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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 432, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salicylic acid (SA) is a phytohormone which works to regulate the abiotic stress response of plants. However, the molecular mechanism by which SA mediates heat tolerance in waxy maize (Zea mays L. sinsensis Kulesh) remains unknown. RESULTS: Two varieties of waxy maize seedlings, heat-tolerant 'Yunuo7' (Y7) and heat-sensitive 'Suyunuo5' (S5), were pretreated with SA prior to heat stress (HTS). After treatment, physiological and transcriptomic changes were analyzed. Compared with HTS, the exogenous application of SA enhanced the shoot dry weight, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (e.g., SOD, POD, CAT and APX), and the concentration of endogenous phytohormones (e.g., SA, ABA, IAA, GA3), while decreased the MDA content. Transcriptome analysis showed that the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified in the control (CK) vs HTS and HTS vs HTS + SA comparisons were more in S5 than in Y7. HTS induced the downregulation of genes involved in photosynthesis and the upregulation of genes encoding heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs). Compared with HTS, SA pretreatment reversed the expression of 5 photosynthesis-related genes, 26 phytohormone-related genes, and all genes encoding HSFs and HSPs in S5. Furthermore, the number of alternative splicing (AS) events increased under HTS treatment for both varieties, while decreased under SA pretreatment of S5. Differentially spliced genes (DSGs) showed little overlap with DEGs, and DEGs and DSGs differed significantly in functional enrichment. CONCLUSIONS: Physiological and transcriptional together indicated that HTS and SA pretreatment had a greater effect on S5 than Y7. Additionally, it appears that transcriptional regulation and AS work synergistically to enhance thermotolerance in heat-sensitive waxy maize. Our study revealed the regulatory effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of SA on waxy maize seedling under HTS.


Assuntos
Plântula , Zea mays , Processamento Alternativo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Plântula/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Ceras/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
2.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080133

RESUMO

A method based on dynamic headspace vacuum transfer in trap extraction, followed by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (DHS-VTT-GC-MS), was validated for the fast quantitation of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (p-dichlorobenzene; PDCB) and thymol residues in beeswax. The quantitation limits (LOQ) were 0.05 mg/kg (PDCB) and 0.25 mg/kg (thymol). Recoveries above 80% were obtained for PDCB concentrations between 0.05 and 10 mg/kg and for thymol concentrations between 0.25 and 200 mg/kg. Analysis of beeswax samples showed a good correlation between the results obtained by DHS-VTT-GC-MS analysis and those of a previous method based on SPE extraction followed by gas chromatography and triple- quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) (R2 = 0.9770 for PDCB and 0.9666 for thymol). However, the sample preparation and chromatography were much shorter using the DHS-VTT-GC-MS method. Forty comb foundations samples produced in Switzerland in 2019 and 2021 were analysed using DHS-VTT-GC-MS. Fourteen samples contained PDCB above the LOQ of 0.05 mg/kg, ranging up to a maximum of 1.53 mg/kg. The mean concentration of the positive samples was 0.22 mg/kg. All samples contained thymol residues ranging between 3.9 and 84.4 mg/kg with mean and median concentrations of 22.7 mg/kg and 17.4 mg/kg. Residue levels of PCDB and thymol in Swiss beeswax were substantially below those measured 20 (PDCB) and 10 (thymol) years ago, respectively.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Timol , Clorobenzenos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Timol/análise , Vácuo , Ceras
3.
Carbohydr Polym ; 296: 119935, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088025

RESUMO

Barrier properties against water vapor and oxygen were critical for starch-based nanocomposite film. In this study, size regulation of carnauba wax nanoparticle was utilized to adjust multi-scale structure of starch-based film, which intended to improve barrier properties. CW70 with 73.8 nm nanoparticle showed less disrupted starch hydrogen bonding, more ordered double helices, higher starch crystallinity and larger size of micro-ordered region compared with other nanocomposites. These changes of multi-scale structure of CW70 led to the lowest relative water vapor permeability (WVP, 0.86) and oxygen permeability (OP, 0.49) among all nanocomposites. Notably, water vapor could form new hydrogen bonding with starch, and the ratio of amorphous region was significantly negative correlated with WVP. Cohesive energy density was the determining factor for OP, and significant negative correlation was found between the size of micro-ordered region and OP. New knowledge from this study will advance the understanding of starch-based nanocomposite film barrier properties.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Amido , Nanopartículas/química , Oxigênio/química , Amido/química , Vapor , Ceras
4.
Eur J Dermatol ; 32(3): 433-434, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065558

