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1.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113813, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607133

RESUMO

There is a growing interest in including blue carbon ecosystems (i.e., mangroves, tidal marshes and seagrasses) in climate mitigation programs in national and sub-national policies, with restoration and conservation of these ecosystems identified as potential activities to increase carbon accumulation through time. However, there is still a gap on the spatial scales needed to produce carbon offsets comparable with terrestrial or agricultural ecosystems. Here, we used the Coastal Blue Carbon InVEST 3.7.0 model to estimate future net carbon sequestration in blue carbon ecosystems along Australia's Great Barrier Reef (hereafter GBR) catchments, considering different management scenarios (i.e., reintroduction of tidal exchange through the removal of barriers, sea level rise, restoring low lying land) at three different spatial scales: whole GBR coastline, regional (14,000-16,300 ha), and local (335-370 ha) scales. The focus of the restoration (i.e., tidal marshes and/or mangroves) was dependent on data availability for each scenario. Furthermore, we also estimated the monetary value of carbon sequestration under each management scenario and spatial scale assessed in the study. We found that large scale restoration of tidal marshes could potentially sequester an additional ∼800,000 tonnes of CO2e by 2045 (potentially generating AU$12 million based on the average Australia carbon price), with greater opportunities when sea level rise is accounted for in the modelling. Also, we found that regional and local projects would generate up to 23 tonnes CO2e ha-1 by the end of the crediting period. Our results can guide future decisions in the blue carbon market and financing schemes, however, the return on investment is dependent on the carbon price and funding scheme available for project implementation.


Assuntos
Carbono , Ecossistema , Agricultura , Sequestro de Carbono , Áreas Alagadas
2.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113868, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628282

RESUMO

Knowing the effluent quality of treatment systems in advance to enable the design of treatment systems that comply with environmental standards is a realistic strategy. This study aims to develop machine learning - based predictive models for designing the subsurface constructed wetlands (SCW). Data from the SCW literature during the period of 2009-2020 included 618 sets and 10 features. Five algorithms namely, Random forest, Classification and Regression trees, Support vector machines, K-nearest neighbors, and Cubist were compared to determine an optimal algorithm. All nine input features including the influent concentrations, C:N ratio, hydraulic loading rate, height, aeration, flow type, feeding, and filter type were confirmed as relevant features for the predictive algorithms. The comparative result revealed that Cubist is the best algorithm with the lowest RMSE (7.77 and 21.77 mg.L-1 for NH4-N and COD, respectively) corresponding to 84% of the variance in the effluents explained. The coefficient of determination of the Cubist algorithm obtained for NH4-N and COD prediction from the test data were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Five case studies of the application of SCW design were also exercised and verified by the prediction model. Finally, a fully developed Cubist algorithm-based design tool for SCW was proposed.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Áreas Alagadas , Algoritmos , Nitrogênio
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149783, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482132

RESUMO

Understanding the hydro-biogeochemical conditions that impact the mobility of uranium (U) in natural or artificial wetlands is essential for the management of contaminated environments. Field-based research indicates that high organic matter content and saturation of the soil from the water table create favorable conditions for U accumulation. Despite the installation of artificial wetlands for U remediation, the processes that can release U from wetland soils to underlying aquifers are poorly understood. Here we used a large soil core from a montane wetland in a 6 year lysimeter experiment to study the stability of U accumulated to levels of up to 6000 ppm. Amendments with electron acceptors showed that the wetland soil can reduce sulfate and Fe(III) in large amounts without significant release of U into the soil pore water. However, amendment with carbonate (5 mM, pH 7.5) resulted in a large discharge of U. After a six-month period of imposed drought, the re-flooding of the core led to the release of negligible amounts of U into the pore water. This long-term experiment demonstrates that U is strongly bound to organic matter and that its stability is only challenged by carbonate complexation.


