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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 125: 843-850, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375966

RESUMO

With a unique and large size of testing results of 1,842 samples collected from 12 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) for 14 months through from low to high prevalence of COVID-19, the sensitivity of RT-qPCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater that correspond to the communities was computed by using Probit analysis. This study determined the number of new COVID-19 cases per 100,000 population required to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater at defined probabilities and provided an evidence-based framework of wastewater-based epidemiology surveillance (WBE). Input data were positive and negative test results of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater samples and the corresponding new COVID-19 case rates per 100,000 population served by each WWTP. The analyses determined that RT-qPCR-based SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection threshold at 50%, 80% and 99% probability required a median of 8 (range: 4-19), 18 (9-43), and 38 (17-97) of new COVID-19 cases /100,000, respectively. Namely, the positive detection rate at 50%, 80% and 99% probability were 0.01%, 0.02%, and 0.04% averagely for new cases in the population. This study improves understanding of the performance of WBE SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection using the large datasets and prolonged study period. Estimated COVID-19 burden at a community level that would result in a positive detection of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater is critical to support WBE application as a supplementary warning/monitoring system for COVID-19 prevention and control.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Águas Residuárias/análise , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/análise , Alberta/epidemiologia
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130155, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257108

RESUMO

The ferrite process has been developed to purify wastewater containing heavy metal ions and recycle valuable metals by forming chromium ferrite. However, organic matter has an important influence on the crystallization behavior and stability of chromite synthesized from chromium-containing wastewater. We focused on the influence and effect mechanism of two typical organic acid salts (citrate (CA) and tartrate (TA)) on the process of chromium mineralization. It was found that the presence of organic matter leads to the increase of the residual content of Cr in CA system (0.50 mmol/L) and TA system (0.61 mmol/L) in the solution, and the removal of chromium was mainly due to the surface adsorption of Fe(III) hydrolysate. The decreased crystallinity of mineralized products is ascribed to the completion of organic compounds with Fe(II) and Fe(III), which hinders the formation of ferrite precursors. There was bidentate and monodentate chelation between -COO- and metal ions in the CA system and TA system respectively, which resulted in a stronger affinity between CA and iron. This study provides the underlying mechanism for Cr(III) solid oxidation by the ferrite method in an organic matter environment and is of great significance to prevent and control chromium pollution in the environment.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos , Tartaratos , Compostos Férricos/química , Águas Residuárias , Cristalização , Ácido Cítrico , Cromo/química , Metais , Compostos Orgânicos , Íons
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130166, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265375

RESUMO

Herein, inspired by desert beetles, we fabricated a multifunctional heterogeneous superwettable coating (MHSC) for water collection and oily wastewater cleanup. The selective modifications of 1-octadecanethiol (ODT) treated CoO and P25 TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared, so hydrophobic CoO NPs and superhydrophilic P25 NPs were combined on the MHSC, showing the water contact angle (WCA) of 156.5° and rolling-off angle (RA) of 6.4°. With the aid of waterborne polyurethane (WPU), five kinds of substrates (i.e., glass slide, dish, wood, fabric, sponge) spray-coated by MHSC displayed high-efficiency water collection rates (WCRs) of 18.1 ± 0.7 mg min-1 cm-2. Moreover, MHSC coated fabric manifested robust oil/water separations with separation efficiencies (SEs) > 99.7 % and fluxes ranged from 9.7 to 11.0 L m-2 s-1. Efficient oil sorption from oily water was obtained by MHSC coated sponge with oil absorption capacities (OACs) of 6.5-29.5 g g-1. Further, even dealt with the treatments of mechanical destructions, extreme temperature and UV illumination, the coated materials remained stable performances.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Purificação da Água , Óleos/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Nanopartículas/química
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130148, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265377

