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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257314, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355908

RESUMO

Abstract Melon production in the Brazilian semi-arid region is subject to the use of marginal waters with high salinity. However, the use of regulators and bioactivators in seed treatment can mitigate the harmful effects of salts in irrigation water. In this context, the objective was to evaluate the effect of pre-germination treatments with plant regulators and bioactivator in melon seeds for the production of seedlings irrigated with biosaline water from fish farming effluent. For this, two trials with the Goldex and Grand Prix hybrids were carried out separately. A completely randomized design was used in a 4 × 3 factorial scheme (pre-germination treatments × water dilutions). In addition to the control, the seeds were treated with salicylic and gibberellic acids and thiamethoxam. The waters used for irrigation were local-supply water, fish farming effluent (biosaline water) and these diluted to 50%. Physiological and biochemical analyses were performed for fourteen days. Biosaline water (5.0 dS m-1) did not affect the emergence of Goldex melon seedlings, but compromised the establishment of the Grand Prix cultivar. Seed pre-treatments with salicylic and gibberellic acids attenuate the effects of water salinity and promote growth modulations, resulting in more vigorous melon seedlings.


Resumo A produção de meloeiro no semiárido brasileiro está sujeita a utilização de águas marginais com salinidade elevada. Entretanto, a utilização de reguladores e bioativadores no tratamento de sementes podem mitigar os efeitos nocivos dos sais na água de irrigação. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de tratamentos pré-germinativos com fitorreguladores e bioativador em sementes de melão para a produção de mudas irrigadas com água biossalina de efluente de piscicultura. Para isso, dois ensaios com os híbridos Goldex e Grand Prix foram realizados separadamente. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 × 3 (tratamentos pré-germinativos × diluições de água). Além do controle, as sementes foram tratadas com os ácidos salicílico e giberélico, e tiametoxam. As águas utilizadas para irrigação foram a de abastecimento local, efluente de piscicultura (água biossalina) e estas diluídas a 50%. Durante quatorze dias foram realizadas as análises fisiológicas e bioquímicas. A água biossalina (5,0 dS m-1) não afetou a emergência de plântulas de meloeiro Goldex, mas prejudicou o estabelecimento da cultivar Grand Prix. Os pré-tratamentos de sementes com os ácidos salicílico e giberélico atenuam os efeitos da salinidade da água e promovem modulações no crescimento, proporcionando mudas de meloeiro mais vigorosas.


Assuntos
Germinação , Cucurbitaceae , Sementes , Água , Plântula
2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 14(3): 723-729, 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36648391

RESUMO

Traditional theories of long-range protein electron transfer describe the reaction rate in terms of the tunneling distance and the reaction free energy. They do not recognize two physical effects: (i) local wetting of the active site by hydration water and (ii) protein identity affecting the rate through dynamics and flexibility. We find, by molecular dynamics simulations, a significant, ∼25 times, slowing down of the rate of protein electron transfer upon deuteration. H/D substitution changes the rate constant pre-exponential factor in the regime of electron transfer controlled by medium dynamics. Switching from light to heavy water increases the effective medium relaxation time. The effect is caused by both a global change in the flexibility of the protein backbone and locally stronger hydrogen bonds to charged residues.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Água , Água/química , Transporte de Elétrons , Proteínas/química , Óxido de Deutério
3.
Biointerphases ; 18(1): 010801, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653299

RESUMO

When polymer chains are grafted to solid surfaces at sufficiently high density, they form brushes that can modify the surface properties. In particular, polymer brushes are increasingly being used to reduce friction in water-lubricated systems close to the very low levels found in natural systems, such as synovial joints. New types of polymer brush are continually being developed to improve with lower friction and adhesion, as well as higher load-bearing capacities. To complement experimental studies, molecular simulations are increasingly being used to help to understand how polymer brushes reduce friction. In this paper, we review how molecular simulations of polymer brush friction have progressed from very simple coarse-grained models toward more detailed models that can capture the effects of brush topology and chemistry as well as electrostatic interactions for polyelectrolyte brushes. We pay particular attention to studies that have attempted to match experimental friction data of polymer brush bilayers to results obtained using molecular simulations. We also critically look at the remaining challenges and key limitations to overcome and propose future modifications that could potentially improve agreement with experimental studies, thus enabling molecular simulations to be used predictively to modify the brush structure for optimal friction reduction.