Assuntos
Urânio , Carbonatos , Elétrons , Compostos Férricos , Solo , Urânio/análise , Áreas Alagadas
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149577, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487896

RESUMO

Forested coastal wetlands are globally important systems sequestering carbon and intercepting nitrogen pollution from nutrient-rich river systems. Coastal wetlands that have suffered extensive disturbance are the target of comprehensive restoration efforts. Accurate assessment of restoration success requires detailed mechanistic understanding of wetland soil biogeochemical functioning across restoration chrono-sequences, which remains poorly understood for these sparsely investigated systems. This study investigated denitrification and greenhouse gas fluxes in mangrove and Melaleuca forest soils of Vietnam, using the 15N-Gas flux method. Denitrification-derived N2O was significantly higher from Melaleuca than mangrove forest soils, despite higher potential rates of total denitrification in the mangrove forest soils (8.1 ng N g-1 h-1) than the Melaleuca soils (6.8 ng N g-1 h-1). Potential N2O and CO2 emissions were significantly higher from the Melaleuca soils than from the mangrove soils. Disturbance and subsequent recovery had no significant effect on N biogeochemistry except with respect to the denitrification product ratio in the mangrove sites, which was highest from the youngest mangrove site. Potential CO2 and CH4 fluxes were significantly affected by restoration in the mangrove soils. The lowest potential CO2 emissions were observed in the mid-age plantation and potential CH4 fluxes decreased in the older forests. The mangrove system, therefore, may remove excess N and improve water quality with low greenhouse gas emissions, whereas in Melaleucas, increased N2O and CO2 emissions also occur. These emissions are likely balanced by higher carbon stocks observed in the Melaleuca soils. These mechanistic insights highlight the importance of ecosystem restoration for pollution attenuation and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from coastal wetlands. Restoration efforts should continue to focus on increasing wetland area and function, which will benefit local communities with improved water quality and potential for income generation under future carbon trading.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desnitrificação , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo , Áreas Alagadas
5.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131742, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352544

RESUMO

Dissolved oxygen (DO) and carbon stock in substrate medium play a vital role in the nutrient removal mechanism in a constructed wetland (CW). This study compiles the results of dynamics of DO, ammonium N (NH4+-N), nitrate (NO3-N), sulfate (SO4-2), phosphate (PO4-3), chemical oxygen demand (COD), in three setups of vertical-flow constructed wetlands (TFCWs) (SB: substrate + biochar; SBP: substrate + biochar + Colocasia esculenta plantation; SP: substrate + Colocasia esculenta (SP), operated with tidal flow cycles. Experimental analyses illustrated the continuous high DO level (2.743-5.66 mg L-1) in SB and SBP after the I and II cycle of tidal flow (72 h flooding and 24 h dry phase). COD reduction efficiencies increased from 15.75 - 61.86% to 48.55-96.80% after tidal operation among operating TFCWs. N (NH4+-N) and N (NO3-N) removal were found to be 88.16%, and 76.02%; 49.32, and 57.85%; and 40.23%, and 48.94 % in SBP, SP and SB, respectively. The theory of improved nitrification and adsorption through biochar amended substratum was proposed for TFCW systems. PO4-3 and SO4-2 removal improved from 22.63 to 80.50%, and 19.69 to 75.20%, respectively after first tidal operation in all TFCWs. The microbial inhabitation on porous biochar could promote the transformation of available P into microbial biomass and also helped by the plant uptake process while SO4-2 reduction in TFCWs could be mainly due to sulfate-reducing bacterial activity and nitrate reduction process, mainly facilitated by high DO and biochar addition in such setups. The study suggests that effluent re-circulation through tidal operation and biochar supplementation in the substratum could be an effective mechanism for the improvement of the working efficiencies of CWs operated with low energy input systems.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Áreas Alagadas , Carvão Vegetal , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
6.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131820, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416592

RESUMO

Mangrove wetlands are subjected to pollution due to anthropogenic activities. Mangrove fitness is mainly determined by root exudates and microorganisms activities belowground, but the mechanisms are not yet well known. Rhizospheric interactions among mangrove sediments, microorganisms and root exudates were simulated. In particular, low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOA), were examined to explore the metal(loid)s rhizospheric dynamics via batch experiments. Using a combination of comparative sterilised and unsterilised sediments, LMWOA extracts and sediments constituents were examined. Factors such as the solution pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), arsenic and iron species and metal(loid)s in the aqueous phase were evaluated. The results show that on an average, the As decreased by 68.3 % and 42.1 % under citric and malic acid treatments, respectively, after sterilisation. In contrast, the As content increased by 29.6 % under oxalic acid treatment. Microorganisms probably facilitate sediment As release in the presence of citric and malic acids but suppress As mobilisation in the presence of oxalic acid. Fe, Mn and Al were significantly (p < 0.05) positively correlated with the trace metal(loid)s (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Co, Ba, Cd and As). The solution pH was negatively correlated with the solution As. Both DOC and pH reach the peaks at the end of all treatments. The As absorption-desorption dynamics are closely linked to proton consumption, Fe-Mn-Al sedimentation of ageing performance and organic ligand complexation. The study provides an insight into the rhizospheric processes of microbial involvement and gives an enlightening understanding of the metal(loid)s redeployment for plant adaptation in mangrove wetlands.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150139, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525685

