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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256732, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364524

RESUMO

Germin-like proteins (GLPs) play an important role against various stresses. Vitis vinifera L. genome contains 7 GLPs; many of them are functionally unexplored. However, the computational analysis may provide important new insight into their function. Currently, physicochemical properties, subcellular localization, domain architectures, 3D structures, N-glycosylation & phosphorylation sites, and phylogeney of the VvGLPs were investigated using the latest computational tools. Their functions were predicted using the Search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes/proteins (STRING) and Blast2Go servers. Most of the VvGLPs were extracellular (43%) in nature but also showed periplasmic (29%), plasma membrane (14%), and mitochondrial- or chloroplast-specific (14%) expression. The functional analysis predicted unique enzymatic activities for these proteins including terpene synthase, isoprenoid synthase, lipoxygenase, phosphate permease, receptor kinase, and hydrolases generally mediated by Mn+ cation. VvGLPs showed similarity in the overall structure, shape, and position of the cupin domain. Functionally, VvGLPs control and regulate the production of secondary metabolites to cope with various stresses. Phylogenetically VvGLP1, -3, -4, -5, and VvGLP7 showed greater similarity due to duplication while VvGLP2 and VvGLP6 revealed a distant relationship. Promoter analysis revealed the presence of diverse cis-regulatory elements among which CAAT box, MYB, MYC, unnamed-4 were common to all of them. The analysis will help to utilize VvGLPs and their promoters in future food programs by developing resistant cultivars against various biotic (Erysiphe necator and in Powdery Mildew etc.) and abiotic (Salt, drought, heat, dehydration, etc.) stresses.


As proteínas do tipo germin (GLPs) desempenham um papel importante contra vários estresses. O genoma de Vitis vinifera L. contém 7 GLPs; muitos deles são funcionalmente inexplorados. No entanto, a análise computacional pode fornecer informações importantes sobre sua função. Atualmente, as propriedades físico-químicas, localização subcelular, arquitetura de domínio, estruturas 3D, sítios de N-glicosilação e fosforilação e estudos filogenéticos dos VvGLPs foram conduzidos usando as ferramentas computacionais mais recentes. Suas funções foram previstas usando a ferramenta Search para recuperação de genes/proteínas em interação (STRING) e servidores Blast2Go. A maioria dos VvGLPs são extracelulares (43%) na natureza, mas também mostraram expressão periplasmática (29%), na membrana plasmática (14%) e específica para mitocôndrias ou cloroplastos (14%). A análise funcional previu atividades enzimáticas únicas para essas proteínas, incluindo terpeno sintase, isoprenoide sintase, lipoxigenase, fosfato permease, receptor quinase e hidrolases geralmente mediadas por cátion Mn +. VvGLPs mostraram similaridade na estrutura geral, forma e posição do domínio cupin. Funcionalmente, os VvGLPs controlam e regulam a produção de metabólitos secundários para lidar com vários estresses. Filogeneticamente, VvGLP1, -3, -4, -5 e VvGLP7 mostraram maior similaridade devido à duplicação, enquanto VvGLP2 e VvGLP6 revelaram uma relação distante. A análise do promotor revelou a presença de diversos elementos cis-reguladores, entre os quais CAAT box, MYB, MYC, sem nome-4, sendo comum a todos eles. A análise ajudará a utilizar VvGLPs e seus promotores em programas alimentares futuros, desenvolvendo cultivares resistentes contra vários estresses bióticos (Erysiphe necator e no oídio, etc.) e abióticos (sal, seca, calor, estresse hídrico, etc.).


Assuntos
Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Proteínas , Vitis/genética
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e258275, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364498

RESUMO

Variety assortment enhancement is a normal task that involves enhancing the assortment's quality and upgrading varieties. The findings of a research of imported grape varieties in the southeast of Kazakhstan, namely in the Almaty region's bottom-mountain zone, are presented in this article. The onset and conclusion of the main phenological phases of a grape plant throughout the vegetative period were directly influenced by the climatic and meteorological conditions of this district. In comparison to the recognized variety Almaty early-maturing, it has been proven that types Priusadebny, Iyulsky, and Kuibyshevsk early-maturing have a high degree of eyes wintering buds and may provide a high-quality crop in this location.