RESUMO

Biochar has been increasingly applied in constructed wetlands (CWs) to remediate heavy metal (HM)-polluted water. Nevertheless, only few studies have elucidated the enhanced mechanism and potential synergies related to the HM removal from biochar-based CWs (BC-CWs) for HMs removal. This study used cadmium (Cd) as the target HM and added biochar into CWs to monitor physicochemical parameters, plant' physiological responses, substrate accumulation, and microbial metabolites and taxa. In comparison with the biochar-free CW (as CWC), a maximum Cd2+ removal of 99.7% was achieved in the BC-CWs, associated with stable physicochemical parameters. Biochar preferentially adsorbed the available Cd2+ and significantly accumulated Fe/Mn oxides-bond and the exchangeable Cd fraction. Moreover, biochar alleviated the lipid peroxidation (decreased by 36.4%) of plants, resulting in improved growth. In addition, extracellular polymeric substances were increased by 376.9-396.8 mg/L in BC-CWs than compared to CWC, and N and C cycling was enhanced through interspecific positive connectivity. In summary, this study explored comprehensively the performance and mechanism of BC-CWs in the treatment of Cd2+-polluted water, suggesting a promising approach to promote the plant-microbe-substrate synergies under HM toxicity.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Áreas Alagadas , Cádmio , Carvão Vegetal/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Água , Águas Residuárias , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130180, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272368

RESUMO

Hot flue gas evaporation technology is an effective strategy for zero liquid discharge of desulfurization wastewater. However, there is a potential risk that heavy metals such as Hg may be released from the wastewater during evaporation, disrupting the original balance of the power plant or even exceeding the Hg emission standard. Wastewater evaporation and Hg release behavior were obtained using a single droplet drying system. At an evaporation temperature of 300 °C, approximately 18.5% of Hg was released in the constant wet-bulb temperature period, and the remaining was released in the following evaporation periods. Furthermore, a fixed-bed experiment, in combination with density functional theory calculations, was used to investigate the possible migration mechanisms of released Hg. The results revealed that high HCl concentration, introduced fly ash, and precipitated evaporation products play a crucial role in the fate of Hg, and 85.3% of Hg finally turned into less harmful particulate-bound Hg. This study provides a new and effective strategy for evaluating the migration process of pollutants in wastewater treatment. Moreover, it will serve as an essential reference for advanced wastewater treatment and heavy metals control technologies in the future.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Mercúrio , Águas Residuárias , Mercúrio/análise , Centrais Elétricas , Carvão Mineral , Modelos Teóricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130147, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283217

RESUMO

Hypertension is the most common chronic non-infectious disease and a severe problem for public health in China. There were 244.5 million people aged over 18 years in China who had hypertension in 2015, and hypertension-related death accounted for more than 25 % of all causes of death in China every year. To monitor the hypertension prevalence in near real-time, a wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) approach by using metoprolol acid as a biomarker was conducted in 164 cities in China. LC-MS/MS was utilized to quantify metoprolol acid in sewage, and satisfactory method validation results were achieved. The average concentration of metoprolol acid in sewage was 943.1 ± 671.1 ng/L, and the back-calculated consumption of metoprolol based on metoprolol acid was 932.0 ± 390.5 mg/day/1000inh on average, ranging from 76.7 to 3275.7 mg/day/1000inh. The prevalence of metoprolol was estimated to be 0.83 % ± 0.35 %, and the estimated hypertension prevalence in the population aged over 15 years was ultimately assessed to be 28.56 % ± 10.44 % ranging from 14.28 % to 44.28 % and was consistent with the China Hypertension Survey result of 27.9 %. This research demonstrated that estimating hypertension prevalence by WBE with metoprolol acid as a biomarker is feasible in Chinese cities.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Cidades/epidemiologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Esgotos , Prevalência , Metoprolol , Águas Residuárias/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , China/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130213, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283219

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical compounds in aquatic environments have been considered as emerging contaminants due to their potential risks to living organisms. Microalgae-based technology showed the feasibility of removing pharmaceutical contaminants. This review summarizes the occurrence, classification, possible emission sources, and environmental risk of frequently detected pharmaceutical compounds in aqueous environments. The efficiency, mechanisms, and influencing factors for the removal of pharmaceutical compounds through microalgae-based technology are further discussed. Pharmaceutical compounds frequently detected in aqueous environments include antibiotics, hormones, analgesic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cardiovascular agents, central nervous system drugs (CNS), antipsychotics, and antidepressants, with a concentration ranging from ng/L to µg/L. Microalgae-based technology majorly remove the pharmaceutical compounds through bioadsorption, bioaccumulation, biodegradation, photodegradation, and co-metabolism. This review identifies the opportunities and challenges for microalgae-based technology and proposed suggestions for future studies to tackle challenges. The findings of this review advance our understanding of the occurrence and fate of pharmaceutical contaminants in aqueous environments, highlighting the potential of microalgae-based technology for pharmaceutical contaminants removal.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Microalgas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biotecnologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130168, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36302289