Assuntos
Dedos do Pé , Ceras , Humanos
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 189: 115-125, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084527

RESUMO

Epidermal waxes are part of the outermost hydrophobic structures of apples and play a significant role in enhancing apple resistance and improving fruit quality. The biosynthetic precursors of epidermal waxes are very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), which are made into different wax components through various wax synthesis pathways. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the AtLACS1 protein can activate the alkane synthesis pathway to produce very long-chain acyl CoAs (VLC-acyl-CoAs), which provide substrates for wax synthesis, from VLCFAs. The apple protein MdLACS1, encoded by the MdLACS1 gene, belongs to the AMP-binding superfamily and has long-chain acyl coenzyme A synthase activity, but its function in apple remains unclear. Here, we identified MdLACS1 in apple (Malus × domestica) and analyzed its function. Our results suggest that MdLACS1 promotes wax synthesis and improves biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, which were directly or indirectly dependent on wax. Our study further refines the molecular mechanism of wax biosynthesis in apples and elucidates the physiological function of wax in resistance to external stresses. These findings provide candidate genes for the synergistic enhancement of apple fruit quality and stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Malus , Acil Coenzima A/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Alcanos/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Epiderme Vegetal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ceras/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142850

RESUMO

In this study, we identified a novel glossy mutant from Chinese cabbage, named SD369, and all wax monomers longer than 26 carbons were significantly decreased. Inheritance analysis revealed that the glossy trait of SD369 was controlled by a single recessive locus, BrWAX3. We fine-mapped the BrWAX3 locus to an interval of 161.82 kb on chromosome A09. According to the annotated genome of Brassica rapa, Bra024749 (BrCER60.A09), encoding a ß-ketoacyl-CoA synthase, was identified as the candidate gene. Expression analysis showed that BrCER60.A09 was significantly downregulated in all aerial organs of glossy plants. Subcellular localization indicated that the BrCER60.A09 protein functions in the endoplasmic reticulum. A 5567-bp insertion was identified in exon 1 of BrCER60.A09 in SD369, which lead to a premature stop codon, thus causing a loss of function of the BrCER60.A09 enzyme. Moreover, comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that the 'cutin, suberine, and wax biosynthesis' pathway was significantly enriched, and genes involved in this pathway were almost upregulated in glossy plants. Further, two functional markers, BrWAX3-InDel and BrWAX3-KASP1, were developed and validated. Overall, these results provide a new information for the cuticular wax biosynthesis and provide applicable markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS)-based breeding of Brassica rapa.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa , Brassica , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , China , Códon sem Sentido/metabolismo , Coenzima A/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Ceras/metabolismo
7.
Plant Sci ; 323: 111405, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914575

RESUMO

In Arabidopsis thaliana, ALDH2C4 encodes coniferaldehyde dehydrogenase, which oxidizes coniferaldehyde to ferulic acid. Drought stress is one of the important abiotic stresses affecting plant growth. However, the role of ferulic acid in drought resistance is unknown. To investigate the contribution of ferulic acid to cuticle composition and drought resistance, we used two Arabidopsis aldh2c4 mutant lines. Compared with wild-type (WT) leaves, ferulic acid contents were significantly lower (by more than 50 %) in mutants. The mutants also had lower amounts of cutin and wax, primarily due to reductions in C18:2 dioic acid and alkanes, respectively. Furthermore, the leaves of the mutant plants exhibited greater rates of water loss and released chlorophyll faster than WT leaves when immersed in 80 % ethanol, indicating a defective cuticle barrier. The growth of aldh2c4 mutants was severely inhibited, and their leaves showed a higher degree of wilting relative to the WT plants under drought conditions. In aldh2c4 complementation lines, the growth inhibition of the mutant plants under drought stress was alleviated. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ferulic acid plays an important role in the composition and structural properties of the cuticle and that a ferulic acid deficiency in the cutin leads to reduced drought tolerance.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Secas , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/metabolismo , Ceras
8.
Food Funct ; 13(17): 8860-8870, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920437

