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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679579

RESUMO

Forest fires are the main cause of desertification, and they have a disastrous impact on agricultural and forest ecosystems. Modern fire detection and warning systems rely on several techniques: satellite monitoring, sensor networks, image processing, data fusion, etc. Recently, Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms have been applied to fire recognition systems, enhancing their efficiency and reliability. However, these devices usually need constant data transmission along with a proper amount of computing power, entailing high costs and energy consumption. This paper presents the prototype of a Video Surveillance Unit (VSU) for recognising and signalling the presence of forest fires by exploiting two embedded Machine Learning (ML) algorithms running on a low power device. The ML models take audio samples and images as their respective inputs, allowing for timely fire detection. The main result is that while the performances of the two models are comparable when they work independently, their joint usage according to the proposed methodology provides a higher accuracy, precision, recall and F1 score (96.15%, 92.30%, 100.00%, and 96.00%, respectively). Eventually, each event is remotely signalled by making use of the Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) protocol to ensure that the personnel in charge are able to operate promptly.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Incêndios Florestais , Ecossistema , Inteligência Artificial , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Aprendizado de Máquina
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679790

RESUMO

As technologies advance and applications for uncrewed aircraft increase, the capability to conduct automated air-to-air refueling becomes increasingly important. This paper provides a review of required sensors to enable automated air-to-air refueling for an uncrewed aircraft, as well as a review of published research on the topic. Automated air-to-air refueling of uncrewed aircraft eliminates the need for ground infrastructure for intermediate refueling, as well as the need for on-site personnel. Automated air-to-air refueling potentially supports civilian applications such as weather monitoring, surveillance for wildfires, search and rescue, and emergency response, especially when airfields are not available due to natural disasters. For military applications, to enable the Air Wing of the Future to strike at the ranges required for the mission, both crewed and uncrewed aircraft must be capable of air-to-air refueling. To cover the sensors required to complete automated air-to-air refueling, a brief history of air-to-air refueling is presented, followed by a concept of employment for uncrewed aircraft refueling, and finally, a review of the sensors required to complete the different phases of automated air-to-air refueling. To complete uncrewed aircraft refueling, the uncrewed receiver aircraft must have the sensors required to establish communication, determine relative position, decrease separation to astern position, transition to computer vision, position keep during refueling, and separate from the tanker aircraft upon completion of refueling. This paper provides a review of the twelve sensors that would enable the uncrewed aircraft to complete the seven tasks required for automated air-to-air refueling.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Incêndios Florestais , Tecnologia
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(1): e2251553, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36637821

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study examines whether clinic visits and online search interest for psoriasis were associated with wildfire air pollution after a delayed lag period.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Psoríase , Incêndios Florestais , Humanos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Assistência Ambulatorial
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36613138

RESUMO

Major wildfires and their smoke pose a threat to public health and are becoming more frequent in the United States, particularly in California and other populated, fire-prone states. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how California residents view wildfires and engage in risk-reducing behaviors during wildfire events. Currently, there is a knowledge gap concerning this area of inquiry. We disseminated a 40-question cross-sectional survey to explore wildfire perception and knowledge along with related risk-reducing measures and policies among 807 adult residents in the fire-prone region of Orange County, California. Results demonstrated that nearly all (>95%) participants had (or knew someone who had) previously experienced a wildfire. Female gender, knowing a wildfire victim and reporting to have a general interest/passion for environmental issues were the three factors most strongly associated with (1) wildfires (and smoke) being reported as a threat, (2) participants' willingness to evacuate if threatened by a nearby wildfire, and (3) participants' willingness to support a wildfire-related tax increase (p < 0.05). The majority (57.4%) of participants agreed that the occurrence of wildfires is influenced by climate change, with the most commonly reported risk-reducing actions (by 44% of participants) being informational actions (e.g., tracking the news) rather than self-motivated physical safety actions (e.g., using an air purifier) (29%). The results of this study can help to inform decision- and policy-making regarding future wildfire events as well as allow more targeted and effective public health messaging and intervention measures, in turn helping to reduce the risk associated with future wildfire/smoke episodes.


Assuntos
Incêndios Florestais , Adulto , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Fumaça , California , Percepção
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 294, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633718

RESUMO

Predicting potential fire hazard zones in natural areas is one of the means of mitigating and managing fires. The current research focuses on the prioritizing of elements which contribute to the spread of fire and the special zoning of potentially dangerous areas in addition to the pinpointing of locations for the establishment of fire stations in forested areas in the Shimbar national reserve based on historical data spanning 2001 to 2018. The study utilizes elements (physiological, vegetation cover, meteorological, anthropological factors) contributing to wildfires as inputs into an artificial neural network and the development of a fuzzy inference system in order to produce fire zoning maps for the region under study. The map is divided into five sectors, i.e., minimum, low, moderate, high, and maximum risk of fire. The validation of the fire zoning map was evaluated at 0.83 and the RMSE error was 0.75. The results obtained show that 20% of the area under study is within the average risk category, 11% is within the high-risk category, and 10% is within the very high-risk category of a potential fire hazard. The most important variables were distance from a flowing source, i.e., river or stream, the land formation type, elevation, and the minimum temperature. The identification of suitable locations for firefighting stations was carried out by merging the fuzzy inference system model and Arc GIS, and the results obtained defined 16 possible locations. It was concluded that the application of hybrid models when dealing with the aforementioned variables is effective when seeking to determine locations for the establishment of firefighting stations and rural safety services; moreover, such hybrid models are highly efficacious for determining of fire hazard zones. It is proposed that hybrid models be applied on a large scale for the prevention, control, and management of fires throughout the country.