RESUMO

Undesired discharge of various effluents directly into the aquatic ecosystem can adversely affect water quality, endangering aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna. Therefore, the conceptual design and fabrication of a sustainable system for alleviating the harmful toxins that are discharged into the atmosphere and water bodies using a green sustainable approach is a fundamental standpoint. Adsorptive removal of toxins (∼99% removal efficacy) is one of the most attractive and facile approaches for cleaner technologies that remediate the environmental impacts and provide a safe operating space. Recently, the introduction of biopolymers for the adsorptive abstraction of toxins from water has received considerable attention due to their eclectic accessibility, biodegradability, biocompatibility, non-toxicity, and enhanced removal efficacy (∼ 80-90% for electrospun fibers). This review summarizes the recent literature on the biosorption of various toxins by biopolymers and the possible interaction between the adsorbent and adsorbate, providing an in-depth perspective of the adsorption mechanism. Most of the observed results are explained in terms of (1) biopolymers classification and application, (2) toxicity of various effluents, (3) biopolymers in wastewater treatment and their removal mechanism, and (4) regeneration, reuse, and biodegradation of the adsorbent biopolymer.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ecossistema , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Biopolímeros , Águas Residuárias
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158527, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096221

RESUMO

Microbial electrodialysis cells (MEDCs) offer simultaneous wastewater treatment, water desalination, and hydrogen production. In a conventional design of MEDCs, the overall performance is retarded by the accumulation of protons on the anode due to the integration of an anion exchange membrane (AEM). The accumulation of protons reduces the anolyte pH to become acidic, affecting the microbial viability and thus limiting the charge carrier needed for the cathodic reaction. This study has modified the conventional MEDC with an internal proton migration pathway, known as the internal proton migration pathway-MEDC (IP-MEDC). Simulation tests under abiotic conditions demonstrated that the pH changes in the anolyte and catholyte of IP-MEDC were smaller than the pH changes in the anolyte and catholyte without the proton pathways. Under biotic conditions, the performance of the IP-MEDC agreed well with the simulation test, showing a significantly higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate, desalination rate, and hydrogen production than without the migration pathway. This result is supported by the lowest charge transfer resistance shown by EIS analysis and the abundance of microbes on the bioanode through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) observation. However, hydrogen production was diminished in the second-fed batch cycle, presumably due to the active diffusion of high Cl¯ concentrations from desalination to the anode chamber, which was detrimental to microbial growth. Enlarging the anode volume by threefold improved the COD removal rate and hydrogen production rate by 1.7- and 3.4-fold, respectively, owing to the dilution effect of Cl¯ in the anode. This implied that the dilution effect satisfies both the microbial viability and conductivity. This study also suggests that the anolyte and catholyte replacement frequencies can be reduced, typically at a prolonged hydraulic retention time, thus minimizing the operating cost (e.g., solution pumping). The use of a high concentration of NaCl (35 g L-1) in the desalination chamber and catholyte provides a condition that is close to practicality.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Purificação da Água , Prótons , Salinidade , Eletrodos , Águas Residuárias
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158696, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108833

RESUMO

Thin stillage, rich in glucose and lactate, can seriously pollute water resources when directly discharged into the natural environment. Microbial fuel cells (MFC), as a green and sustainable technology, could utilize exoelectrogens to break down organics in wastewater and harvest electricity. Nevertheless, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, cannot utilize thin stillage for efficient power generation. Here, to enable S. oneidensis to co-utilize glucose and lactate from thin stillage, an engineered S. oneidensis G7∆RSL1 was first created by constructing glucose metabolism pathway, promoting glucose and lactate co-utilization, and enhancing biofilm formation. Then, to enhance biofilm conductivity, we constructed a 3D self-assembled G7∆RSL1-rGO/CNT biohybrid with maximum power density of 560.4 mW m-2 and 373.7 mW m-2 in artificial and actual thin stillage, respectively, the highest among the reported genetically engineered S. oneidensis with thin stillage as carbon source. This study provides a new strategy to facilitate practical applications of MFC in wastewater remediation and efficient power recovery.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Shewanella , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias , Shewanella/metabolismo , Eletricidade
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158816, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115407