O aprimoramento da variedade é uma tarefa normal que envolve o aprimoramento da qualidade da variedade e o aprimoramento das variedades. As descobertas de uma pesquisa de variedades de uvas importadas no sudeste do Cazaquistão, ou seja, na zona de base da montanha da região de Almaty, são apresentadas neste artigo. O início e a conclusão das principais fases fenológicas de uma videira ao longo do período vegetativo foram diretamente influenciados pelas condições climáticas e meteorológicas deste distrito. Em comparação com a variedade reconhecida Almaty de maturação precoce, foi comprovado que os tipos Priusadebny, Iyulsky e Kuibyshevsk de maturação precoce têm um alto grau de gomos de inverno de olhos e podem fornecer uma safra de alta qualidade neste local.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Cultivos Agrícolas , Vitis , Cazaquistão
3.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0268385, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656908

RESUMO

Downy mildew is caused by Plasmopara viticola, an obligate oomycete plant pathogen, a devasting disease of grapevine. To protect plants from the disease, complex III inhibitors are among the fungicides widely used. They specifically target the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) of the pathogen to block cellular respiration mechanisms. In the French vineyard, P. viticola has developed resistance against a first group of these fungicides, the Quinone outside Inhibitors (QoI), with a single amino acid substitution G143A in its cytb mitochondrial sequence. The use of QoI was limited and another type of fungicide, the Quinone inside Inhibitors, targeting the same gene and highly effective against oomycetes, was used instead. Recently however, less sensitive P. viticola populations were detected after treatments with some inhibitors, in particular ametoctradin and cyazofamid. By isolating single-sporangia P. viticola strains resistant to these fungicides, we characterized new variants in the cytb sequences associated with cyazofamid resistance: a point mutation (L201S) and more strikingly, two insertions (E203-DE-V204, E203-VE-V204). In parallel with the classical tools, pyrosequencing and qPCR, we then benchmarked short and long-reads NGS technologies (Ion Torrent, Illumina, Oxford Nanopore Technologies) to sequence the complete cytb with a view to detecting and assessing the proportion of resistant variants of P. viticola at the scale of a field population. Eighteen populations collected from French vineyard fields in 2020 were analysed: 12 showed a variable proportion of G143A, 11 of E203-DE-V204 and 7 populations of the S34L variant that confers resistance to ametoctradin. Interestingly, the long reads were able to identify variants, including SNPs, with confidence and to detect a small proportion of P. viticola with multiple variants along the same cytb sequence. Overall, NGS appears to be a promising method for assessing fungicide resistance of pathogens linked to cytb modifications at the field population level. This approach could rapidly become a robust decision support tool for resistance management in the future.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Oomicetos , Vitis , Citocromos b/genética , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Fazendas , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Oomicetos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Estrobilurinas/farmacologia , Vitis/microbiologia
4.
Food Chem ; 408: 135234, 2023 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599227

RESUMO

Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz appears unable to synthesise 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines (MPs) in the berry, but can still produce significant concentrations in rachis. MPs are readily extracted from rachis during fermentation, producing Shiraz wines with uncharacteristic "green" flavours. Recently, rootstocks were shown to significantly alter MP concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon rachis compared to own-rooted varieties, but whether Shiraz followed a similar trend required investigation. This study considered the effect of thirteen rootstocks on the concentrations of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP), and 3-sec-butyl-2-methoxypyrazine (SBMP) in the rachis of Shiraz bunches sampled during multiple vintages across several Australian growing regions. Although IBMP was the most abundant, all measured MP concentrations were significantly affected by vintage, rootstock, and region. In addition, vine vigour showed positive correlations with IBMP, which were attributed to changes in canopy coverage impacting rachis light exposure. This hypothesis was explored with light exclusion trials, which significantly increased rachis IBMP concentrations.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vinho , Austrália , Vinho/análise , Frutas
5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 240, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604456