Assuntos
Polímeros , Água , Polímeros/química , Fricção , Propriedades de Superfície , Água/química , Polieletrólitos
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 18: 225-241, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36660337

RESUMO

Background: Gallium (III) metal-organic complexes have been shown to have the ability to inhibit tumor growth, but the poor water solubility of many of the complexes precludes further application. The use of materials with high biocompatibility as drug delivery carriers for metal-organic complexes to enhance the bioavailability of the drug is a feasible approach. Methods: Here, we modified the ligands of gallium 8-hydroxyquinolinate complex with good clinical anticancer activity by replacing the 8-hydroxyquinoline ligands with 5-bromo-8-hydroxyquinoline (HBrQ), and the resulting Ga(III) + HBrQ complex had poor water solubility. Two biocompatible materials, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and graphene oxide (GO), were used to synthesize the corresponding Ga(III) + HBrQ complex nanoparticles (NPs) BSA/Ga/HBrQ NPs and GO/Ga/HBrQ NPs in different ways to enhance the drug delivery of the metal complex. Results: Both of BSA/Ga/HBrQ NPs and GO/Ga/HBrQ NPs can maintain stable existence in different solution states. In vitro cytotoxicity test showed that two nanomedicines had excellent anti-proliferation effect on HCT116 cells, which shown higher level of intracellular ROS and apoptosis ratio than that of cisplatin and oxaliplatin. In addition, the superior emissive properties of BSA/Ga/HBrQ NPs and GO/Ga/HBrQ NPs allow their use for in vivo imaging showing highly effective therapy in HCT116 tumor-bearing mouse models. Conclusion: The use of biocompatible materials for the preparation of NPs against poorly biocompatible metal-organic complexes to construct drug delivery systems is a promising strategy that can further improve drug delivery and therapeutic efficacy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Portadores de Fármacos , Gálio , Grafite , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Oxiquinolina , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Portadores de Fármacos/síntese química , Gálio/química , Grafite/química , Células HCT116 , Nanopartículas Metálicas/análise , Nanopartículas/análise , Oxiquinolina/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Soroalbumina Bovina/farmacologia , Água , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química
5.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0270945, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662697

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the presence and persistence of antibiotics in wastewater of four typical pharmaceutical manufactories in China and receiving water bodies and suggest the removal of antibiotics by the wastewater treatment process. It also evaluated the environmental impact of antibiotic residues through wastewater discharge into receiving water bodies. The results indicated that thirteen antibiotics were detected in wastewater samples with concentrations ranging from 57.03 to 726.79 ng/L. Fluoroquinolones and macrolides were the most abundant antibiotic classes found in wastewater samples, accounting for 42.5% and 38.7% of total antibiotic concentrations, respectively, followed by sulfonamides (16.4%) and tetracyclines (2.4%). Erythromycin-H2O, lincomycin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were the most frequently detected antibiotics; among these antibiotics, the concentration of ofloxacin was the highest in most wastewater samples. No significant difference was found in different treatment processes used to remove antibiotics in wastewater samples. More than 50% of antibiotics were not completely removed with a removal efficiency of less than 70%. The concentration of detected antibiotics in the receiving water bodies was an order of magnitude lower than that in the wastewater sample due to dilution. An environmental risk assessment showed that lincomycin and ofloxacin could pose a high risk at the concentrations detected in effluents and a medium risk in their receiving water bodies, highlighting a potential hazard to the health of the aquatic ecosystem. Overall, The investigation was aimed to determine and monitor the concentration of selected antibiotics in 4 typical PMFs and their receiving water bodies, and to study the removal of these substances in PMFs. This study will provide significant data and findings for future studies on antibiotics-related pollution control and management in water bodies.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Antibacterianos/análise , Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ofloxacino , Lincomicina , China , Medição de Risco , Água , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36669814

