance imaging on diffusion-weighted imaging revealed abnormal sysmmetric hyperintensity in the bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles. A genetic study using whole exome sequencing confirmed the diagnosis of NAXE gene mutation-related encephalopathy. INTERVENTIONS: Pulse therapy with methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, coenzyme Q10, and carnitine were initially introduced. After a NAXE gene defect was detected, the vitamin B complex and coenzyme Q10 were administered. A continuous rehabilitation program was also implemented. OUTCOMES: NAXE gene mutation-related encephalopathy is usually regarded as a lethal neurometabolic disorder. However, the outcome in this case is better than that in the previous cases. She showed progressive neurological recovery and a longer survival time. The muscle power of the 4 limbs recovered to grade 4. At present (age of 5.5 years old), she can walk with an unsteady gait and go to school. LESSONS: Although NAXE gene mutation-related encephalopathy is rare, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis of early onset progressive encephalopathy.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Racemases e Epimerases/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Ubiquinona/uso terapêutico , Complexo Vitamínico B/uso terapêutico , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
6.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641607

RESUMO

The application of bacterial cultures in food fermentation is a novel strategy to increase the "natural" levels of bioactive compounds. The unique ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to produce folate, B vitamins, and conjugated linolenic acid cis9trans11 C18:2 (CLA) during cold storage up to 21 days was studied. Although some species of LAB can produce folates and other important nutrients, little is known about the production ability of yogurt starter cultures. Pasteurized milk samples were inoculated with four different combinations of commercially available yogurt vaccines, including starter cultures of Bifidobacterium bifidum. Both the type of vaccine and the time of storage at 8 °C had a significant effect on the folate and CLA contents in the tested fermented milks. The highest folate content (105.4 µg/kg) was found in fresh fermented milk inoculated with Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Bifidobacterium bifidum. Only the mix of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Bifidobacterium bifidum showed potential (59% increase) to synthesize folate during seven days of storage. A significant increase in the content of CLA, when compared to fresh fermented milk, was observed during cold storage for up to 21 days in products enriched with Bifidobacterium bifidum.


Assuntos
Produtos Fermentados do Leite/microbiologia , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Leite/microbiologia , Complexo Vitamínico B/metabolismo , Animais , Bifidobacterium bifidum/metabolismo , Biofortificação/métodos , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/metabolismo , Probióticos , Streptococcus thermophilus/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578836

RESUMO

Growing evidence confirms choline as a critical perinatal nutrient. However, intake levels of choline and betaine among the Spanish fertile population remain unknown. Given their role in one-carbon metabolism with potential epigenetic effects, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the dietary intakes, their adequacy to existing guidelines and the main food sources together with other micronutrients involved in the methylation-methionine cycle (vitamin B6, folates and vitamin B12) in women of childbearing age. The ANIBES study, a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of women of childbearing age (18-45 years, n = 641) resident in Spain, was used. The sample was divided into younger women (18-30 years, n = 251) and older women (31-45 years, n = 390). Dietary intake was assessed by a three-day dietary record by using a tablet device. Total median intakes for the total sample were 303.9 mg/d for choline; 122.6 mg/d for betaine; 1.3 mg/d for vitamin B6; 140.8 µg/d for folates, and 3.8 µg/d for vitamin B12. The older subgroup showed significantly higher choline (p < 0.05), betaine (p < 0.001) and folates (p < 0.05) intakes than younger women. Main food sources for the whole sample were meat and meat products for choline (28.3%), vitamin B6 (25.7%) and vitamin B12 (22.8%); cereals and derivatives (79.9%) for betaine; vegetables (20.0%) for folates. Overall intake adequacy was only observed for vitamin B12, with a very limited number of participants showing adequate intakes for all the other micronutrients. These results illustrate there is a relevant need to raise awareness about optimizing the status of the methionine cycle-related vitamins and cofactors in this potentially vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Betaína/administração & dosagem , Colina/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Registros de Dieta , Grão Comestível , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Carne/estatística & dados numéricos , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Verduras , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Vitamina B 6/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578844

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's Disease, among other cognitive dysfunctions, has been recognized as a major public health problem. Folic acid is a well-known essential nutrient whose deficiency has been linked to neurocognitive dysfunctions, owing to hyperhomocysteinemia, an independent risk factor for cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases, including cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's Disease, and vascular dementia. However, to date, there is certain controversy about the efficacy of vitamin supplementation in patients with these pathologies. Therefore, we have reviewed the available dietary intervention studies based on folic acid, either alone or in combination with different vitamins or nutrients into the progression of Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive impairment, highlighting the cognition and biochemical markers employed for the evaluation of the disease progression. Undeniably, the compiled information supports the potential benefits of vitamin supplementation in these pathologies, especially relevant to the aging process and quality of life, although more research is urgently needed to confirm these positive findings.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Complexo Vitamínico B/uso terapêutico , Humanos
9.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578855