RESUMO

This study aims to develop a cheap method for the evaluation of quality of water or the assessment of the treatment of water by chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements throughout the use of the HSV color model in digital devices. A free application installed on a smartphone was used for analyzing the images in which the colors were acquired before to be quantified. The proposed method was also validated by the standard and spectrophotometric methods, demonstrating that no significant statistical differences were attained (average accuracy of 97 %). With these results, the utilization of this smartphone-based method for COD analysis was used/evaluated, for first time, by treating electrochemically a real water matrix with substantial organic and salts content using BDD and Pt/Ti anodes. Aiming to understand the performance of both anodes, bulk experiments were performed under real pH by applying current densities (j) of 15, 30, and 60 mA cm-2. COD abatement results (which were achieved with this novel smart water security solution) clearly showed that different organic matter removal efficiencies were achieved, depending on the electrocatalytic material used as well as the applied current density (42 %, 45 %, and 85 % for Ti/Pt while 93 %, 97 % and total degradation for BDD by applying 15, 30, and 60 mA cm-2, respectively). However, when the persulfate-mediated oxidation approach was used, with the addition of 2 or 4 g Na2SO4 L-1, COD removal efficiencies were enhanced, obtaining total degradation with 4 g Na2SO4 L-1 and by applying 15 mA cm-2. Finally, this smartphone imaging-based method provides a simple and rapid method for the evaluation of COD during the use of electrochemical remediation technology, developing and decentralizing analytics technologies for smart water solutions which play a key role in achieving the Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG6).


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Águas Residuárias/química , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Smartphone , Análise Custo-Benefício , Eletrodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Oxirredução , Água
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158857, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126711

RESUMO

Biofilms serve to house diverse microbial communities, which are responsible for the majority of wastewater constituent degradation and transformation in treatment wetlands (TWs). TW biofilm has been generally conceptualized as a relatively uniform film covering available surfaces. However, no studies attaining direct visual 3D representations of biofilm morphology have been conducted. This study focuses on imaging the morphology of detached, gravel-associated, and rhizospheric (Phalaris arundinacea) biofilms from subsurface TW mesocosms. Images obtained through both traditional light microscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy (E-SEM) and Wet-SEM revealed that TW biofilms are structurally heterogeneous ranging from corrugated films to clusters of aggregates. Features such as water channels and pores were observed suggesting that pollutant transport inside biofilms is complex, and that the interfacial surface area between water and biofilm is much larger than previously understood. Biofilm thickness generally ranged between 170 and 240 µm, with internal biofilm porosities estimated as 34 ± 10 %, reaching a maximum of 50 %. Internal biofilm matrix pore diameters ranged from 1 to 205.2 µm, with a distribution that favored pores and channels smaller than 10 µm, and a mean equivalent spherical diameter of 8.6 µm. Based on the large variation in pore and channel sizes it is expected that a variety of flow regimes and therefore pollutant dynamics are likely to occur inside TW biofilm matrices. Based on the visual evidence and analysis, a new conceptual model was created to reflect the microscale TW biofilm dynamics and morphology. This new conceptual model will serve to inform future biokinetic modelling, microscale hydrology, microbial community assessment, and pollutant treatment studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Áreas Alagadas , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Águas Residuárias , Biofilmes
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158982, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155033

RESUMO

With rapid economic development, an increasing number of people suffer from mental health diseases, which are gradually receiving the attention of society. However, basic data from surveys of mental disorders are limited. Composite influent samples were collected from 26 wastewater treatment plants in 23 major cities in China. The concentrations of the psychoactive drugs diphenhydramine, fluoxetine, doxepin, imipramine, sulpiride, zolpidem, carbamazepine, and flunitrazepam in the wastewater were determined. The detection frequency of diphenhydramine, sulpiride, and carbamazepine was close to 100 %, whereas that of the compounds was lower than 35 %. Carbamazepine had the highest mean consumption (31.1 mg/d/1000 people), followed by diphenhydramine (10.4 mg/d/1000 people) and sulpiride (11.3 mg/d/1000 people). Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) estimates of the average use of the three drugs were lower than those from the drug statistics data. Consumption of diphenhydramine in northern China was higher than that in southern China. A correlation analysis of psychotropic and illicit drugs revealed a correlation between sulpiride and heroin use, which may be related to the adverse effects of sulpiride treatment after heroin withdrawal. Psychotropic drug use is associated with both economic and social factors. We found associations between the use of the three drugs and age, occupation, and obesity, which are risk factors for mental disorders. The results showed that the monitoring of psychotropic drug using WBE has a certain reference value for public health care and for improving the understanding of mental disorders.