RESUMO

Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an environmental genotoxic factor linked to amphibian decline. Here we assessed the genotoxic risk of UVB and UVA exposure for tadpoles from open ponds in southern Brazil, a mid-latitude region influenced by stratospheric ozone depletion. Daily UV doses were measured on the surface of a pond in Taim Ecological Station (TAIM; 32°49'24''S; 52°38'31''W) on a cloudless summer day to predict the worst-case scenario for UV-induced DNA damage. Pond descriptors were related to the use of microhabitats by Boana pulchella tadpoles in two ponds over the climate seasons of 2013 and 2014. Our results indicate that shaded microhabitats were more frequent than unshaded ones in autumn, winter, and spring but not in summer. Hence, the penetration of UV radiation into the water of unshaded microhabitats was evaluated through laboratory experiments with artificial UV sources and pond water samples. Physical and biological sensors were applied in the experiments to measure the incident UV radiation and its genotoxic action. By integrating field and laboratory data, we demonstrate that low doses of biologically effective UV radiation reached the tadpoles in autumn, winter, spring, and early summer due to a high proportion of shaded microhabitats and a high concentration of solids in unshaded microhabitats. However, the relative reduction of shaded microhabitats jointly with a declining water level in late summer may have exposed tadpoles to high UV doses. Our experiments also indicate that solar UVB radiation, but not UVA, is primarily responsible for the induction of DNA pyrimidine dimers in organisms living under the surface of aquatic ecosystems. The present work highlights the determinant role of wetland descriptors for minimizing the genotoxic potential of UV radiation and its consequences for amphibians.


Assuntos
Raios Ultravioleta , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Brasil , Larva , Ecossistema , Dano ao DNA , Anfíbios , Medição de Risco , Água
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 316, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670262

RESUMO

The present study has been carried out to assess the quality of groundwater and surface water resources of Thettiyar watershed, Kerala, India. Sixty-six water samples were collected during pre-monsoon (April, 2019) and monsoon (July, 2019) season, and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness and major cations and anions and microbiological parameters as well. According to the piper diagram's plot, Ca and Mg dominate over Na among the cations, and Cl is the most prevalent anion in groundwater throughout both the studied seasons. The hydrochemical analysis of water samples revealed that all the parameters are within the permissible limit except for pH. For microbiological analysis, the samples were tested for total coliform and fecal coliform. Most of the groundwater samples collected have higher total coliform and fecal coliform (E. coli) content than the recommended count by BIS (2012). The pre-monsoon surface water samples owned a maximum number of 3700 cfu/100 ml (TNTC-too numerous to count) of total coliform and 1400 cfu/100 ml (TNTC) of fecal coliform. In monsoon, the number of total coliform and fecal coliform has increased to 3800 cfu/100 ml and 1900 cfu/100 ml respectively. E. coli and total coliform are effectively correlated with each other in both seasons, in accordance with the statistical study. Domestic, sewage dump, and other household wastes are the main sources of bacterial contamination in the study area, which in turn nourishes contaminant organisms. According to the results, the government or municipality should implement an appropriate system for managing solid waste and should take all necessary measures to clean up the study area.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Qualidade da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Escherichia coli , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Ânions/análise , Água/análise , Cátions/análise , Índia
8.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 21(1): 24, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy with the second highest mortality and the third highest morbidity worldwide. However, the overall survival of patients is unsatisfactory, thus requiring more effective clinical strategies. Celastrol (CLT), a natural bioactive compound, has been reported to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis to exhibit significant antitumor effects against CRC. However, the poor water solubility, low targeting ability, and bioavailability of CLT have limited its application, and CLT-induced protective autophagy weakens its therapeutic efficiency. RESULTS: We designed a targeted chemo-phototherapy nanoplatform (HCR NPs) to improve the application of CLT. The codelivery of IR820 and CLT in HCR NPs solved the water-soluble problem of CLT and enhanced apoptosis via IR820-mediated hyperthermia. In addition, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) conjugated to hyaluronic acid (HA) not only increased the active targeting of HCR NPs but also inhibited CLT-induced protective autophagy to exacerbate apoptosis, thus achieving an amplified antitumor effect. Importantly, the HCR NPs exhibited an excellent therapeutic effect on CRC both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: The HCR NPs presented in this study may not merely provide a new reference for the clinical application of CLT but also result in an attractive strategy for CRC treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Hipertermia Induzida , Nanopartículas , Humanos , Terapia Fototérmica , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Fototerapia , Apoptose , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Água , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
9.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(1)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671965