RESUMO

Aerated emulsions have widespread applications in the food industry. However, the poor stability of aerated emulsions remains a major challenge due to their inherent thermodynamic instability. Herein, a novel strategy to improve the foam stability of aerated emulsions using natural waxes was developed. Natural waxes including beeswax (BW), candelilla wax (CLW), carnauba wax (CW) and rice bran wax (RW), the bio-based and sustainable materials, displayed a high efficiency in improving the interfacial behavior, structural properties and foam stabilization of aerated emulsions. Compared with emulsions containing pure palm kernel stearin (PKS), the presence of waxes enhances the elastic modulus (E') of air-liquid interfacial films and the viscosity (η) of the continuous phase. Interestingly, cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) images revealed that the fat droplet shape was controlled by waxes. These were related to that waxes were conducive to the formation of larger and rigid fat crystals in fat droplets and facilitated effective piercing of the interface, promoting the fat coalescence. Waxes promoted the formation of partial coalescence in the plateau borders and the interface of the aerated emulsions, thus improving the foam stability. Furthermore, whipping experiments showed that the addition of 1.0-2.0 wt% waxes resulted in a shorter optimum whipping time and a higher overrun of aerated emulsions. The microstructure images showed that aerated emulsions with waxes displayed more numerous and uniform air bubbles. Finally, rheology experiments strongly supported that waxes strengthened the interface and network structure of aerated emulsions. Our observations revealed the mechanism of interaction between the natural wax-tuned interfacial behavior and the structure of aerated emulsions.


Assuntos
Ceras , Emulsões/química , Reologia , Viscosidade , Ceras/química
9.
Food Chem ; 397: 133742, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940091

RESUMO

Water loss is a key factor for the postharvest senescence of fruit. It has been reported that natural cuticular wax at high concentrations has better performance than commercial coating in water retention of fruit, which can prevent postharvest water loss without the accumulation of off-flavor. Here, we analyzed the correlation between epicuticular wax and postharvest water loss with 75 citrus varieties from a natural population. The water loss rate of the fruit was little influenced by the wax microstructure (stomata and wax crystal morphology), but strongly affected by epicuticular wax components. Further, C24 and C26 aliphatic aldehydes showed the greatest impact on fruit water loss rate, whose correlation coefficients reached -0.63 and -0.67, respectively. These two substances could significantly reduce the fruit water loss rate, indicating that they are potential natural additives to be used in the coating for citrus fruit water retention.


Assuntos
Citrus , Aldeídos/análise , Frutas/química , Água/análise , Ceras/química
10.
Food Funct ; 13(18): 9419-9433, 2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971805

RESUMO

The use of high amounts of saturated fatty acids mainly obtained from tropical fats and oils gains increasing rejection from consumers. Use of liquid plant based oils, however, does not deliver necessary functionalities. In this contribution, sunflower-(SFW), bees-wax (BW), ricebran wax (RBW) and a BW-wax mixture (BW : SFWh) were investigated as a potential alternative fat phase in low-density bakery products. Since the food product matrix is composed of complex ingredients, key-functionalities (foam-stabilization, viscoelastic properties, and oil-binding) were first investigated for pure oleogels as oleofoams. It could be demonstrated that all waxes investigated were able to form oleofoams. The location of wax crystal aggregates, at the oil-air interface or in the bulk, was shown to be a significant factor regarding oil-binding and viscoelastic properties. However, it was not possible to transfer all findings made for the oleofoams to the ones made for the oleogel based sponge cakes. There, all oleogels showed improvement compared to the canola oil variant regarding oil-leaping and visual appearance (volume). Sensory evaluation attested satisfactory results for all wax-based oleogel applications. This contribution aims to deliver novel findings for wax-based oleogels as oleofoams as well as an alternative fat phase in low-density bakery products. The gathered results aim to enable a target-oriented characterization of oleogel applications and hence facilitate future use to deliver beneficial products to the market.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos , Ceras , Animais , Ácidos Graxos , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Óleo de Brassica napus , Ceras/química
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 219: 812-823, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963346