Assuntos
Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Cidades , Heroína/análise , Sulpirida/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , Psicotrópicos/análise , China/epidemiologia , Carbamazepina/análise , Difenidramina/análise
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158951, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155035

RESUMO

Biological filtration has been widely used in wastewater treatment around the world, yet achieving satisfactory removal of pollutants remains a challenge due to the complexity of water pollution. In order to reveal the hotspots and trends of biological filtration from the perspective of research innovation, 5454 SCI papers and 14,287 patents collected from the Web of Science Core Collection and Derwent Innovation Index database were analyzed by visualization techniques. The results showed that China ranked first in the number of both papers and patents, while the USA and Japan contributed significantly in papers and patents, respectively. Co-occurrence analysis obtained the mapping knowledge domains and demonstrated distinct associations between contaminants ("nitrogen", "pharmaceuticals", "personal care products"), chemicals ("carbon", "activated carbon", "media"), process ("biodegradation", "adsorption" or "ozonation") and characteristics ("kinetics", "performance", "diversity"). Moreover, this review summarized the recent advances of biological filtration media, microorganism and combined process being applied. It was concluded that environmentally friendly biological filtration ("phytoremedi", "microalga", "recirculating aquaculture system"), bio-enhanced biological filtration ("bioaugment", "fungi", "low augment") and emerging pollutants ("emerging contamin", "antibiotic resistance gen", "organic micropollut", "trace organic chem") were the hotspots through data-driven analyses. Technology evolution path of biological filtration generally indicated the transition from conventional biological filtration for nitrogen and phosphorus removal to Fenton-biofiltration combined technology and finally to ozone-biological filtration. Furthermore, the technical innovation direction of the collaborative control of multi-media pollution, the low-carbon biological filtration and short-process technology was prospected. This work can serve as a quick reference for early-career researchers and industries working in the area of biological filtration.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Filtração/métodos , Ozônio/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Águas Residuárias/química
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158870, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155048

RESUMO

Hydrometallurgical processing of electronic waste produces copper (Cu)-containing wastewater. Recycling of Cu is thus crucial, as it reduces the Cu impact on the environment, and increases Cu sustainability in industry. Vacuum distillation provides excellent performance in both metals removal from aqueous solution, metal recovery, and metal impregnation to porous material. Thus, this work aimed to both utilize a vacuum distillation to remove heavy metals (Cu, Na, Ni, Zn and Fe) and recover copper nitrate hydroxide (Cu2NO3(OH)3) from Cu-containing wastewater in industrial applications (e.g., mordant agent in dyeing and pigment for glass), as well as prepare copper sulfide (CuS) impregnated activated carbon for mercury (Hg0) adsorption. The experimental results indicated a vacuum distillation metals removal efficiency of over 99.99 % at 60 °C and -72 cm Hg. Additionally, the copper nitrate hydroxide (Cu2NO3(OH)3) crystalline solid derived from the vacuum distillation process achieved 77 % purity, and the copper sulfide impregnated activated carbon (CuSAC) adsorbents were prepared by adding activated carbon (AC) during the vacuum distillation process. In adsorption tests, 50 % CuSAC exhibited the greatest gaseous mercury (Hg0) adsorption performance, and it was noted that a high adsorption temperature of 175 °C negatively impacted Hg0 adsorption of 50 % CuSAC due to mercury sulfide (HgS) decomposition. Furthermore, in a simulated flue gas (SFG) environment, Hg0 capture by CuSAC was shown to be slightly obstructed. In addition, mercury temperature-programmed desorption (Hg-TPD) identified that HgS was the dominant species among adsorbed Hg species of Hg-laden 50 % CuSAC, indicating that Hg0 capture of CuSAC was mainly facilitated by sulfur active sites. As such, the vacuum distillation technique proved to efficiently remove metals and leads to successful preparation of adsorbent for Hg. Therefore, the process is an effective treatment method for Cu-containing wastewater, and can be practically applied to capture or recycle Cu in the industry in the future.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Mercúrio/análise , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Águas Residuárias , Gases , Cobre , Nitratos , Destilação , Vácuo , Sulfetos , Hidróxidos
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158912, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162577