RESUMO

In this study, a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) based on in situ deposition modification was developed for the sensitive, rapid, easy and convenient determination of As(III) in water and tea by linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry (LSASV). The screen-printed carbon electrodes were placed in a solution consisting of As(III) solution, chlorauric acid and L-cysteine. Under certain electrical potential, the chloroauric acid was reduced to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the SPCE. L-cysteine was self-assembled onto AuNPs and promoted the enrichment of As(III), thus enhancing the determination specificity and sensitivity of As(III). The method achieved a limit of determination (LOD) of 0.91 ppb (µg L-1), a linear range of 1~200 µg L-1, an inter-assay coefficient of variation of 5.3% and good specificity. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of As(III) in tap water and tea samples, with a recovery rate of 93.8%~105.4%, and further validated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The developed method is rapid, convenient and accurate, holding great promise in the on-site determination of As(III) in tap water and tea leaves, and it can be extended to the detection of other samples.


Assuntos
Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Ouro/química , Carbono/química , Cisteína , Água , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Eletrodos , Chá
10.
Physiol Rep ; 11(1): e15496, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602098

RESUMO

Treating chronic hyponatremia by continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is challenging because the gradient between a replacement fluid's [sodium] and a patient's serum sodium can be steep, risking too rapid of a correction rate with possible consequences. Besides CRRT, other gains and losses of sodium- and potassium-containing solutions, like intravenous fluid and urine output, affect the correction of serum sodium over time, known as osmotherapy. The way these fluids interact and contribute to the sodium/potassium/water balance can be parsed as a mixing problem. As Na/K/H2 O are added, mixed in the body, and drained via CRRT, the net balance of solutes must be related to the change in serum sodium, expressible as a differential equation. Its solution has many variables, one of which is the sodium correction rate, but all variables can be evaluated by a root-finding technique. The mixing paradigm is proved to replicate the established equations of osmotherapy, as in the special case of a steady volume. The flexibility to solve for any variable broadens our treatment options. If the pre-filter replacement fluid cannot be diluted, then we can compensate by calculating the CRRT blood flow rate needed. Or we can deduce the infusion rate of dextrose 5% water, post-filter, to appropriately slow the rise in serum sodium. In conclusion, the mixing model is a generalizable and practical tool to analyze patient scenarios of greater complexity than before, to help doctors customize a CRRT prescription to safely and effectively reach the serum sodium target.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Terapia de Substituição Renal Contínua , Hiponatremia , Humanos , Hiponatremia/terapia , Sódio , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Água , Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia
12.
Talanta ; 255: 124237, 2023 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587426