RESUMO

BES1, as the most important transcription factor responsible for brassinolide (BR) signaling, has been confirmed to play a significant role in regulating plant growth and the improvement of stress resistance. The transcriptional regulatory mechanism of BES1 has been well elucidated in several plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana), Triticum aestivum L. (T. aestivum), and Oryza sativa L. (O. sativa). Nevertheless, the genome-wide analysis of the BES1 family in Vitis vinifera L. (V. vinifera). has not been comprehensively carried out. Thus, we have conducted a detailed analysis and identification of the BES1 transcription factors family in V. vinifera; a total of eight VvBES1 genes was predicted, and the phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, and Cis-acting element in their promoters were also analyzed. BES1 genes have been divided into three groups (I, II and III) based on phylogenetic relationship analysis, and most of VvBES1 genes were in group III. Also, we found that VvBES1 genes was located at seven of the total nineteen chromosomes, whereas VvBES1-2 (Vitvi04g01234) and VvBES1-5 (Vitvi18g00924) had a collinearity relationship, and their three copies are well preserved. In addition, the intron-exon model of VvBES1 genes were mostly conserved, and there existed several Cis-acting elements related to stress resistance responsive and phytohormones responsive in BES1s genes promoter. Moreover, the BES1 expressions were different in different V. vinifera organs, and BES1 expressions were different in different V. vinifera varieties under saline-alkali stress and heat stress, the expression of VvBES1 also changed with the prolongation of saline-alkali stress treatment time. The above findings could not only lay a primary foundation for the further validation of VvBES1 function, but could also provide a reference for molecular breeding in V. vinifera.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Vitis , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(1): 721-728, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592095

RESUMO

In order to analyze the molecular rearrangement of terpenes in wine during aging, the changes in linalool, α-terpineol, nerol, and geraniol in model wine were investigated in the dark at low temperature for 90 days. Headspace-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer/olfactometry was used for qualitative and relative quantitation of terpenes. Quantum mechanical calculation was used to analyze the Gibbs free energy. The results showed that nerol was converted into d-limonene, terpinolene, linalool, and α-terpineol. Geraniol was converted into ß-ocimene, terpinolene, and linalool. Linalool was converted into terpinolene. The conversion rate of nerol to terpinolene was the highest with 5.94%. α-Terpineol was not converted spontaneously into other terpenes due to its lowest Gibbs free energy, indicating that the cyclization and isomerization could occur spontaneously through an exotherm reaction. However, the dehydroxylation of linalool, nerol, and geraniol required an energy source.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vinho , Terpenos , Vinho/análise , Vitis/genética , Monoterpenos
7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 883, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650251

RESUMO

Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses that reduce plant growth and performance by changing physiological and biochemical processes. In addition to improving the crop, using nanomaterials in agriculture can reduce the harmful effects of environmental stresses, particularly salinity. A factorial experiment was conducted in the form of a completely randomized design with two factors including salt stress at three levels (0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl) and chitosan-salicylic acid nanocomposite at three levels (0, 0.1, and 0.5 mM). The results showed reductions in chlorophylls (a, b, and total), carotenoids, and nutrient elements (excluding sodium) while proline, hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, total soluble protein, soluble carbohydrate, total antioxidant, and antioxidant enzymes activity increased with treatment chitosan-salicylic acid nanocomposite (CS-SA NCs) under different level NaCl. Salinity stress reduced Fm', Fm, and Fv/Fm by damage to photosynthetic systems, but treatment with CS-SA NCs improved these indices during salinity stress. In stress-free conditions, applying the CS-SA NCs improved the grapes' physiological, biochemical, and nutrient elemental balance traits. CS-SA NCs at 0.5 mM had a better effect on the studied traits of grapes under salinity stress. The CS-SA nanoparticle is a biostimulant that can be effectively used to improve the grape plant yield under salinity stress.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Nanocompostos , Vitis , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Quitosana/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Salinidade , Estresse Salino , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Vitis/metabolismo
8.
Food Microbiol ; 111: 104193, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681397

