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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5873, 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393443

RESUMO

Thousands of people are reported lost in the wilderness in the United States every year and locating these missing individuals as rapidly as possible depends on coordinated search and rescue (SAR) operations. As time passes, the search area grows, survival rate decreases, and searchers are faced with an increasingly daunting task of searching large areas in a short amount of time. To optimize the search process, mathematical models of lost person behavior with respect to landscape can be used in conjunction with current SAR practices. In this paper, we introduce an agent-based model of lost person behavior which allows agents to move on known landscapes with behavior defined as independent realizations of a random variable. The behavior random variable selects from a distribution of six known lost person reorientation strategies to simulate the agent's trajectory. We systematically simulate a range of possible behavior distributions and find a best-fit behavioral profile for a hiker with the International Search and Rescue Incident Database. We validate these results with a leave-one-out analysis. This work represents the first time-discrete model of lost person dynamics validated with data from real SAR incidents and has the potential to improve current methods for wilderness SAR.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Resgate , Meio Selvagem , Gerenciamento de Dados , Emprego , Humanos , Trabalho de Resgate/métodos , Estados Unidos
3.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 33(1): 75-91, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35120856

RESUMO

The Wilderness Medical Society convened a panel to review the literature and develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on the treatment of anaphylaxis, with an emphasis on a field-based perspective. The review also included literature regarding the definition, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and prevention of anaphylaxis. The increasing prevalence of food allergies in the United States raises concern for a corresponding rise in the incidence of anaphylaxis. Intramuscular epinephrine is the primary treatment for anaphylaxis and should be administered before adjunctive treatments such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, and inhaled ß agonists. For outdoor schools and organizations, selecting a method to administer epinephrine in the field is based on considerations of cost, safety, and first responder training, as well as federal guidelines and state-specific laws.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Anafilaxia/tratamento farmacológico , Anafilaxia/epidemiologia , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos , Meio Selvagem
4.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 297(1): 227-239, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985592

RESUMO

The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a global flagship species for biodiversity conservation. As the time for captive giant pandas to be released into the wild matures, wildness training is provided to allow adaptation to their natural environment. It is assumed that changes in the immune system would be integral in this adaptation from captive to wild, where many more pathogens would be encountered in their natural habitats. Therefore, this study aims to determine the expression changes of immune-related genes and their potential as immunoassay markers for adaptation monitoring in wildness training giant pandas, and then to understand the adaptation strategy of wildness training giant pandas to the wild environment, thereby improving the success rate of panda reintroduction. We obtained 300 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by RNA-seq, with 239 up-regulated and 61 down-regulated DEGs in wildness training giant pandas compared to captive pandas. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that up-regulated DEGs were enriched in several immune-related terms and pathways. There were 21 immune-related DEGs, in which most of them were up-regulated in wildness training giant pandas, including several critical innate and cellular immune genes. IL1R2 was the most significantly up-regulated gene and is a signature of homeostasis within the immune system. In the protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis, CXCL8, CXCL10, and CCL5 were identified as the hub immune genes. Our results suggested that wildness training giant pandas have stronger innate and cellular immunity than captive giant pandas, and we proposed that a gene set of CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL5, CD3D, NFKBIA, TBX21, IL12RB2, and IL1R2 may serve as potential immunoassay markers to monitor and assess the immune status of wildness training giant pandas. Our study offers the first insight into immune alterations of wildness training giant pandas, paving the way for monitoring and evaluating the immune status of giant pandas when reintroducing them into the wild.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/imunologia , Ursidae , Meio Selvagem , Animais , Células Sanguíneas/química , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Ursidae/sangue , Ursidae/genética , Ursidae/imunologia
5.
Ecol Appl ; 32(1): e02471, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626517