RESUMO

An efficient and superior soft ionization approach for direct mass spectrometry analysis of a variety of samples such as aqueous solution, raw biological sample and proteins, was developed based on commercially available piezoelectric atomizers. A single conical orifice (5 µm in diameter) was created on the atomizer, which resulted in generation of uniform fine droplets and long-duration of MS signal. The two electrodes of piezoelectric atomizer were connected to the two sides of ceramic ring which was insulated from the metallic substrate. The unique design allowed an additional high voltage input towards the spray reagents, which facilitated direct analysis of more complex samples without sample pre-treatment, such as biological samples (tomato tissue). The ionization was driven by an extremely low electrical power (3.5 V rechargeable battery) yet providing an efficient and superior soft ionization. The method displayed a better thermal and pH stability than nano electrospray ionization (nanoESI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) on direct analysis of Vitamin B and protein aqueous solutions. Quantitative analysis of Vitamin B and Rhodamine B aqueous solutions was also investigated, showing a good linearity (R2 > 0.99). In addition, our results suggested that compared with ESI and nanoESI, the method not only could be used for direct analysis of intact protein, but also provide more information concerning the association between intact protein and the subunits.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Ultrassom , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Proteínas/química , Água , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Vitaminas/análise
13.
Food Chem ; 409: 135337, 2023 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587514

RESUMO

This work investigated the effects of oil-modified crosslinked starch (Oil-CTS) as a fat replacer on the gel properties, water distribution, microstructures, and fatty acid composition of pork meat batter. Results showed that the replacement of pork back fat by Oil-CTS could improve the gel performance in terms of rheological property, texture, and water-holding capacity (WHC), and reduce the water mobility of pork meat gels, which caused by the formation of a more ordered and denser protein network structure. Additionally, when the fat was replaced by Oil-CTS partially or totally (25-100 %), the total fat content in pork meat gels decreased by 16.5-82 % and the saturated fatty acids (SFAs) content decreased from 5.87 g/100 g in untreated sample to 1.17-4.88 g/100 g in starch-replacing-fat samples, indicating Oil-CTS could be used as a fat replacer to prepare the low-fat meat products.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Suínos , Amido , Água/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Ácidos Graxos , Géis
14.
Food Chem ; 409: 135301, 2023 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587516

RESUMO

Preservative is of importance to retard fruit deterioration and prolong the shelf-life. The suitability of using water-soluble polysaccharide extracted from waste macroalgae Enteromorpha prolifera (EPP) for cherry tomato preservation was evaluated. As compared with the control, the EPP-treated cherry tomatoes exhibited better fruit appearance, lower disease index and rot index during storage. Around 47 % EPP-treated cherry tomatoes were commercially acceptable after 36 days, which was however only 15.6 % for untreated cherry tomatoes, indicating the satisfactory preservation effectiveness of EPP-rich solution for cherry tomatoes. The post-extraction residue was commonly underutilized, we herein attempted to employ an emerging thermochemical conversion technique, hydrothermal liquefaction, to produce crude bio-oil (biocrude) from post-extraction E. prolifera. A biocrude yield of ∼23 wt% (dry-ash-free, daf) was obtained, and fatty acids and phenolics were identified to be the two main components in biocrude. The biocrude contained ∼70 % carbon and the higher heating value was ∼30 MJ/kg.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Alga Marinha , Ulva , Biocombustíveis , Água , Temperatura
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1689: 463715, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587587