RESUMO

Although significant scientific research strides have been made in mapping the spatial extents and ecohydrological dynamics of wetlands in semi-arid environments, the focus on small wetlands remains a challenge. This is due to the sensing characteristics of remote sensing platforms and lack of robust data processing techniques. Advancements in data analytic tools, such as the introduction of Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform provides unique opportunities for improved assessment of small and scattered wetlands. This study thus assessed the capabilities of GEE cloud-computing platform in characterising small seasonal flooded wetlands, using the new generation Sentinel 2 data from 2016 to 2020. Specifically, the study assessed the spectral separability of different land cover classes for two different wetlands detected, using Sentinel-2 multi-year composite water and vegetation indices and to identify the most suitable GEE machine learning algorithm for accurately detecting and mapping semi-arid seasonal wetlands. This was achieved using the object based Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Classification and Regression Tree (CART) and Naïve Bayes (NB) advanced algorithms in GEE. The results demonstrated the capabilities of using the GEE platform to characterize wetlands with acceptable accuracy. All algorithms showed superiority, in mapping the two wetlands except for the NB method, which had lowest overall classification accuracy. These findings underscore the relevance of the GEE platform, Sentinel-2 data and advanced algorithms in characterizing small and seasonal semi-arid wetlands.


Assuntos
Ferramenta de Busca , Áreas Alagadas , Teorema de Bayes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estações do Ano , África do Sul
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150078, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525758

RESUMO

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) deposited by wild birds into the environment may lead to sporadic mortality events and economically costly outbreaks among domestic birds. There is a paucity of information, however, regarding the persistence of infectious IAVs within the environment following deposition. In this investigation, we assessed the persistence of 12 IAVs that were present in cloacal and/or oropharyngeal swabs of naturally infected ducks. Infectivity of these IAVs was monitored over approximately one year with each virus tested in five water types: (1) distilled water held in the lab at 4 °C and (2-5) filtered surface water from each of four Alaska sites and maintained in the field at ambient temperature. By evaluating infectivity of IAVs in ovo following sample retrieval at four successive time points, we observed declines in IAV infectivity through time. Many viruses persisted for extended periods, as evidenced by ≥25% of IAVs remaining infectious in replicate samples for each treatment type through three sampling time points (144-155 days post-sample collection) and two viruses remaining viable in a single replicate sample each when tested upon collection at a fourth time point (361-377 days post-sample collection). The estimated probability of persistence of infectious IAVs in all five water types was estimated to be between 0.25 and 0.75 during days 50-200 post-sample collection as inferred through Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Our results provide evidence that IAVs may remain infectious for extended periods, up to or even exceeding one year, when maintained in surface waters under ambient temperatures. Therefore, wetlands may represent an important medium in which infectious IAVs may reside outside of a biotic reservoir.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Alaska/epidemiologia , Animais , Patos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Áreas Alagadas
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149871, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525770

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution in coastal zone is a global environment problem concerning the international society. As an eco-friendly and economical method, phytoremediation is a promising strategy for improving heavy metal pollution in coastal soil. In order to alleviate the ecological risk of heavy metal pollution in Jinzhou Bay, a typical and important heavy industrial area in China, three local wetland plants (Scirpus validus, Typha orientalis and Phragmites australis) were selected and planted in the field. The plants showed strong tolerance of high concentrations of heavy metals. Stressed by the heavy metals, the root weight of S. validus and P. australis increased 114.74% and 49.91%, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, Hg) accumulated in the plant roots were 4-60 times higher than that in plant shoots. The SEM analysis found that abundant heavy metals were adhered to the root surface closely. Bioconcentration factor of heavy metals on the plant roots were 0.08-0.89 (except Cr, Ni), while the translocation factor from roots to above ground of plants were 0.02-0.27. Furthermore, the wetland plants improved the regional ecological environment quality. The concentrations of heavy metals in the rhizosphere soil decreased significantly. Compared with the bulk soil, the potential ecological risk index in the rhizosphere soil reduced 26.51%-69.14%. Moreover, the microbial diversity in rhizosphere soil increased significantly, and the abundances of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes also increased in rhizosphere soil. Pearson correlations indicated that Hg, As, Ni and Cr were negatively correlated with Proteobacteria (p < 0.05), and Cu was significantly negative correlated with Bacteroidetes (p < 0.05). The results support that using suitable local plants is a promising approach for repairing heavy metal contaminated costal soil, not only because it can improve the regional ecological environment quality, but also because it can enhance the landscape value of coastal zone.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Baías , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Áreas Alagadas
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149771, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525732