RESUMO

There is little evidence regarding the association between serum vitamin B6 concentration and subsequent mortality. We aimed to evaluate the association of serum vitamin B6 concentration with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality in the general population using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Our study examined 12,190 adults participating in NHANES from 2005 to 2010 in the United States. The mortality status was linked to National Death Index (NDI) records up to 31 December 2015. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is the biologically active form of vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 status was defined as deficient (PLP < 20 nmol/L), insufficient (PLP ≥ 20.0 and <30.0 nmol/L), and sufficient (PLP ≥ 30.0 nmol/L). We established Cox proportional-hazards models to estimate the associations of categorized vitamin B6 concentration and log-transformed PLP concentration with all-cause and cause-specific mortality by calculating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs). In our study, serum vitamin B6 was sufficient in 70.6% of participants, while 12.8% of the subjects were deficient in vitamin B6. During follow-up, a total of 1244 deaths were recorded, including 294 cancer deaths and 235 CVD deaths. After multivariate adjustment in Cox regression, participants with higher serum vitamin B6 had a 15% (HR = 0.85, 95%CI = 0.77, 0.93) reduced risk of all-cause mortality and a 19% (HR = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.68, 0.98) reduced risk for CVD mortality for each unit increment in natural log-transformed PLP. A higher log-transformed PLP was not significantly associated with a lower risk for cancer mortality. Compared with sufficient vitamin B6, deficient (HR = 1.37, 95%CI = 1.17, 1.60) and insufficient (HR = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.02, 1.38) vitamin B6 level were significantly associated with a higher risk for all-cause mortality. There was no significant association for cause-specific mortality. Participants with higher levels of vitamin B6 had a lower risk for all-cause mortality. These findings suggest that maintaining a sufficient level of serum vitamin B6 may lower the all-cause mortality risk in the general population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Vitamina B 6/sangue , Causas de Morte , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Complexo Vitamínico B/sangue
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9968228, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337067

RESUMO

Damage and regeneration naturally occur in the peripheral nervous system. The neurotropic B vitamins thiamine (B1), pyridoxine (B6), and cobalamin (B12) are key players, which maintain the neuronal viability in different ways. Firstly, they constantly protect nerves against damaging environmental influences. While vitamin B1 acts as a site-directed antioxidant, vitamin B6 balances nerve metabolism, and vitamin B12 maintains myelin sheaths. However, nerve injury occurs at times, because of an imbalance between protective factors and accumulating stress and noxae. This will result in the so-called Wallerian degeneration process. The presence of vitamins B1, B6, and B12 paves the way out to the following important regeneration by supporting the development of new cell structures. Furthermore, vitamin B1 facilitates the usage of carbohydrates for energy production, whereas vitamin B12 promotes nerve cell survival and remyelination. Absence of these vitamins will favor permanent nerve degeneration and pain, eventually leading to peripheral neuropathy.


Assuntos
Fatores de Crescimento Neural/farmacologia , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Complexo Vitamínico B/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Regeneração Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Hematology ; 26(1): 620-627, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411497

RESUMO

Methotrexate (MTX) is one of the main therapeutic agents currently used for the prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, it is associated with significant toxicity and considerable side effects in many patients, which lead to either early withdrawal or dose reductions that may expose patients to the risk of GvHD and graft failure. Folinic acid (FA) can bypass the inhibitory effects of MTX on folate availability and control MTX toxicity. However, concerns that FA might inhibit the anti-GvHD effect of MTX and limited reports on its clinical usefulness have led to reluctance in its inclusion in standard GvHD prophylaxis regimens. Additionally, universal dosing and timing guidelines are lacking. I discuss the available literature and evaluate the evidence for the effect of FA on MTX toxicity and its safety regarding GvHD development and graft rejection in both adult and pediatric patients. Although FA administration appears to be safe, its efficacy for routine use in all types of transplants in adult patients is unproven and further research is required to confirm its MTX toxicity-lowering effect, identify the individual parameters that influence its usefulness in clinical practice, and evaluate its potential when developing a personalized prophylaxis regimen.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Complexo Vitamínico B/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos
12.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371837