RESUMO

In this work, different polybutylene succinate/modified cellulose bio-nanocomposites were synthesized by solving the casting method and then used as a new sorbent for needle trap microextraction of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the water samples in headspace mode. The surface of cellulose nanocrystalline was modified using aminosilane groups to improve the dispersion of nanoparticles in the polybutylene succinate matrix. The characterization of synthesized nanocomposites, were performed using TGA, SEM, BET analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. Adding modified nanocrystalline cellulose to a polybutylene succinate matrix increased the surface area, and thermal and mechanical stabilities. The significant parameters of the sorbent extraction process, including the amount of modified cellulose nanoparticles, the extraction time, and temperatures and salt content, were studied and optimized. Under the optimized extraction conditions (extraction time of 25 min, and extraction temperature of 50 °C), an analytical method for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with low detection limits (0.75-1 ng L-1) and the quantification limit (3-5 ng L-1), good repeatability (3-7% at 20 ng L-1), and reproducibility (9%-14%, n = 3) was developed. The linearity of the method was obtained in the range of 5-1000 ng L-1 with R2 > 0.9996. The enrichment factor was obtained for the spiked real aqueous samples (at 50 ng L-1) in the range of 276-311. Also, the performance of the developed method was studied via the extraction of selected analytes in real water samples, and the relative recovery values were found to be in the range of 98-103%.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Água/química , Celulose , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos
16.
Food Chem ; 409: 135333, 2023 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592605

RESUMO

Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis was utilized to determine the key proteins that affect texture properties of sea cucumber body wall (SCBW) with different boiling heating treatment. 862, 363, 315, and 258 proteins were confirmed in water-soluble fractions from fresh group, 0.5 h-, 2 h- and 4 h-heat treatment group, respectively. During boiling heating treatment, proteins with an increased abundance in water-soluble fraction primarily belong to structural proteins, such as collagens, microfibril-associated proteins, glycoproteins, and muscle proteins. It was speculated that the degradation of these structural proteins caused the progressive disintegration of network skeleton of collagen fibres and FMs as well as the gelatinization, thus resulted in the decrease of hardness and shear force. Besides, the degradation of FMs was occurred layer by layer during boiling heating treatment, and the fibrilin-1 outer layer degraded first, followed by the fibrilin-2 core component.


Assuntos
Pepinos-do-Mar , Animais , Pepinos-do-Mar/química , Proteoma/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Proteômica , Calefação
17.
Chemosphere ; 315: 137706, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592836

RESUMO

Current health and environmental concerns about the abundance and drawbacks of municipal wastewater as well as industrial effluent have prompted the development of novel and innovative treatment processes. A global shortage of clean water poses significant challenges to the survival of all life forms. For the removal of both biodegradable and non-biodegradable harmful wastes/pollutants from water, sophisticated wastewater treatment technologies are required. Polymer membrane technology is critical to overcoming this major challenge. Polymer matrix-based nanocomposite membranes are among the most popular in polymer membrane technology in terms of convenience. These membranes and their major components are environmentally friendly, energy efficient, cost effective, operationally versatile, and feasible. This review provides an overview of the drawbacks as well as promising developments in polymer membrane and nanocomposite membranes for environmental remediation, with a focus on wastewater treatment. Additionally, the advantages of nanocomposite membranes such as stability, antimicrobial properties, and adsorption processes have been discussed. The goal of this review was to summarize the remediation of harmful pollutants from water and wastewater/effluent using polymer matrix-based nanocomposite membrane technology, and to highlight its shortcomings and future prospects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Nanocompostos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Água , Polímeros
18.
Environ Pollut ; 319: 120983, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596379

RESUMO

Plastics have been proposed as vectors of bacteria as they act as a substrate for biofilms. In this study, we evaluated the abundance of faecal and marine bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) from biofilms adhered to marine plastics. Floating plastics and plastics from sediments were collected in coastal areas impacted by human faecal pollution in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Culture and/or molecular methods were used to quantify faecal indicators (E. coli, Enterococci and crAssphage), and the ARGs sulI, tetW and blaTEM and the 16S rRNA were detected by qPCR assays. Pseudomonas and Vibrio species and heterotrophic marine bacteria were also analysed via culture-based methods. Results showed that, plastic particles covered by bacterial biofilms, primarily consisted of marine bacteria including Vibrio spp. Some floating plastics had a low concentration of viable E. coli and Enterococci (42% and 67% of the plastics respectively). Considering the median area of the plastics, we detected an average of 68 cfu E. coli per item, while a higher concentration of E. coli was detected on individual plastic items, when compared with 100 ml of the surrounding water. Using qPCR, we quantified higher values of faecal indicators which included inactive and dead microorganisms, detecting up to 2.6 × 102 gc mm-2. The ARGs were detected in 67-88% of the floating plastics and in 29-57% of the sediment plastics with a concentration of up to 6.7 × 102 gc mm-2. Furthermore, enrichment of these genes was observed in biofilms compared with the surrounding water. These results show that floating plastics act as a conduit for both the attachment and transport of faecal microorganisms. In contrast, low presence of faecal indicators was detected in plastic from seafloor sediments. Therefore, although in low concentrations, faecal bacteria, and potential pathogens, were identified in marine plastics, further suggesting plastics act as a reservoir of pathogens and ARGs.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Vibrio , Humanos , Escherichia coli/genética , Plásticos , Antibacterianos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Vibrio/genética , Enterococcus/genética , Biofilmes , Água
19.
Food Chem ; 409: 135329, 2023 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599290