RESUMO

Wilderness areas are not immune to changes in land use, land cover, and/or climate. Future changes will intensify the balancing act of maintaining ecological conditions and untrammeled character within wilderness areas. We assessed the quantitative and spatial changes in land use, land cover, and climate predicted to occur in and around wilderness areas by (1) quantifying projected changes in land use and land cover around wilderness areas; (2) evaluating if public lands surrounding wilderness areas can buffer future land-use change; (3) quantifying future climate conditions in and around wilderness areas; and (4) identifying wilderness areas expected to experience the most change in land use, land cover, and climate. We used projections of land use (four variables), land cover (five variables), and climate (nine variables) to assess changes for 707 wilderness areas in the contiguous United States by mid-21st century under two scenarios (medium-low and high). We ranked all wilderness areas relative to each other by summing and ranking decile values for each land use, land cover, and climate variable and calculating a multivariate metric of future change. All wilderness areas were projected to experience some level of change by mid-century. The greatest land-use changes were associated with increases in agriculture, clear cutting, and developed land, while the greatest land cover changes were observed for grassland, forest, and shrubland. In 51.6% and 73.8% of wilderness areas, core area of natural vegetation surrounding wilderness was projected to decrease for the medium-low and high scenarios, respectfully. Presence of public land did not mitigate the influence of land-use change around wilderness areas. Geographically, projected changes occurred throughout the contiguous U.S., with areas in the northeast and upper Midwest projected to have the greatest land-use and climate change and the southwestern U.S. projected to undergo the greatest land cover and climate change. Our results provide insights into potential future threats to wilderness areas and the challenges associated with wilderness stewardship and climate adaptation. Despite the high degree of protection and remoteness of wilderness areas, effective management and preservation of these lands must consider future changes in land use, land cover, and climate.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Meio Selvagem , Agricultura , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Florestas , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos
6.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 6(1): 21, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873273

Assuntos
Esportes , Meio Selvagem
7.
J Environ Manage ; 304: 114276, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915390

RESUMO

The 1972 World Heritage Convention (WHC) and 1994 Global Strategy aim to preserve the outstanding universal value of internationally important cultural and natural sites within a "representative, balanced and credible" network of highly-protected areas. Increasing human pressures and shortfalls in representation have been documented across the World Heritage network, particularly in terrestrial and cultural sites, threatening the integrity and primary goals of the WHC. However, the conservation status of current and tentative (i.e., proposed) marine natural World Heritage areas (mnWHA) remains relatively unknown. We assessed the extent of recent (2013) and historical (2008-2013) cumulative human impacts and several metrics of representation (country, continent, ecoregion, wilderness, and 'at-risk' species) within existing and tentative mnWHAs. We found moderate yet increasing cumulative human impacts across most existing sites, and high or very high impacts across the majority of tentative sites. Climate change impacts comprised nearly 75% of impact scores, on average, and differences between land- and marine-based impacts across sites could help prioritise management decisions. Over 75% of marine ecoregions and 80% of 'at-risk' species considered in this study have no representation within the existing sites. We outline how prioritizing representation across tentative sites for future World Heritage listing could greatly increase these metrics. We urge the WHC to adopt quantitative, systematic and transparent evaluations of how current and tentative sites contribute to the overarching goals of maintaining a representative World Heritage network and preserving outstanding universal value for future generations.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Objetivos , Meio Selvagem
8.
Curr Biol ; 31(19): R1169-R1172, 2021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637724

RESUMO

James Watson and Oscar Venter introduce the concept of wilderness and its role in conservation efforts.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Meio Selvagem
10.
Soc Sci Med ; 289: 114411, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634735

RESUMO

While there is considerable evidence that therapeutic landscapes have a positive impact on wellbeing, we know little about the mechanisms through which this impact occurs. In this paper we go some way toward addressing this gap. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 12 people aged between 52 and 75 years of age, who are engaged in nature-adventure activity in the UK, we focus on what they understand by 'wilderness'; their experiences of nature-adventure in wilderness settings; and the impact of these experiences on their wellbeing. Moving beyond the largely behavioural focus of laboratory-based studies prevalent within environmental psychology, we highlight the importance of understanding the role of the contextual in the therapeutic relationship. That is, how relational, embodied, social, lifecourse and/or cultural factors that are constitutive of wilderness environments impact wellbeing for those engaged in nature-adventure activity in later life. In doing so, we map out a working model of the mechanisms that impact wellbeing within this context. Our data suggest that there is no one single mechanism, rather we need to think about a range of mechanisms, often operating across a series of spectra (active/passive; safety/risk; alone/socially etc) and importantly, each are connected to place. Hence, we suggest, that where that activity takes place is instrumental for wellbeing.


Assuntos
Recreação , Meio Selvagem , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(40)2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580210

RESUMO

The environmental crises currently gripping the Earth have been codified in a new proposed geological epoch: the Anthropocene. This epoch, according to the Anthropocene Working Group, began in the mid-20th century and reflects the "great acceleration" that began with industrialization in Europe [J. Zalasiewicz et al., Anthropocene 19, 55-60 (2017)]. Ironically, European ideals of protecting a pristine "wilderness," free from the damaging role of humans, is still often heralded as the antidote to this human-induced crisis [J. E. M. Watson et al., Nature, 563, 27-30 (2018)]. Despite decades of critical engagement by Indigenous and non-Indigenous observers, large international nongovernmental organizations, philanthropists, global institutions, and nation-states continue to uphold the notion of pristine landscapes as wilderness in conservation ideals and practices. In doing so, dominant global conservation policy and public perceptions still fail to recognize that Indigenous and local peoples have long valued, used, and shaped "high-value" biodiverse landscapes. Moreover, the exclusion of people from many of these places under the guise of wilderness protection has degraded their ecological condition and is hastening the demise of a number of highly valued systems. Rather than denying Indigenous and local peoples' agency, access rights, and knowledge in conserving their territories, we draw upon a series of case studies to argue that wilderness is an inappropriate and dehumanizing construct, and that Indigenous and community conservation areas must be legally recognized and supported to enable socially just, empowering, and sustainable conservation across scale.