RESUMO

Root-aerenchyma in wetland plants facilitate transport of oxygen from aboveground sources (atmosphere and photosynthesis) to belowground roots and rhizomes, where oxygen can leak out and oxygenate the otherwise anoxic soils. In salt marshes, the soil oxygenation capacity varies among different Spartina-taxa, but little is known about structural pattern and connectivity of root-aerenchyma that facilitates this gas transport. Both environmental conditions and ploidy level play a role for the root-system morphology. Root-system morphology of polyploid Spartina-taxa was studied, quantifying root-tissue volume and root-aerenchyma volume of hexaploid Spartina alterniflora, Spartina maritima, and Spartina × townsendii as well as dodecaploid Spartina anglica from different habitats. Computed tomography (CT)-scan image analysis was applied to quantify the volume of roots and aerenchyma, and to determine the root-system structure (ratio of aerenchyma to root-tissue volumes) and aerenchyma connectivity. On average, Spartina-roots accounted for 12% (v/v) and root-aerenchyma accounted for 1% (v/v) of the soil volume in the pioneer marsh. About 90% (v/v) of all roots were associated with aerenchyma. Root-system structures of S. × townsendii and S. anglica differed and showed clear responses to habitat conditions, such as flooding regime and redox potential. The development of large well-connected aerenchyma fragments were specifically shown in S. anglica and to a minor extend in S. maritima. Aerenchyma in S. alterniflora and S. × townsendii consisted only of smaller fragments. Spartina-dominated tidal marsh soils show high connectivity with the atmosphere via root-aerenchyma. The high ploidy level in S. anglica comes along with high connectivity in root-aerenchyma.


Assuntos
Poaceae , Áreas Alagadas , Ecossistema , Fotossíntese , Solo
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149715, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461472

RESUMO

Tidal marshes store large amounts of carbon; however, little is known about the patterns, magnitudes, and biophysical drivers that regulate CO2 efflux from these ecosystems. Due to harsh environmental conditions (e.g., flooding), it is difficult to measure continuous soil CO2 efflux in tidal marshes. These data are necessary to inform empirical and process-based models and to better quantify carbon budgets. We performed automated (30 min) and manual (bi-monthly) soil CO2 efflux measurements, for ~20 months, at two sites in a temperate tidal marsh: tall Spartina (TS; dominated by S. cynosuroides) and short Spartina (SS; dominated by S. alterniflora). These measurements were coupled with water quality, canopy spectral reflectance, and meteorological measurements. There were no consistent diel patterns of soil CO2 efflux, suggesting a decoupling of soil CO2 efflux with diel variations in temperature and tides (i.e., water level) showing a hysteresis effect. Mean soil CO2 efflux was significantly higher at SS (2.15 ± 1.60 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1) than at TS (0.55 ± 0.80 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1), highlighting distinct biogeochemical spatial variability. At the annual scale, air temperature explained >50% of the variability in soil CO2 efflux at both sites; and water level and salinity were secondary drivers of soil CO2 efflux at SS and TS, respectively. Annual soil CO2 efflux varied from 287-876 to 153-211 g C m-2 y-1 at SS and TS, respectively, but manual measurements underestimated the annual flux by <67% at SS and <23% at TS. These results suggest that measuring and modeling diel soil CO2 efflux variability in tidal marshes may be more challenging than previously expected and highlight large discrepancies between manual and automated soil CO2 efflux measurements. New technical approaches are needed to implement long-term automated measurements of soil CO2 efflux across wetlands to properly estimate the carbon balance of these ecosystems.