RESUMO

Although the impact of nitrogen nutrition on the production of fermentative aromas in oenological fermentation is well known today, one may wonder whether the effects studied are the same when winemaking takes place at high turbidities, specifically for the production of wines intended for cognac distillation. To that effect, a fermentation robot was used to analyze 30 different fermentation conditions at two turbidity levels with several factors tested: (i) initial addition of nitrogen either organic (with a mixture of amino acids - MixAA) or inorganic with di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) at different concentrations, (ii) variation of the ratio of inorganic/organic nitrogen (MixAA and DAP) and (iii) addition of different single amino acids (alanine, arginine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid). A metabolomic analysis was carried out on all resulting wines to have a global vision of the impact of nitrogen on more than sixty aromatic molecules of various families. Then, at the end of the alcoholic fermentation, the wines were micro-distilled. A first interesting observation was that the aroma profiles of both wines and distillates were close, indicating that the concentration factor is rather similar for the different aromas studied. Secondly, the fermentation kinetics and aroma results have shown that the nitrogen concentration effect prevailed over the nature of nitrogen. Although the lipid concentration was in excess, an interaction between the assimilable nitrogen and lipid contents was still observed in wines or in micro-distillates. Alanine is involved in the synthesis of acetaldehyde, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and isoamyl acetate. Finally, it was demonstrated that modifying the ratio of assimilable nitrogen in musts is not an interesting technological response to improve the aromatic profile of wines and brandies. Indeed, unbalance the physiological ratio of the must by adding a single source of assimilable nitrogen (organic or inorganic) has been shown to deregulate the synthesis of most of the fermentation aromas produced by the yeast. Wine metabolomic analysis confirmed the results that had been observed in micro-distillates but also in the other aromatic families, especially on terpenes. The contribution of solid particles, but also yeast biosynthesis (via sterol management in must) to wine terpenes is discussed. Indeed, the synthesis of terpenes in this oenological context seems to be favored, especially since the concentration of assimilable nitrogen (in addition to the lipid content) favor their accumulation in the medium. A non-negligible vintage effect on the terpene profile was also demonstrated with variations in their distribution depending on the years. Thus, the present study focuses on the metabolism of wine yeasts under different environmental conditions (nitrogen and lipid content) and on the impact of distillation on the fate of flavor compounds. The results highlight once again the complexity of metabolic fluxes and of the impact of nitrogen source (nature and amount) and of lipids. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that beyond the varietal origin of terpenes, the part resulting from the de novo synthesis by the yeast during the fermentation cannot be neglected in the context of cognac winemaking with high levels of turbidity.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vinho , Humanos , Vinho/análise , Vitis/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Lipídeos , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/metabolismo , Alanina/análise , Alanina/metabolismo
9.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 76(1)2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688769

RESUMO

Pichia and Candida species include biofilm-forming yeasts able to spoil foods and beverages. Strains belonging to 10 Pichia and Candida species isolated from apples, grape musts, and wines were analysed. They were subjected to molecular typing and characterized for their ability to grow and ferment must for cider and wine production, and for their biofilm properties. All strains grew similarly in apple and grape must. Glucose-fermenting strains displayed differentiated fermentation performances. Great variation in SO2 and ethanol sensitivity was observed among the strains. Pichia manshurica strains showed high tolerance to both molecules. Eleven and five surface-spreading biofilm (MAT) phenotypes were identified in solid and liquid media, respectively. Strains produced biofilms with variable thicknesses and widths in culture tubes. Cell adherence and aqueous-hydrocarbon biphasic hydrophobicity assays were carried out. Some Pichia manshurica and P. membranifaciens strains exhibited a high capacity to form a thick biofilm and had high cell adherence and hydrophobicity values. These strains could be more likely to colonize the internal surfaces of tanks. This study evidenced that some Pichia and Candida strains can proliferate during apple and grape must fermentation and may be detrimental the beverage quality, due to their specific biofilm properties.


Assuntos
Malus , Vitis , Vinho , Pichia/metabolismo , Candida/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Leveduras/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , Fermentação
10.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 76(1)2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688783

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to contribute to the reduction of synthetic chemical fungicide application in viticulture by using cyclo(-l-Leu-l-Phe) (cLF) produced by Bacillus subtilis KS1, a candidate for biological control agent. cLF is a diketopiperazine and belongs to the family of 2,5-diketopiperazines. KS1 secreted micromolar levels of cLF into culture medium. Micromolar concentrations of cLF structure-dependently decreased by ∼90% both disease severity and lesion density of downy mildew in grapevine cultivated in a growth chamber. Microscopic observation demonstrated that cLF inhibited Plasmopara viticola haustorium formation by 80% but not zoospore germination on leas disks. Interestingly, millimolar concentrations of cLF induced plant defense response, such as expression of genes encoding chitinase and ß-1,3-glucanase, in grapevine leaves through the salicylic acid and jasmonate signaling pathways. We demonstrated that cLF was a weapon against P. viticola infection. Further evaluation of cLF in field trials is required to uncover its inherent characteristics.