Assuntos
Povos Indígenas/psicologia , Conhecimento , Meio Selvagem , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos
13.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 32(3): 355-364, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217603

RESUMO

When considering medical emergencies that might affect an expedition, urologic emergencies are typically not included. However, the reality is that manageable and prevalent urologic disease processes can pose significant challenges for the wilderness medicine physician and warrant consideration. The purpose of this review is to identify and discuss the most commonly encountered urologic emergencies and diseases in the wilderness setting and to prepare the expedition medicine physician for management of these urgent conditions. A PubMed and Internet search for urologic emergencies and diseases in wilderness conditions was conducted. We also searched bibliographies for useful supplemental literature and material from leading mountain medicine and wilderness medicine societies as well as population-based studies for common urologic diseases. Urologic emergencies and diseases on expeditions and in wilderness conditions have been reported primarily with retrospective case series and case reports. The most commonly reported urologic emergencies in this setting include urologic trauma, renal calculi, and urinary retention. Parasitic infections in the urinary tract also have been reported to cause urinary symptoms and urinary retention in wilderness conditions. Although urologic diseases in such conditions are uncommon, significant morbidity and even potentially life-threatening sequelae to urologic emergencies were found to occur. Major genitourinary emergencies in expedition medicine are uncommon but involve both potentially manageable urgent conditions and serious life-threatening conditions best treated with urgent stabilization and occasionally medical evacuation. The opportunity exists for increased awareness for management strategies for urologic conditions in the often remote or extreme environments of an expedition.


Assuntos
Expedições , Medicina Selvagem , Emergências , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Meio Selvagem
15.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 32(3): 332-339, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172374

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Human activity in wilderness areas has the potential to affect aquatic ecosystems, including through the introduction of microorganisms associated with fecal contamination. We examined fecal microorganism contamination in water sources (lake outlets, snowmelt streams) in the popular Absaroka Beartooth Wilderness in the United States. Although the region is remote, increasing human visitation has the potential to negatively affect water quality, with particular concern about human-derived microorganism fecal contaminants. METHODS: We used standard fecal indicator bacterial assays that quantified total coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli concentrations, together with more specific polymerase chain reaction-based microbial assays that identified possible human sources of fecal microorganisms in these waters. RESULTS: Total coliforms were detected at all lake outlets (21 of 21 sites), and E coli was detected at 11 of 21 sites. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction assays revealed the presence of human feces-derived microorganisms, albeit at abundances below the limit of detection (<10 gene copies per milliliter of water) at all but 1 of the sampling sites. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest low prevalence of water-borne pathogens (specifically E coli and human-derived Bacteroides) in this popular wilderness area. However, widespread detection of total coliforms, Bacteroides, and E coli highlight the importance of purifying water sources in wilderness areas before consumption. Specific sources of total coliforms and E coli in these waters remain unknown but could derive from wild or domesticated animals that inhabit or visit the Absaroka Beartooth Wilderness. Hence, although contamination by human fecal microorganisms appears minimal, human visitation could indirectly influence fecal contamination through domesticated animals.


Assuntos
Microbiologia da Água , Meio Selvagem , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli , Fezes , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
17.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247536, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647057

RESUMO

Population assessments of wide-ranging, cryptic, terrestrial mammals rely on camera trap surveys. While camera trapping is a powerful method of detecting presence, it is difficult distinguishing rarity from low detection rate. The margay (Leopardus wiedii) is an example of a species considered rare based on its low detection rates across its range. Although margays have a wide distribution, detection rates with camera traps are universally low; consequently, the species is listed as Near Threatened. Our 12-year camera trap study of margays in protected broadleaf forest in Belize suggests that while margays have low detection rate, they do not seem to be rare, rather that they are difficult to detect with camera traps. We detected a maximum of 187 individuals, all with few or no recaptures over the years (mean = 2.0 captures/individual ± SD 2.1), with two-thirds of individuals detected only once. The few individuals that were recaptured across years exhibited long tenures up to 9 years and were at least 10 years old at their final detection. We detected multiple individuals of both sexes at the same locations during the same survey, suggesting overlapping ranges with non-exclusive territories, providing further evidence of a high-density population. By studying the sparse annual datasets across multiple years, we found evidence of an abundant margay population in the forest of the Cockscomb Basin, which might have been deemed low density and rare, if studied in the short term. We encourage more long-term camera trap studies to assess population status of semi-arboreal carnivore species that have hitherto been considered rare based on low detection rates.