Assuntos
Solo , Áreas Alagadas , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149770, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464789

RESUMO

Constructing novel peatland ecosystems can help to restore the long-term carbon accumulating properties of northern soil systems that have been lost through resource extraction. Although mining companies are legally required to restore landscapes following extraction, there are limited tools to evaluate the effectiveness of restoring peat accumulating landscapes. This study analyzed the spatial patterns of the first seven years (n = 575) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) optical characteristics from a pilot watershed built to restore boreal plains peatlands on a former open pit oil sands mine. A principal component analysis (PCA) indicated a very high degree of redundancy in absorption-florescence DOM properties (PARAFAC, HIX, FI, freshness index, SUVA, and peak A, B, C, T, wavelength, and intensity ratios) at this site. The leading principal component indicated a gradient of fresh protein rich inputs, which are highest near the upland region, to older highly degraded DOM, which is highest in the lowland closest to the outlet. Two functionally different reference peatlands, a poor-fen and bog system and a moderate-rich fen, had relatively similar optical DOM characteristics indicating a high level of decomposition at these sites. Over the first seven years, in some regions of the reconstructed lowland the DOM characteristics are becoming increasingly similar to the highly decomposed DOM observed at the reference sites. When combined with carbon flux measurements these findings indicate the potential for long term organic matter accumulation at this reconstructed site.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Áreas Alagadas , Carbono , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Solo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150142, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509836

RESUMO

A two-stage tidal flow constructed wetland (referred to as TFCW-A and TFCW-B) was used to treat low chemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (COD/TN or simply C/N) ratio influent at low temperatures (<15 °C). The influence of the flooding-resting time (A: 8 h-4 h, B: 4 h-8 h) and effluent recirculation on nitrogen removal and microbial community characteristics were explored. TFCW-B achieved optimal average nitrogen removal efficiency with effluent recirculation (96.05% ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N); 78.43% TN) and led to nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) accumulation due to the lack of a carbon source and longer resting time. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were inhibited at low temperatures. Except for nrfA, AOA, AOB, narG and nirS were separated by the flooding-resting time rather than by spatial position. Furthermore, the dominant genera in TFCW-A were Arthrobacter, Rhodobacter, Pseudomonas, and Solitalea, whereas prolonging resting time promoted the growth of Thauera and Zoogloea in TFCW-B. Spearman correlation analysis showed that Zoogloea and Rhodobacter had the strongest correlations with other genera. Moreover, the NH4+-N concentration was significantly positively influenced by Arthrobacter, Rhodobacter, Pseudomonas, and Solitalea but negatively influenced by Thauera and Zoogloea. There was no significant correlation between TN and the dominant genera. This study not only provides a practicable system for wastewater treatment with a low C/N ratio but also presents a theoretical basis for the regulation of microbial communities in nitrogen removal systems at low temperatures.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Áreas Alagadas , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio , Temperatura , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150045, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798718

RESUMO

Understanding the effects of elevated temperatures on soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition pathways in northern peatlands is central to predicting their fate under future warming. Peatlands role as carbon (C) sink is dependent on both anoxic conditions and low temperatures that limit SOM decomposition. Previous studies have shown that elevated temperatures due to climate change can disrupt peatland's C balance by enhancing SOM decomposition and increasing CO2 emissions. However, little is known about how SOM decomposition pathways change at higher temperatures. Here, we used an integrated research approach to investigate the mechanisms behind enhanced CO2 emissions and SOM decomposition under elevated temperatures of surface peat soil collected from a raised and Sphagnum dominated mid-continental bog (S1 bog) peatland at the Marcel Experimental Forest in Minnesota, USA, incubated under oxic conditions at three different temperatures (4, 21, and 35 °C). Our results indicated that elevated temperatures could destabilize peatland's C pool via a combination of abiotic and biotic processes. In particular, temperature-driven changes in redox conditions can lead to abiotic destabilization of Fe-organic matter (phenol) complexes, previously an underestimated decomposition pathway in peatlands, leading to increased CO2 production and accumulation of polyphenol-like compounds that could further inhibit extracellular enzyme activities and/or fuel the microbial communities with labile compounds. Further, increased temperatures can alter strategies of microbial communities for nutrient acquisition via changes in the activities of extracellular enzymes by priming SOM decomposition, leading to enhanced CO2 emission from peatlands. Therefore, coupled biotic and abiotic processes need to be incorporated into process-based climate models to predict the fate of SOM under elevated temperatures and to project the likely impacts of environmental change on northern peatlands and CO2 emissions.