Assuntos
Oomicetos , Peronospora , Vitis , Dicetopiperazinas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas , Vitis/metabolismo
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(3): 1643-1654, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638364

RESUMO

Fruit cracking seriously affects the commercial value of table grapes. To explore whether cell wall disassembly influences grape berry cracking, first, the differences in the cell wall metabolism were compared between cracking-resistant "Shennongjinhuanghou" (SN) and cracking-susceptible "Xiangfei" (XF) varieties. Our results showed that cell wall disassembly events were extremely different between "SN" and "XF." The cracking-resistant "SN" had a higher pectinmethylesterase activity in the early stage and lower polygalacturonase, ß-galactosidase, pectate lyase, and cellulase activities from veraison, cooperatively yielding higher ionically bound pectin, covalently bound pectin, hemicellulose, and lower water-soluble pectin, leading to a stronger skin break force and elasticity and conferring "SN" with higher cracking resistance. Furthermore, the function of the VvPL1 gene in fruit cracking was verified by heterologously transforming tomatoes. The transgenic experiment showed that overexpressed fruits had a higher activity of pectate lyase from the breaking stage and a lower level of covalently bound pectin, ionically bound pectin, cellulose, and hemicellulose and a higher level of water-soluble pectin at the red ripe stage, which resulted in a significantly reduced skin break force and flesh firmness and increased fruit cracking incidences. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the cracking susceptibility of the grape berry is closely related to cell wall disassembly events and VvPL1 plays an important role in fruit cracking.


Assuntos
Frutas , Vitis , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Vitis/genética , Vitis/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo
12.
Cells ; 12(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672146

RESUMO

Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds are rich in polyphenols including proanthocyanidins, molecules with a variety of biological effects including anticancer action. We have previously reported that the grape seed semi-polar extract of Aglianico cultivar (AGS) was able to induce apoptosis and decrease cancer properties in different mesothelioma cell lines. Concomitantly, this extract resulted in enriched oligomeric proanthocyanidins which might be involved in determining the anticancer activity. Through transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses, we investigated in detail the anticancer pathway induced by AGS. Transcriptomics analysis and functional annotation allowed the identification of the relevant causative genes involved in the apoptotic induction following AGS treatment. Subsequent biological validation strengthened the hypothesis that MDM2 could be the molecular target of AGS and that it could act in both a p53-dependent and independent manner. Finally, AGS significantly inhibited tumor progression in a xenograft mouse model of mesothelioma, confirming also in vivo that MDM2 could act as molecular player responsible for the AGS antitumor effect. Our findings indicated that AGS, exerting a pro-apoptotic effect by hindering MDM2 pathway, could represent a novel source of anticancer molecules.


Assuntos
Extrato de Sementes de Uva , Mesotelioma , Proantocianidinas , Vitis , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Sementes , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675057

RESUMO

Plants can respond to insects that feed with stylet mouthparts using various processes that are initiated via the salicylic acid metabolic pathway. In Australia, scale insects of the genus Parthenolecanium can cause economic damage to grapevines as they feed on the vines and produce honeydew as a waste by-product, which supports the growth of black sooty mould on fruit and leaves, potentially affecting the plant growth and yield. Using rootlings of Sauvignon Blanc (SB, resistant) and Chardonnay (Char, susceptible), the growth and production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) following exposure to scale insect infestations were measured under controlled greenhouse conditions. At harvest, the numbers of scale insects per five leaves were higher on plants infested at the start of the study compared with the control plants. Infested SB had increased dry root and shoot mass compared with the SB control, which was also the case with Char (control and infested). Leaf volatiles differed between cultivars in response to scale infestation. Benzyl alcohol decreased among infested SB plants compared with the other treatments. A change in the salicylic acid pathway as indicated by the change in benzyl alcohol may cause the increased growth in SB associated with the increased scale insect infestation.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Vitis , Animais , Vitis/metabolismo , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Fungos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Álcoois Benzílicos/metabolismo
14.
FEMS Yeast Res ; 232023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592956