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of bio-nanocomposite coatings developed using arrowroot starch (AA), cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), carnauba wax nanoemulsion (CWN), and Cymbopogon martinii and Mentha spicata essential oils (CEO and MEO, respectively) on the physicochemical, microbiological, bioactive, antioxidant, and aromatic characteristics of strawberries cv. 'Oso Grande' in refrigerated storage for 12 days. The coatings improved the shelf life and stability of strawberries, minimizing their weight loss (2.6-3.9 %), as well as changes in color and texture (except for those coated with CEO), titratable acidity, pH, soluble solids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid content, and antioxidant activity compared with uncoated control strawberries. The bio-nanocomposite coatings containing MEO and CEO also exhibited antimicrobial activity, reduced visible fungal deterioration (40-60 %), and reduced microbial load (3.59-4.03 log CFU g-1 for mesophilic aerobic bacteria and 4.45-5.22 log CFU g-1 for fungi and yeast) during storage. They also significantly reduced the severity of decay caused by inoculation with Botrytis cinerea or Rhizopus stolonifer. The coatings altered the volatile profile of the fruits during storage, decreasing aldehyde and alcohol concentrations and increasing ester concentrations. Thus, these bio-nanocomposite coatings, especially those containing MEO, can be used as antimicrobial coating materials to preserve the post-harvest quality of fresh strawberries.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Filmes Comestíveis , Fragaria , Marantaceae , Nanocompostos , Nanopartículas , Óleos Voláteis , Aldeídos , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Celulose/farmacologia , Ésteres/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos , Fragaria/microbiologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Amido/química , Ceras
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 219: 262-272, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931295

RESUMO

This work aimed to develop a novel strategy to modulate the distribution of beeswax in acid-modified starch films via tuning octenyl succinate starch (OSS) ratios and to elucidate their structure-property relationships. The apparent viscosity and storage modulus of the film-forming solution decreased with the increase of OSS ratio. Attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy revealed that the hydrogen bond in the film-forming network was cleaved with the presence of OSS. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated that OSS ratio had an obvious effect on the formation and distribution of beeswax crystal particles. Uniform distribution of beeswax effectively enhanced the hydrophobicity and water barrier properties of films and performed preferable elongation at break but at the expense of tensile strength and optical properties. The films with higher OSS ratio (>12 %) presented higher thermal stability. This study provides new information on the rational design of emulsified films to obtain desirable physicochemical properties by tuning the distribution of beeswax.


Assuntos
Amido , Ceras , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Amido/química , Succinatos , Resistência à Tração , Água , Difração de Raios X
13.
Plant Sci ; 323: 111400, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905895

RESUMO

CRISPR Cas9-mediated genome editing is highly efficient at targeted site-specific gene knock-out through NHEJ (Non-Homology End Joining), but ineffective for specific DNA integration through HDR (Homology Directed Repair) for precise gene editing. Base editors can make limited base substitutions but only within restricted small windows of the protospacer. Prime editing has been applied in plants with various degrees of success. However, several questions such as low and inconsistent editing efficiencies across different target sites need to be addressed. We compared two prime editing approaches PE3 and PE2 at two neighboring target sites within rice Waxy gene to partially address those questions. A straightforward PE2 plant prime editing system retrofitted from a regular CRISPR-Cas9 editing system can deliver highly efficient up to 66.7% precise gene editing. Various forms of precise editing including base substitutions, small deletions and insertions can be accurately achieved. The secondary structure variations of different pegRNAs may be the primary reason for inconsistent editing across different target sites and should be the optimization focus to further improve plant prime editing.