RESUMO

This work aimed to establish the relationships between flour components, dough behaviour and changes in water distribution at mixing. TD NMR was used to track water distribution in dough during mixing for different mixing times and hydration levels. Four commercial wheat flours with distinct characteristics were expressly selected to exhibit various dough behaviours at mixing. TD NMR measurements of mixed dough samples revealed four to five water mobility domains depending on the flour type and the mixing modality. A classification tree procedure was used to identify characteristic patterns of water mobility in dough, called hydration states (HS). The HS changes with experimental conditions are highly dependent on flour characteristics, and HS were assigned to physical/chemical changes in the gluten network during dough formation. This study proposes an interpretation of the water distribution in dough based on gluten network development. This will help to adapt the mixing process to the flour characteristics.


Assuntos
Pão , Glutens , Glutens/química , Pão/análise , Triticum/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Fenômenos Químicos , Farinha/análise , Água
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 305: 116121, 2023 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599374

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Currently, there is a remarkable increase in the consumption of microgreens, (young edible vegetables or herbs), as potential nutraceuticals for the management of diseases. Brassica carinata A. Braun is one of the traditional leafy vegetables cultivated in various parts of Sub- Saharan Africa. The plant is revered for its efficacy in the treatment of wounds and gastrointestinal disorders among other medicinal benefits. It is therefore crucial to characterize Brassica carinata microgreens for their phytoconstituents and ascertain their safety for use. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study evaluated the oral acute and subacute toxicity of Brassica carinata microgreens ethanol extract (BMEE) in Wistar rats and identification of its chemical composition and profile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For acute toxicity (14 days), rats were grouped into four and received a single oral dose, the control group received distilled water, while others received 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg of BMEE. For the subacute toxicity (28 days), rats in four groups received daily doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg or 1000 mg/kg and distilled water. Daily clinical observations like lethargy and mortality were conducted. Hematological, biochemical, and histopathological evaluations were performed at the end of each experiment. Phytochemical profile was determined using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer and Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis determined the potential bioactive components in the microgreens extract. RESULTS: In both acute and sub-acute toxicity studies, no mortalities, indications of abnormality, or any treatment related adverse effects were observed at doses of 2000 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 250 mg/kg. The LD50 of BMEE was above 2000 mg/kg. No significant (p > 0.05) changes in the hematological and biochemical parameters of the treated groups compared to the control groups in both studies. Histopathological examination of the liver, kidney, lungs, and heart revealed a normal architecture of the tissues in all the treated animals. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of flavonoids (most abundant), phenols and alkaloids. Phytol, linoleic acid, and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, among other compounds, were identified by GC-MS analysis. CONCLUSION: The results showed that B. carinata microgreens ethanol extract is nontoxic and found to have several compounds with reported pharmacological significance suggesting safety for use.


Assuntos
Brassica , Extratos Vegetais , Ratos , Animais , Ratos Wistar , Extratos Vegetais/química , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Etanol , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Água , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda
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