RESUMO

Wine grape fungal community composition is influenced by abiotic factors including geography and vintage. Compositional differences may correlate with different wine metabolite composition and sensory profiles, suggesting a microbial role in the shaping of a wine's terroir, or regional character. While grape and wine-associated fungal community composition has been studied extensively at a regional and sub-regional scale, it has not been explored in detail on fine geographical scales over multiple harvests. Over two years, we examined the fungal communities on Vitis Vinifera cv. Pinot noir grape berry surfaces, in crushed grapes, and in lab spontaneous fermentations from three vineyards within a < 1 km radius in Canada's Okanagan Valley wine region. We also evaluated the effect of winery environment exposure on fungal community composition by sampling grapes crushed and fermented in the winery at commercial scale. Spatiotemporal community structure was evident among grape berry surface, crushed grape and fermentation samples, with each vineyard exhibiting a distinct fungal community signature. Crushed grape fungal populations were richer in fermentative yeast species compared to grape berry surface fungal populations. Our study suggests that, as on a regional level, fungal populations may contribute to fine-scale -terroir,' with significant implications for single-vineyard wines.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Vitis , Vinho , Vitis/microbiologia , Vinho/microbiologia , Frutas , Geografia , Fermentação
15.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 658, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635363

RESUMO

The aim of the present work is the evaluation of biological effects of natural stilbenoids found in Vitis vinifera, with a focus on their activity as epigenetic modulators. In the present study, resveratrol, pterostilbene and for the first time their dimers (±)-trans-δ-viniferin, (±)-trans-pterostilbene dehydrodimer were evaluated in Caco-2 and HepG-2 cell lines as potential epigenetic modulators. Stilbenoids were added in a Caco-2 cell culture as a model of the intestinal epithelial barrier and in the HepG-2 as a model of hepatic environment, to verify their dose-dependent toxicity, ability to interact with DNA, and epigenomic action. Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and (±)-trans-pterostilbene dehydrodimer were found to have no toxic effects at tested concentration and were effective in reversing arsenic damage in Caco-2 cell lines. (±)-trans-δ-viniferin showed epigenomic activity, but further studies are needed to clarify its mode of action.


Assuntos
Estilbenos , Vitis , Humanos , Resveratrol , Células CACO-2 , Epigenômica , Estilbenos/farmacologia
16.
PeerJ ; 11: e14617, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36620751

RESUMO

Background: Bud sport mutation occurs frequently in fruit plants and acts as an important approach for grapevine improvement and breeding. 'Jinzao Wuhe' is a bud sport of the elite cultivar 'Himord Seedless' with obviously enlarged organs and berries. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying berry enlargement caused by bud sport in grapevines remain unclear. Methods: Whole genome resequencing (WGRS) was performed for two pairs of bud sports and their maternal plants with similar phenotype to identify SNPs, InDels and structural variations (SVs) as well as related genes. Furthermore, transcriptomic sequencing at different developmental stages and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) for 'Jinzao Wuhe' and its maternal plant 'Himord Seedless' were carried out to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which were subsequently analyzed for Gene Ontology (GO) and function annotation. Results: In two pairs of enlarged berry bud sports, a total of 1,334 SNPs, 272 InDels and 74 SVs, corresponding to 1,022 target genes related to symbiotic microorganisms, cell death and other processes were identified. Meanwhile, 1,149 DEGs associated with cell wall modification, stress-response and cell killing might be responsible for the phenotypic variation were also determined. As a result, 42 DEGs between 'Himord Seedless' and 'Jinzao Wuhe' harboring genetic variations were further investigated, including pectin esterase, cellulase A, cytochromes P450 (CYP), UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT), zinc finger protein, auxin response factor (ARF), NAC transcription factor (TF), protein kinase, etc. These candidate genes offer important clues for a better understanding of developmental regulations of berry enlargement in grapevine. Conclusion: Our results provide candidate genes and valuable information for dissecting the underlying mechanisms of berry development and contribute to future improvement of grapevine cultivars.


Assuntos
Frutas , Vitis , Frutas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Vitis/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Fenótipo , Genômica
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36614240