RESUMO

It has been theorized that folic acid supplementation improves inflammation. However, its proven effects on inflammatory markers are unclear as clinical studies on this topic have produced inconsistent results. To bridge this knowledge gap, this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aimed to evaluate the effects of folic acid supplementation on serum concentrations of the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Methods: To identify eligible RCTs, a systematic search up to April 2021 was completed in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, and Google Scholar using relevant keywords. A fix or random-effects model was utilized to estimate the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results: Twelve RCTs were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled analysis revealed that serum concentrations of CRP (WMD: -0.59 mg/L, 95% CI -0.85 to -0.33, p < 0.001) were significantly reduced following folic acid supplementation compared to placebo, but did not affect serum concentrations of IL-6 (WMD: -0.12, 95% CI -0.95 to 0.72 pg/mL, p = 0.780) or TNF-α (WMD: -0.18, 95% CI -0.86 to 0.49 pg/mL, p = 0.594). The dose-response analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between an elevated dosage of folic acid supplementation and lower CRP concentrations (p = 0.002). Conclusions: We found that folic acid supplementation may improve inflammation by attenuating serum concentrations of CRP but without significant effects on IL-6 and TNF-α. Future RCTs including a larger number of participants and more diverse populations are needed to confirm and expand our findings.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
13.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 205: 114308, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416551

RESUMO

B vitamins are a group of compounds with beneficious properties for dermatologic care, and therefore they are included in the cosmetic formulations as high added-value ingredients. In this paper, an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of eight water-soluble B vitamins in cosmetic products is reported for the first time. This method is based on liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) analysis after simple water leaching of the analytes from the cosmetic matrix. No organic solvents are required, beyond the ethanol used in the chromatographic mobile phase. The proposed method has been successfully validated showing good linearity, limits of detection in the low µg mL-1 range (from 0.14 to 0.43 µg mL-1) and good repeatability (relative standard deviation below 11 %). The accuracy of the method has been proven by the analysis of laboratory-made samples (i.e., a cream and a gel) with known concentrations of the analytes, providing low relative errors (below 12 %). Finally, the method has been successfully applied to four commercial cosmetic samples of different formulations without significant matrix effects. The results obtained and the environmentally friendly features of the method showed its usefulness for carrying out both pre- and in-market quality control of final cosmetic products.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Complexo Vitamínico B , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Cosméticos/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solventes , Água
14.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(10): e14691, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Low intake of B vitamins can lead to hyperhomocysteinaemia, which is reported as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, little is known about this relationship. Therefore, we decided to examine the association between dietary intake of B vitamins and cardiovascular risk factors in elderly men. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study consisted of 357 elderly men. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated and reliable food frequency questionnaire. All biochemical factors [fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)], waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) were assessed using standard methods. RESULTS: A significant inverse association was observed between high dietary intake of total B vitamins (ORTotal B vitamins : 0.30; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.86; P = .01) and vitamin B9 (ORvitamin B9 : 0.20; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.52; P = .002) with high WC. Furthermore, an inverse association was observed between high dietary intake of vitamin B6 (ORvitamin B6 : 0.28; 95% CI: 0.08, 1.00; P = .05) and vitamin B9 (ORvitamin B9 : 0.20; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.70; P = .01) with hs-CRP level. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly men, a high dietary intake of total B vitamins and vitamin B9 was associated with lower odds of having a high WC. Similarly, high dietary intake of vitamin B6 and B9 was associated with lower odds of having a high hs-CRP level.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Complexo Vitamínico B , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(10): 10812-10827, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304881