Assuntos
Solo , Sphagnopsida , Mudança Climática , Temperatura , Áreas Alagadas
15.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131564, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298298

RESUMO

Constructed wetlands (CWs) are economical, efficient, and sustainable wastewater treatment method. Substrates in CWs inextricably link with the other key components and significantly influence the performance and sustainability of CWs. Gradually, CWs have been applied to treat more complex contaminants from different fields, thus has brought forward new demand on substrates for enhancing the performance and sustainability of CWs. Various materials have been used as substrates in CWs, and their individual characteristics and application advantages have been extensively studied in recent years. Therefore, this review summarizes the development, function mechanisms (e.g., filtration, adsorption, electron supply, supporting plant growth and microbial reproduction), categories, and applications of substrates in CWs. The interaction mechanisms of substrates with contaminants/plants/microorganisms are comprehensively described, and the characteristics and advantages of different substrate categories (e.g., Natural mineral materials, chemical products, biomass materials, industrial and municipal by-products, modified functional materials, and novel materials) are critically evaluated. Meanwhile, the influences of substrate layer arrangement and synergism on contaminants removal are firstly systematically reviewed. Furthermore, further research about substrates (e.g., clogging, life cycle assessment/management, internal relationship between components) should be systematically carried out for improving efficiency and sustainability of CWs.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Áreas Alagadas , Plantas , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise
16.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113928, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731948

RESUMO

The overall vitality and quality of the coastline can be improved through ecological transformation; ecological status assessment can scientifically guide this modification by putting forward a transformation plan for the coastline. This study took the Shenzhen Bay area between Hong Kong and Shenzhen as the study area to build an index system and combined it with quantitative and qualitative methods by designing the code of data processing, calculation, and analysis through the MATLAB platform, with the goal being to put forward the directions and suggestions for coastline transformation based on the analysis of results. The results and conclusions are as follows: (1) The key aspects of the ecological transformation of the Shenzhen Bay Coastline are water quality, coastal wetland restoration, landscape diversity, beach stability, and infrastructure improvement. (2) Actions to promote these aspects include overall shoreline control of water pollution, cultural landscape implantations, the improvement of existing infrastructure, and the restoration of selected beach sand regions, mangrove wetlands, and eroded shorelines. Suggestion includes the critical support which comes from the public needs for information acquisition and science education, in addition with the policy and management, all should be formulated into the transformation plan. The index system can be applied to other regions at home and abroad, and the results and conclusions based on the index system could also provide criteria for planning the ecological transformation process.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Áreas Alagadas , China , Hong Kong
17.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(10): 6033-6039, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731274

RESUMO

Strain WRN001T, a Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile bacterium was isolated from the natural saline-alkali wetland soil of Binhai new district, Tianjin, China (38°46' N, 117°13' E). Cells of strain WRN001T were 0.3-0.5 µm in width and 1.5-2.5 µm in length, and the growth occurred optimally at 33-37 °C, pH 7.5-8.0, and in the presence of 8-10% (w/v) NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate could be affiliated to the genus Halomonas, and the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain WRN001T to its closest relative Halomonas qiaohouensis DSM 26770 T was 97.5%. The size of the genome as presented here was 5,475,884 bp with a G + C content of 63.8 mol %. The major respiratory quinone of strainWRN001T was Q-9, and the dominant fatty acids were summed feature 8, summed feature 3, C10:0, C12:0, C12:0 3-OH, C16:0, and C17:0 cyclo. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phophatidylcholine (PC), two phospholipids (PL), aminolipid (AL), and three unidentified lipids (L). These data combined with the low digital DDH values between strain WRN001T and the close relative, Halomonas alkalitolerans CGMCC 1.9129 T (42.2%) and based on comparisons with currently available genomes, the highest average nucleotide identity (ANIm) value was 91.4% to Halomonas alkalitolerans CGMCC 1.9129 T (GenBank accession No. GCA_001971685.1). Therefore, we propose a novel species in the genus Halomonas to accommodate this novel isolate: Halomonas salipaludis sp. nov. (type strain WRN001T = KCTC 52853 T = ACCC 19974 T).