Assuntos
Oryza , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Edição de Genes , Oryza/genética , Plantas/genética , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação , Ceras
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806426

RESUMO

Benefitting from the special structure of the leaf cuticle layer, plants have natural hydrophobicity and anti-fouling abilities. Inspired by the leaf surface structure, a biomimetic modification strategy was raised to improve the surface hydrophobicity of polyacrylate coating for controlled release fertilizer. Double-layer (polyacrylate and carnauba wax) coated fertilizer was obtained after biomimetic modification. The quality of controlled release fertilizer modified with the carnauba wax was greatly enhanced, and the coating material was effectively saved. The surface appearance of polyacrylate-coated fertilizer was improved for the surface blemish was repaired by the loaded carnauba wax. The characterizations by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the hydrogen bonds were formed between the water-based polyacrylate membrane and the carnauba wax layers. By optimizing the content of polyacrylate and carnauba wax, the release duration of the fertilizer was effectively prolonged, which was improved from 1 month to more than 2 months after the biomimetic modification. Therefore, biological wax as an environmentally-friendly natural material that has showed a broad potential in the application of coated controlled release fertilizer.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Ureia , Biomimética , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Polímeros , Água , Ceras/química
15.
Chemosphere ; 307(Pt 1): 135615, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35843433

RESUMO

Beeswax is known to have a high capacity to accumulate different contaminants due to its fat-soluble properties. Many surveys in Europe and the USA have shown high levels of contamination in beeswax especially with acaricides used for varroa treatment. In this study, we investigated the transfer pathways of various active substances from beeswax into different matrices under field conditions. Honey, bee bread, larvae, and pupae samples were collected 6-8 weeks after building the experimental colonies on different charges of wax foundations. Identification and quantification of the target substances were performed with an established and validated multi-residue method using LC-MS/MS and GC-MS systems. Nine out of 19 active substances in wax could be detected in the analyzed matrices. Our results confirm the migration of different contaminants from wax into different bee matrices including honey, bee bread, and bee brood. The concentration of detected residues in the different matrices was significantly increased by increasing residue concentration in wax. Therefore, the maximum detected residues in the matrices were almost in wax containing high residual concentrations. Bee bread can be considered as the most important matrix due to relatively high detected concentrations and transfer ratios of the most contaminants. A significant effect of the lipophilicity of active substances on the transfer ratio into bee bread was found, which means that increasing the Log P values has positive effects on the transfer ratio. In conclusion, our results provide the first detailed information regarding the migration of active substances from wax into various matrices under realistic field conditions and are fundamentally important for assessing potential exposure and risks for honey bees.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Própole , Animais , Abelhas , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Probabilidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ceras , Xenobióticos
16.
Physiol Plant ; 174(4): e13735, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716005

RESUMO

The plant cuticle, which covers all aerial parts of plants in their primary developmental stage, is the major barrier against water loss from leaves. Accumulation of cutin and waxes has often been linked to drought tolerance. Here we investigated whether cutin and waxes play a role in the drought adaption of barley mimicked by osmotic stress acting on roots. We compared the cuticle properties of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare spp. vulgare) with wild barley (Hordeum vulgare spp. spontaneum), and tested whether wax and cutin composition or amount and cuticular transpiration could be future breeding targets for more drought-tolerant barley lines. In response to osmotic stress, accumulation of wax crystals was observed. This coincides with an increased wax and cutin gene expression and a total increase of wax and cutin amounts in leaves, which seems to be a general response triggered through root shoot signalling. Stomatal conductance decreased fast and significantly, whereas cuticular conductance remained unaffected in both wild and cultivated barley. The often-made conclusion that higher amounts of wax and cutin necessarily reduce cuticular transpiration and thus enhance drought tolerance is not always straightforward. To prevent water loss, stomatal regulation under water stress is much more important than regulation or adaptation of cuticular transpiration in response to drought.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hordeum/fisiologia , Lipídeos de Membrana , Pressão Osmótica , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Transpiração Vegetal/fisiologia , Ceras/metabolismo
17.
Molecules ; 27(12)2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35744863

RESUMO

A comparative study was carried out on the chemical, structural and thermal properties of candelilla wax from four wax-producing communities in Mexico, which was obtained by two extraction processes, the conventional one using sulfuric acid (SA) and an eco-friendly alternative process using citric acid (CA) as the extracting agent. The waxes were analyzed by basic chemistry (acidity, saponification, ester indexes, and others), color, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman micro-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and hardness and brittleness measurements. The waxes obtained by the environmentally friendly process showed differences in their physicochemical properties when compared to waxes from the conventional process. In addition, they showed some improvements, such as lighter shades and harder waxes, suggesting that the new environmentally friendly process is a viable option.