RESUMO

The transition from a liquid- to a solid-based diet involves several adaptations in calves. Development of ruminal function is likely to alter B vitamin and choline supply, although little is known about the extent of these changes relative to the calf's requirements and consequences for the calf around weaning. Moreover, literature data are equivocal concerning the need to supplement B vitamins and choline through weaning and transition phase of the dairy calf. To evaluate the effect of increasing B vitamin and choline supply on performance, 61 Holstein calves were individually housed and raised from birth to 13 wk of age. Calves were fed milk replacer (28% crude protein, 15% fat) up to 1.6 kg of dry matter (DM)/d at 15% solids (3 times/d) from birth to 4 wk of age. At that time, calves were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatments: a rumen-protected blend of B vitamins and choline (RPBV); a 30:70 mix of a nonprotected blend of B vitamins and choline and fat (UPBV); or fat only, used as control (CTRL). Calves were maintained on milk replacer and offered ad libitum quantities of a starter grain (25.5% crude protein) specifically formulated to supply all essential amino acids with no added B vitamins or choline. The supplements were provided in gel capsules and administered once a day to each calf in quantities corresponding to 0.39 and 0.28% of the previous day's starter DM intake for the vitamin blends and control, respectively. Calves were weaned gradually from d 49 to 63. Body weight and stature were measured, and blood was collected and analyzed for hematocrit, plasma urea nitrogen, ß-hydroxybutyrate, folates, and vitamin B12. Body weight and stature were similar among treatments. Overall gain (0.99 kg/d), DM intake (1.90 kg of DM/d), and feed efficiency (0.52) were not affected by vitamin supplementation. Plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were not different between RPBV and UPBV but tended to be higher at the end of weaning and were greater postweaning in RPBV and UPBV treatments compared with CTRL. Both forms of the vitamin blend effectively improved vitamin B12 status postweaning with no effect on folate status. No differences were observed in other blood measurements. Under conditions of this study, additional B vitamins and choline did not improve calf performance before, during, or after weaning.


Assuntos
Rúmen , Complexo Vitamínico B , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Colina , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Desmame
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(4): 1286-1294, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrophic gastritis (AG) and use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) result in gastric acid suppression that can impair the absorption of vitamin B-12 from foods. The crystalline vitamin B-12 form, found in fortified foods, does not require gastric acid for its absorption and could thus be beneficial for older adults with hypochlorhydria, but evidence is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations of AG and PPI use with vitamin B-12 status, and the potential protective role of fortified foods, in older adults. METHODS: Eligible participants (n = 3299) not using vitamin B-12 supplements were drawn from the Trinity-Ulster and Department of Agriculture cohort, a study of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥60 y and recruited in 2008-2012. Vitamin B-12 status was measured using 4 biomarkers, and vitamin B-12 deficiency was defined as a combined indicator value < -0.5. A pepsinogen I:II ratio <3 was considered indicative of AG. RESULTS: AG was identified in 15% of participants and associated with significantly lower serum total vitamin B-12 (P < 0.001) and plasma holotranscobalamin (holoTC; P < 0.001), and higher prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency (38%), compared with PPI users (21%) and controls (without AG and nonusers of PPIs; 15%; P < 0.001). PPI drugs were used (≥6 mo) by 37% of participants and were associated with lower holoTC concentrations, but only in participants taking higher doses (≥30 mg/d). Regular, compared with nonregular, consumption of fortified foods (i.e., ≥5 and 0-4 portions/wk, respectively) was associated with higher vitamin B-12 biomarkers in all participants, but inadequate to restore normal vitamin B-12 status in those with AG. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults who have AG and/or use higher doses of PPIs are more likely to have indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Fortified foods, if consumed regularly, were associated with enhanced vitamin B-12 status, but higher levels of added vitamin B-12 than currently provided could be warranted to optimize status in people with AG.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Gastrite Atrófica/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/dietoterapia , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/etiologia , Vitamina B 12 , Acloridria/complicações , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pepsinogênios/sangue , Prevalência , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Vitamina B 12/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/sangue , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Complexo Vitamínico B/sangue , Complexo Vitamínico B/uso terapêutico
17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(4): 1560-1573, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the associations between maternal factors and B-vitamin and choline concentrations in early milk and the trajectories of these vitamins during lactation. OBJECTIVES: In this hypothesis-generating study, we modeled the association between maternal and offspring factors and longitudinal changes in milk B-vitamin and choline concentrations throughout lactation. METHODS: A hundred women were studied in a prospective birth cohort and milk samples from 52 women were collected at 2-8 d, 76 women at 28-50 d, and 42 women at 88-119 d postpartum. Maternal dietary intake during pregnancy and lactation was assessed by an FFQ. Linear mixed-effects models with interaction terms were used to evaluate changes in milk B-vitamin and choline concentrations over time based on maternal factors and the early postpartum concentrations of these micronutrients. RESULTS: The women with higher early postpartum milk concentrations of niacin (ßinteraction = -0.02; SE = 0.00; P < 0.001), pantothenic acid (ßinteraction = -0.10; SE = 2.56; P < 0.001), vitamin B-12 (ßinteraction= -0.10; SE = 0.03; P < 0.001), and choline (ßinteraction= -0.90; SE = 0.18; P < 0.001) exhibited a decrease in their concentrations throughout lactation. The participants with overweight and obesity prepregnancy experienced an increase in milk vitamin B-12 concentrations over time (ßinteraction = 0.04; SE = 0.02; P = 0.06). In contrast, a decrease in vitamin B-12 concentration was observed among women with vitamin B-12 intake below the RDA during pregnancy (ßinteraction= -0.08; SE = 0.05; P = 0.07). The women with niacin intake below the RDA during lactation experienced an increase in milk concentrations over time (ßinteraction = 0.01; SE = 0.01; P = 0.03). A gestational age at birth >40 wk was associated with an increase in milk choline concentration throughout lactation (ßinteraction = 0.54; SE = 0.16; P< 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Changes in B-vitamin and choline concentrations in human milk over time may be associated with the early concentrations of these micronutrients in milk, maternal prepregnancy BMI, dietary intake, and gestational age at delivery.