Assuntos
Halomonas , Álcalis , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Halomonas/genética , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Solo , Áreas Alagadas
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 766, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731304

RESUMO

Nitrogen and sulfur emissions from oil sands operations in northern Alberta, Canada have resulted in increasing deposition of N and S to the region's ecosystems. To assess whether a changing N and S deposition regime affects bog porewater chemistry, we sampled bog porewater at sites at different distances from the oil sands industrial center from 2009 to 2012 (10-cm intervals to a depth of 1 m) and from 2009 to 2019 (top of the bog water table only). We hypothesized that: (1) as atmospheric N and S deposition increases with increasing proximity to the oil sands industrial center, surface porewater concentrations of NH4+, NO3-, DON, and SO42- would increase and (2) with increasing N and S deposition, elevated porewater concentrations of NH4+, NO3-, DON, and SO42- would be manifested increasingly deeper into the peat profile. We found weak evidence that oil sands N and S emissions affect bog porewater NH4+-N, NO3--N, or DON concentrations. We found mixed evidence that increasing SO42- deposition results in increasing porewater SO42- concentrations. Current SO42- deposition, especially at bogs closest to the oil sands industrial center, likely exceeds the ability of the Sphagnum moss layer to retain S through net primary production, such that atmospherically deposited SO42- infiltrates downward into the peat column. Increasing porewater SO42- availability may stimulate dissimilatory sulfate reduction and/or inhibit CH4 production, potentially affecting carbon cycling and gaseous fluxes in these bogs.


Assuntos
Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Áreas Alagadas , Alberta , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água
19.
Water Res ; 206: 117774, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757282

RESUMO

The recent discovery of complete ammonia oxidation (comammox) has increased our understanding of nitrification. Although comammox has been shown to play an important role in plain wetland ecosystems, studies of comammox contribution are still limited in plateau wetland ecosystems. Here, we analyzed the abundance, activity, community and biogeochemical mechanisms of the comammox bacteria in Yunnan-kweichow and Qinghai-Tibet plateau wetlands from elevations of 1000-5000 m. Comammox bacteria were widely distributed in all 16 sediment samples with abundances higher than 0.96 ± 0.26 × 107 copies g-1 (n = 16). Comammox showed high activity (1.18 ± 0.17 to 1.98 ± 0.08 mg N kg-1 d-1) at high-elevation (3000-5000 m) and dominated the nitrification process (activity contribution: 37.20 - 60.62%). The activity contribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (1.07 ± 0.08 to 2.79 ± 0.35 mg N kg-1 d-1) dominated the nitrification process (44.55 - 64.15%) in low-elevation (1000-3000 m) samples. All detected comammox Nitrospira belonged to clade A, while clade B was not detected. Elevation always had a strongest effect on key comammox species. Thus, we infer that elevation may drive the high relative abundance of the species Candidatus Nitrospira nitrificans (avg. 12.40%) and the low relative abundance of the species Nitrospira sp. SG-bin2 (avg. 4.75%) in high-elevation samples that showed a high comammox activity (avg. 1.62 mg N kg-1 d-1) and high contribution (avg. 46.08%) to the nitrification process. These results indicate that comammox may be an important and currently underestimated microbial nitrification process in plateau wetland ecosystems.


Assuntos
Archaea , Nitrificação , Amônia , China , Ecossistema , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Áreas Alagadas
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(6): 544, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775521

RESUMO

Chilika buffalo is native to the Eastern coast of India and well adapted to the largest coastal brackish water lagoon of Asia, Chilika Lake. We present here a report on the Chilika buffalo breed emphasizing the conservational urgency based on unique biochemical and molecular evidence related to liver and kidney functions while comparing it with tropically adapted other water buffalo breeds (Bubalus bubalis) of India. It is found that the Chilika buffalo breed has a better ability to withstand a long dehydration period as evident from its better glomerular filtration and higher expression of the ion transport channel. Mitochondrial D-loop sequencing results have shown these buffaloes being closer to swamp-type buffaloes of Bangladesh and northeast India and represent a unique "hybrid zone" on the eastern coast of India. Conservation of such uniquely adapted germplasm is crucial owing to the current global trend, where the introduction of exotic breeds has negatively impact "sui-generis" germplasm and they require higher managerial resource consumption for maintaining higher productivity. Further, the introduction of unconventional fisheries activities has proved detrimental to the lagoon ecosystem, potentially causing more threat to the buffalo's population.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Águas Salinas , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Búfalos , Índia , Áreas Alagadas
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