Assuntos
Incêndios Florestais , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Irã (Geográfico) , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Florestas , Redes Neurais de Computação
7.
Environ Int ; 171: 107719, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592523

RESUMO

Though fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has decreased in the United States (U.S.) in the past two decades, the increasing frequency, duration, and severity of wildfires significantly (though episodically) impairs air quality in wildfire-prone regions and beyond. Increasing PM2.5 concentrations derived from wildfire smoke and associated impacts on public health require dedicated epidemiological studies. Main sources of PM2.5 data are provided by government-operated monitors sparsely located across U.S., leaving several regions and potentially vulnerable populations unmonitored. Current approaches to estimate PM2.5 concentrations in unmonitored areas often rely on big data, such as satellite-derived aerosol properties and meteorological variables, apply computationally-intensive deterministic modeling, and do not distinguish wildfire-specific PM2.5 from other sources of emissions such as traffic and industrial sources. Furthermore, modelling wildfire-specific PM2.5 presents a challenge since measurements of the smoke contribution to PM2.5 pollution are not available. Here, we aim to use statistical methods to isolate wildfire-specific PM2.5 from other sources of emissions. Our study presents an ensemble model that optimally combines multiple machine learning algorithms (including gradient boosting machine, random forest and deep learning), and a large set of explanatory variables to, first, estimate daily PM2.5 concentrations at the ZIP code level, a relevant spatiotemporal resolution for epidemiological studies. Subsequently, we propose a novel implementation of an imputation approach to estimate the wildfire-specific PM2.5 concentrations that could be applied geographical regions in the US or worldwide. Our ensemble model achieved comparable results to previous machine learning studies for PM2.5 prediction while avoiding processing larger, computationally intensive datasets. Our study is the first to apply a suite of statistical models using readily available datasets to provide daily wildfire-specific PM2.5 at a fine spatial scale for a 15-year period, thus providing a relevant spatiotemporal resolution and timely contribution for epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Incêndios Florestais , Estados Unidos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , California
8.
Headache ; 63(1): 94-103, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651537

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of short-term exposure to overall fine particulate matter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5 ) and wildfire-specific PM2.5 with emergency department (ED) visits for headache. BACKGROUND: Studies have reported associations between PM2.5 exposure and headache risk. As climate change drives longer and more intense wildfire seasons, wildfire PM2.5 may contribute to more frequent headaches. METHODS: Our study included adult Californian members (aged ≥18 years) of a large de-identified commercial and Medicare Advantage claims database from 2006 to 2020. We identified ED visits for primary headache disorders (subtypes: tension-type headache, migraine headache, cluster headache, and "other" primary headache). Claims included member age, sex, and residential zip code. We linked daily overall and wildfire-specific PM2.5 to residential zip code and conducted a time-stratified case-crossover analysis considering 7-day average PM2.5 concentrations, first for primary headache disorders combined, and then by headache subtype. RESULTS: Among 9898 unique individuals we identified 13,623 ED encounters for primary headache disorders. Migraine was the most frequently diagnosed headache (N = 5534/13,623 [47.6%]) followed by "other" primary headache (N = 6489/13,623 [40.6%]). For all primary headache ED diagnoses, we observed an association of 7-day average wildfire PM2.5 (odds ratio [OR] 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95-1.44 per 10 µg/m3 increase) and by subtype we observed increased odds of ED visits associated with 7-day average wildfire PM2.5 for tension-type headache (OR 1.42, 95% CI 0.91-2.22), "other" primary headache (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.96-2.05), and cluster headache (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.71-2.35), although these findings were not statistically significant under traditional null hypothesis testing. Overall PM2.5 was associated with tension-type headache (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.03-1.62), but not migraine, cluster, or "other" primary headaches. CONCLUSIONS: Although imprecise, these results suggest short-term wildfire PM2.5 exposure may be associated with ED visits for headache. Patients, healthcare providers, and systems may need to respond to increased headache-related healthcare needs in the wake of wildfires and on poor air quality days.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Cefaleia Histamínica , Cefaleia do Tipo Tensional , Incêndios Florestais , Adulto , Humanos , Idoso , Estados Unidos , Adolescente , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumaça/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Cefaleia Histamínica/induzido quimicamente , Hospitalização , Medicare , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , California/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise
9.
J Environ Manage ; 330: 117193, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603264