Assuntos
Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/métodos , Florestas , Panthera/fisiologia , Meio Selvagem , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Belize , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Feminino , Longevidade , Masculino
18.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 368(3)2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507263

RESUMO

Empirical evidence supports selection of soil microbial communities by edaphic properties across large spatial scales; however, less is known at smaller spatial scales. The goal of this research was to evaluate relationships between ecosystem characteristics and bacterial community structure/function at broad taxonomic resolutions in soils across small spatial scales. We employed 16S rRNA gene sequencing, community-level physiological profiling and soil chemical analysis to address this goal. We found weak relationships between gradients in soil characteristics and community structure/function. Specific operational taxonomic units did not respond to edaphic variation, but Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Nitrospirae shifted their relative abundances. High metabolic diversity within the bacterial communities was observed despite general preference of Tween 40/80. Carbon metabolism patterns suggest dominance of functional specialists at our times of measurement. Pairwise comparison of carbon metabolism patterns indicates high levels of functional redundancy. Lastly, at broad taxonomic scales, community structure and function weakly covary with edaphic properties. This evidence suggests that stochasticity or unmeasured environmental gradients may be influential in bacterial community assembly in soils at small spatial scales.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Carbono/metabolismo , Microbiota/fisiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo/química , Texas , Meio Selvagem
19.
Psychol Rep ; 124(2): 417-437, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694463

RESUMO

In recent decades, there has been an increasing volume of research aimed out quantifying the extent to which the natural environment can assist in restoring mental, emotional, and physical well-being. It is commonly assumed that natural environments are more restorative than urban environments. However, studies addressing this issue use a variety of methods for data collection making it difficult to compare the findings of different studies. The research reported here uses a meta-analysis aimed at estimating how much natural environments are perceived as being more restorative than urban environments. We investigated the role of moderator variables such as research design, kind of natural environment, participants, measurement instruments used or the context in which the data were collected. PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Scopus, SpringerLINK, Web of Science online databases were used to identity all peer-review articles on restorativeness published to date (k = 167). Reference sections of obtained papers were examined for additional studies. Only 22 studies met inclusion criteria (direct exposure to environment, comparison between one outdoor environment with natural element and one without natural element, and restorativeness measured by self-report scale) and were included in meta-analysis. Results show that natural environments are perceived to be more restorative than urban environments (Cohen's d (confidence interval) = 1.99 (1.38-2.61)). Significant heterogeneity between the study was found (Q(19) = 503.16, p < .001) and variability within studies was very high (I2 = 97%). However, subsequent univariate moderator analyses were not significant. Other methodological differences (e.g., lighting conditions) could explain this variability. We concluded that the variability in studies is more likely to be due to individual differences (e.g., age, connections to nature, and environmental attitude) than the methodological differences.


Assuntos
Emoções , Saúde , Rejuvenescimento , Meio Selvagem , Cidades , Humanos , Saúde Mental
20.
Microb Ecol ; 81(1): 253-266, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803364

RESUMO

Habitats are changing rapidly around the globe and urbanization is one of the primary drivers. Urbanization changes food availability, environmental stressors, and the prevalence of disease for many species. These changes can lead to divergence in phenotypic traits, including behavioral, physiological, and morphological features between urban and rural populations. Recent research highlights that urbanization is also changing the gut microbial communities found in a diverse group of host species. These changes have not been uniform, leaving uncertainty as to how urban habitats are shaping gut microbial communities. To better understand these effects, we investigated the gut bacterial communities of White-Crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys) populations along an urbanization gradient in the San Francisco Bay area. We examined how gut bacterial communities vary with the local environment and host morphological characteristics. We found direct effects of environmental factors, including urban noise levels and territory land cover, as well as indirect effects through body size and condition, on alpha and beta diversity of gut microbial communities. We also found that urban and rural birds' microbiomes differed in which variables predicted their diversity, with urban communities driven by host morphology, and rural communities driven by environmental factors. Elucidating these effects provides a better understanding of how urbanization affects wild avian physiology.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Pardais/microbiologia , Urbanização , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Masculino , Ruído/efeitos adversos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , São Francisco , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Selvagem
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