RESUMO

Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) has been existing problems such as poor applicability to real wastewater and lack of cost-effective electrode materials in the practical application of refractory wastewater. A hydrolysis-acidification combined MEC system (HAR-MECs) with four inexpensive stainless-steel and conventional carbon cloth cathodes for the treatment of real textile-dyeing wastewater, which was fully evaluated the technical feasibility in terms of parameter optimization, spectral analysis, succession and cooperative/competition effect of microbial. Results showed that the optimum performance was achieved with a 12 h hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an applied voltage of 0.7 V in the HAR-MEC system with a 100 µm aperture stainless-steel mesh cathode (SSM-100 µm), and the associated optimum BOD5/COD improvement efficiency (74.75 ± 4.32 %) and current density (5.94 ± 0.03 A·m-2) were increased by 30.36 % and 22.36 % compared to a conventional carbon cloth cathode. The optimal system had effective removal of refractory organics and produced small molecules by electrical stimulation. The HAR segment could greatly alleviate the imbalance between electron donors and electron acceptors in the real refractory wastewater and reduce the treatment difficulty of the MEC segment, while the MEC system improved wastewater biodegradability, amplified the positive and specific interactions between degraders, fermenters and electroactive bacteria due to the substrate complexity. The SSM-100 µm-based system constructed by phylogenetic molecular ecological network (pMEN) exhibited moderate complexity and significantly strong positive correlation between electroactive bacteria and fermenters. It is highly feasible to use HAR-MEC with inexpensive stainless-steel cathode for textile-dyeing wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Purificação da Água , Águas Residuárias/química , Aço Inoxidável , Hidrólise , Filogenia , Eletrólise/métodos , Eletrodos , Carbono/química , Bactérias , Têxteis , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 158848, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122718

RESUMO

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been extensively studied as a biosensor for determining biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The method for quantifying BOD by employing coulombic yield (Q) of a bio-electrochemical degradation process obtained from MFC biosensors is referred to as BODQ. The physical structures of anode materials greatly affect the sensitivity and accuracy of the biosensor. In this work, the effects of carbon cloth (CC) and carbon felt (CF) as anode substrate materials on the BODQ determination efficiencies were studied. The CF-MFC biosensor showed higher BODQ response than that of the CC-MFC within 25-400 mg L-1 BOD concentration range, and the test value was very close to the theoretical BOD. The difference is resulting from higher coulombic efficiency (CE) of CF-MFC (64.89-65.38 %) than CC-MFC (55.58-63.51 %). It should be noted that for water samples with low BOD concentrations the physical structures of anode materials play a leading role in CE. For synthetic wastewaters with 25 mg L-1 BOD, the CE of CF-MFC (65.38 %) was 17.63 % higher than that of CC-MFC (55.58 %). In contrast to the densely woven CC coated with thick biofilm, CF with loose carbon fiber and thin biofilm makes it good for organic diffusion and electron transportation, thus contributing to higher and more stable CE. These results indicate that the CF-MFC is more suitable for determining BODQ values over a wide concentration range. This work provides a useful strategy for selecting desirable MFC's anode material as the BOD biosensor. MFC biosensors with high-porosity biological anodes can obtain more accurate BOD test values.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Carbono , Eletrodos , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 158844, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126716

RESUMO

Progesterone (P4) and norgestrel (NGT) are two steroid progestogens that can pose adverse effects on aquatic organisms at ng/L levels. Despite increasing concern on their occurrence and removal in wastewater, their fate in the wastewater treatment process has not been well documented. This study identified the transformation products (TPs) of P4 and NGT in anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A/A/O) process. Potential functional genes involved in biotransformation of P4 and NGT were explored. The elimination or formation behavior of P4, NGT and convinced TPs along various units of A/A/O process was revealed through the mass flow. Results showed that 12 and 13 TPs were identified in the P4 and NGT groups respectively, wherein 10 identical TPs and C-19 structures transformation pathways were observed in both groups. Six genes were found that may be involved in dehydrogenation and isomerization reactions in the pathways. Mass flow indicated that P4 and NGT were mainly eliminated in anaerobic and anoxic units, while convinced TPs mainly formed in anaerobic and anoxic units and were then eliminated in aerobic unit. Further, the ecological risks of the effluent should not be ignored as residual compounds including P4 or NGT and their TPs in the effluent still posed adverse effects on zebrafish transcript levels.


Assuntos
Norgestrel , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Progesterona/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Biotransformação , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos
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