RESUMO

The European grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the world's most widely cultivated and economically important fruit crops. Seedless fruits are particularly desired for table grapes, with seedlessness resulting from stenospermocarpy being an important goal for cultivar improvement. The establishment of an RNA in situ hybridisation (ISH) system for grape berries and ovules is, therefore, important for understanding the molecular mechanisms of ovule abortion in stenospermocarpic seedless cultivars. We improved RNA in situ hybridisation procedures for developing berries and ovules by targeting two transcription factor genes, VvHB63 and VvTAU, using two seeded varieties, 'Red Globe' and 'Pinot Noir', and two seedless cultivars, 'Flame Seedless' and 'Thompson Seedless'. Optimisation focused on the time of proteinase K treatment, probe length, probe concentration, hybridisation temperature and post-hybridisation washing conditions. The objectives were to maximise hybridisation signals and minimise background interference, while still preserving tissue integrity. For the target genes and samples tested, the best results were obtained with a pre-hybridisation proteinase K treatment of 30 min, probe length of 150 bp and concentration of 100 ng/mL, hybridisation temperature of 50 °C, three washes with 0.2× saline sodium citrate (SSC) solution and blocking with 1% blocking reagent for 45 min during the subsequent hybridisation. The improved ISH system was used to study the spatiotemporal expression patterns of genes related to ovule development at a microscopic level.


Assuntos
Frutas , Vitis , Frutas/genética , Óvulo Vegetal/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Endopeptidase K/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Vitis/genética
18.
Molecules ; 28(1)2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36615650

RESUMO

Winemaking involves contact at different stages with atmospheric oxygen, the consumption of which determines its final properties. The chemical analysis of red wines subjected to consecutive cycles of air saturation has been extensively researched; however, the capacity to consume different doses of oxygen before bottling is an aspect that has been little studied. In this work, the effect of saturation of different levels of oxygen on the final characteristics of different wines made from Tempranillo and Garnacha grape extracts was studied. For this purpose, the wines were subjected to controlled oxygen saturation levels to simulate their possible oxygenation before bottling. The only difference was the phenolic composition of grape extracts that were reconstituted under the same conditions to avoid the interferences inherent to the fermentation process and the additives added in the winery. The kinetics of oxygen consumption was then evaluated and its effect on the color, antioxidant capacity, and phenols of three different wines was analyzed. This work shows the relationship between the oxidation state of wine and changes in its chemical composition. In addition, it provides insight into the effect of oxygen consumption before bottling on the properties of wines subjected to high and single doses of oxygen.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vinho , Vinho/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Fenóis/química , Vitis/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Oxigênio/química , Cor
19.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112161, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596110

RESUMO

In this study, four wine grape polysaccharides were extracted and optimized by using an efficient ultrasound-assisted extraction. A three-level, three-factor Box Behnken Design (BBD) combining with response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction conditions including ultrasonic power, ultrasonic time and liquid-to-solid ratio. Furthermore, their physicochemical structures, antioxidant and liver protective activity were investigated and compared. Results revealed that the functional groups and monosaccharide compositions of these grape polysaccharides collected from different varieties were similar. Nevertheless, their molecular weights, molar ratios of monosaccharide compositions and surface morphological features were different. And the antioxidant activities of these polysaccharides were screened by free radical scavenging test. 'Beichun' (BC) and 'Benni fuji' (BF) polysaccharides possessed better antioxidant function. Further, the in vivo evaluation indicated that the polysaccharides of BC and BF have a protective effect against myocardial I/R injury in mice by inhibiting myocardial necroptosis mediated by mitochondrial ROS generation. Therefore, BC and BF grapes have potential applications in the medical and food industries.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Vitis , Animais , Camundongos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/química
20.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112165, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596113

RESUMO

The ionic elements in wine and in vineyards are gaining attention due to characterization of the wine traits, wine origin tracing, and vine nutrient judging. In this experiment, 19 elements were detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in 69 wine samples from 4 regions, 3 vintages, and 3 grape maturity levels. Furthermore, the elements related to vine development, such as N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn and Cu in the vineyard soil and petioles were determined. Two orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (O2PLS-DA) showed that K, Mn, Co, Sr, B, Si, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Zn were important elements in distinguishing the regions. High-temperature vintages can bring wines with high levels of Sr in wine. Na, Ca, K, Mg, Rb, Al, Rb, Pb and Fe can be used as signature elements to distinguish wines made from 2 grape maturities. And Cu, Zn, and Mn were the key elements used to differentiate the petioles in the 4 regions. Partial square regression (PLSR) analysis showed that soil pH was positively correlated with Al, B, Ba, K, Pb, Mn, Sr and Rb in wine, and K in wine was significantly positively correlated with element K in the soil. In conclusion, the elemental contents in wine are shaped by the combination of origin, vintage and grape maturity, while some key elements can be used as indicators of origin traceability.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Vitis , Oligoelementos/análise , Vitis/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Chumbo/análise , Solo
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