Assuntos
Ésteres , Ceras , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Excipientes , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Ceras/química
18.
Ren Fail ; 44(1): 1038-1044, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730180

RESUMO

Although casts in urine may imply the underlying pathogenesis and the diagnosis, the waxy cast is poorly understood yet. We aim to investigate the association between waxy casts and clinicopathological indices. Patients undergone renal biopsy and urine sediment examination were enrolled. Waxy casts referred to those presented with a homogeneous melted wax appearance and pre-waxy casts referred to those in which one or more segments demonstrated a waxy-cast appearance. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the factors associated with waxy casts. In 1282 patients, the detection rate of waxy casts was 26.3%. If either waxy or pre-waxy cast was considered as a diagnostic marker for renal insufficiency (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), the sensitivity was 0.58 and the specificity was 0.88. If the only waxy cast was considered as the diagnostic marker, the sensitivity was 0.29 and the specificity was 0.97. The patients with waxy or pre-waxy casts had higher blood pressure, more proteinuria, and worse renal function. Waxy or pre-waxy cast was independently associated with eGFR (odds ratio: 0.73 per 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 increase, 95% confidence interval: 0.69-0.77, p < 0.001), proteinuria (odds ratio: 1.07 per 1 g/day increase, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.10, p < 0.001) and pathological lesions. Waxy or pre-waxy casts are closely related to impaired renal function. Their presence is a specific indicator of renal insufficiency but is not sensitive enough.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal , Ceras , Humanos , Proteinúria/diagnóstico , Proteinúria/urina , Urinálise , Urina
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682619

RESUMO

Hybrid rice technology has been used for more than 50 years, and eating and cooking quality (ECQ) has been a major focus throughout this period. Waxy (Wx) and alkaline denaturation (ALK) genes have received attention owing to their pivotal roles in determining rice characteristics. However, despite significant effort, the ECQ of restorer lines (RLs) has changed very little. By contrast, obvious changes have been seen in inbred rice varieties (IRVs), and the ECQ of IRVs is influenced by Wx, which reduces the proportion of Wxa and increases the proportion of Wxb, leading to a decrease in amylose content (AC) and an increase in ECQ. Meanwhile, ALK is not selected in the same way. We investigated Wx alleles and AC values of sterile lines of female parents with the main mating combinations in widely used areas. The results show that almost all sterile lines were Wxa-type with a high AC, which may explain the low ECQ of hybrid rice. Analysis of hybrid rice varieties and RLs in the last 5 years revealed serious homogenisation among hybrid rice varieties.


Assuntos
Oryza , Alelos , Amilose/genética , Oryza/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Ceras
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 213: 456-464, 2022 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661670

RESUMO

Large A-type and small B-type starch granules separated from waxy and normal hull-less barley starches were investigated for their physicochemical properties. Hull-less barley starch granules were covered by a membrane composed mainly of phospholipids. Channels of waxy A- and B-type granules were rich in proteins and phospholipids. Compared with A-type starch, B-type starch exhibited higher specific surface area, volume and average diameter of mesopores. Waxy A-type granules exhibited the higher peak, breakdown, final and setback viscosity than did B-type granules, while normal A-type granules showed the lower peak, breakdown, final viscosity and the higher setback viscosity than did B-type granules. B-type starch gels with lower storage modulus exhibited a less elastic gel network structure and retrograded more slowly. Moreover, in vitro hydrolysis of starch showed that the B-type granules exhibited a higher hydrolysis extent and rate than the A-type granules in the first stage, which was consistent with higher initial α-amylase binding ability of B-type granules. The study showed that the A-type and B-type starch separated from waxy and normal hull-less barley exhibited very different physicochemical properties.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Amido , Hordeum/química , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Amido/química , Viscosidade , Ceras/química
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