Assuntos
Colina/administração & dosagem , Leite Humano/química , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Colina/química , Colina/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Complexo Vitamínico B/química , Complexo Vitamínico B/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Dis Mon ; 67(11): 101223, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154807

RESUMO

The approach to management of thyroid disorders in the elderly differs from that for younger individuals: it considers frailty of the population, coexisting medical illness and medications, clearance rate of medications and drug-drug interactions along with target organ sensitivity to the treatment. We present a comprehensive review of literature for the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, and management of thyroid disorders in the elderly.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/terapia , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Biotina/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Humanos , Longevidade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Complexo Vitamínico B/efeitos adversos
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12668, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135415

RESUMO

Supplementation of cancer cells exposed to 5-fluorouracil (FUra) and folinic acid (FA) with high concentration pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, the cofactor of vitamin B6, potentiates the cytotoxicity of FUra in a synergistic interaction mode. We report a pilot study in 13 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the digestive tract to assess the impact of high-dose pyridoxine (PN) on the antitumor activity of regimens comprising FUra and FA. Five patients had colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC); 5 had pancreas adenocarcinoma (PC); and 3 had squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (EC). Patients with CRC and with PC received oxaliplatin, irinotecan, FUra and FA, and patients with EC had paclitaxel, carboplatin, FUra and FA. PN iv from 1000 to 3000 mg/day preceded each administration of FA and FUra. Eleven patients responded. Two patients with CRC attained CRs and 3 had PRs with reduction rates ≥ 78%. Two patients with PC attained CRs, and 2 had PRs with reduction rates ≥ 79%. Responders experienced disappearance of most metastases. Of 3 patients with EC, 2 attained CRs. Median time to attain a response was 3 months. Unexpected toxicity did not occur. Results suggest that high-dose vitamin B6 enhances antitumor potency of regimens comprising FUra and FA.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Complexo Vitamínico B/uso terapêutico , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Humanos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Piridoxina/uso terapêutico
20.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 263: 72-78, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167037

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vitamin B status related to the homocysteine pathway and the prevalence of polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene in infertile women programming homologous or heterologous ART. STUDY DESIGN: We investigated 393 consecutive Caucasian women, referred to the Internal Medicine Clinic at the Center for Assisted Reproductive Technology, in order to be framed for their vascular risk before starting homologous or heterologous (oocyte donation) procedures. Total homocysteine, Vitamin B12, folate and vitamin B6 were measured. The women were divided into quartiles of serum concentration of folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6. The C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene were genotyped by an electronic microchip technology. RESULTS: Sixty-one women (15.5%) had hyperhomocysteinemia, 22.9% had reduced levels of vitamin B12, 4.1% had reduced levels of serum folate and 0.1% had a deficiency of vitamin B6. Women in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 and folates had lower homocysteine ​​levels than women in the first and second quartiles (p < 0.0001). The homozygosity for MTHFR C677T polymorphism was detected in 33.3% (131), and heterozygosity for MTHFR C677T polymorphism in 45.3% (178) of women. We observed a significant association between hyperhomocysteinemia and 677T allele, but not 1298C, of the MTHFR polymorphisms (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: We found inadequate vitamin B status related to the homocysteine ​​pathway in women planning Assisted Reproductive Technology. Moreover, interesting association was found regarding hyperhomocysteinemia in women carrying T allele of the C677T MTHFR polymorphism. A specific supplementation with 5-MTHF and adequate vitamin B12 concentrations before Assisted Reproductive Technology warrant serious consideration, in particular in women carrying T allele of the C677T MTHFR polymorphism.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Feminina , Complexo Vitamínico B , Feminino , Ácido Fólico , Genótipo , Homocisteína , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/genética , Itália/epidemiologia , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Vitamina B 12
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