RESUMO

There are areas of the United States that have no formalized fire protection. These lands are colloquially referred to as "no-man's land" but are recognized by many land management agencies as unprotected lands. Unprotected lands are generally rural landscapes and exist in areas that are sparsely populated and lack formalized fire protection. In some cases, lands that are designated as wildland-urban interface are comprised of significant portions of unprotected lands. Currently, there has been little in the way of research completed that pertains to the overall amount of land that is designated as unprotected. Additionally, definitional obfuscation between land management agencies, researchers, and land holders lead to confusion about the overall level of formal fire protection landscapes do or do not have. Research surrounding the social characteristics of human populations that inhabit unprotected lands is even more limited than the geospatial attributes of those landscapes. This research is a case study of one community, located in Washington State, that is located on unprotected lands. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 32 participants who live in the study area. Participants were asked questions to assess their level of knowledge about unprotected lands and to determine their preferences regarding the introduction of formalized fire protection. Over the course of the field work, data was also gathered pertaining to participants' capacity to adapt to wildfire and the social characteristics that are present within the community that could impact their ability to 'live with wildfire.' We discovered that a large proportion of participants were unaware that they had no formalized fire protection and displayed significant lack of knowledge about unprotected lands. Those participants, however, shared social characteristics with the participants that were aware of their level of fire protection that promote a sense of collective self-sufficiency and a rejection of outside interference. Those participants who were aware of the unprotected lands situation did profess a need for some type of additional fire protection for their community, but in general, participants favored managing wildfire risk on their own.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Incêndios Florestais , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Incêndios/prevenção & controle , Washington
10.
Biomolecules ; 13(1)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671540

RESUMO

Emissions generated by wildfires are a growing threat to human health and are characterized by a unique chemical composition that is tightly dependent on geographic factors such as fuel type. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of RNA molecules proven to be critical to many biological processes, and their condition-specific expression patterns are emerging as prominent prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers for human disease. We utilized a new air-liquid interface (ALI) direct exposure system that we designed and validated in house to expose immortalized human tracheobronchial epithelial cells (AALE) to two unique wildfire smokes representative of geographic regions (Sierra Forest and Great Basin). We conducted an RNAseq analysis on the exposed cell cultures and proved through both principal component and differential expression analysis that each smoke has a unique effect on the LncRNA expression profiles of the exposed cells when compared to the control samples. Our study proves that there is a link between the geographic origin of wildfire smoke and the resulting LncRNA expression profile in exposed lung cells and also serves as a proof of concept for the in-house designed ALI exposure system. Our study serves as an introduction to the scientific community of how unique expression patterns of LncRNAs in patients with wildfire smoke-related disease can be utilized as prognostic and diagnostic tools, as the current roles of LncRNA expression profiles in wildfire smoke-related disease, other than this study, are completely uncharted.


Assuntos
RNA Longo não Codificante , Incêndios Florestais , Humanos , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Exposição Ambiental , Pulmão
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673971

RESUMO

California plans to substantially increase the use of prescribed fire to reduce risk of catastrophic wildfires. Although for a beneficial purpose, prescribed fire smoke may still pose a health concern, especially among sensitive populations. We sought to understand community health experience, adaptive capacity, and attitudes regarding wildland and prescribed fire smoke to inform public health guidance. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of medically vulnerable persons in a rural, high fire risk county (N = 106, 76% > 65 years) regarding wildfire and prescribed smoke health effects; health protective actions; information needs; and support for fire management policies. Qualitative comments were reviewed for context and emerging themes. More than half (58%) of participants reported health impacts from wildfire smoke; 26% experienced impacts from prescribed fire smoke. Participants expressed strong support for prescribed fire, although also concerns about safety and smoke. Respondents reported taking actions to reduce smoke exposure (average 5 actions taken per person), but many (47%) lacked confidence that they could successfully protect their health. Persons who were satisfied with the information received tended to be more confident in their ability to protect their health compared to those who were not satisfied (61% vs. 35%). More information was desired on many topics, including notifications about prescribed fire, health protection and exposure reduction. As California expands use of prescribed fire, the need for effective health protective communication regarding smoke is increasingly vital. We recommend seeking solutions that strengthen community resilience and address equity for vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Incêndios Florestais , Adulto , Humanos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Populações Vulneráveis , Estudos Transversais , California , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674083

RESUMO

Wildfires constitute a source of contamination to both freshwater and marine ecosystems. This study aimed to compare the antioxidant defense response of the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea and the marine cockle (Cerastoderma edule) to wildfire ash exposure and the concomitant metal body burden. Organisms were exposed to different concentrations (0%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, and 100%) of aqueous extracts of Eucalypt ash (AEAs) from a moderate-to-high severity wildfire. The activity of various enzymes, as well as lipid peroxidation, protein content, and metal body burden, were determined after 96 h of exposure. A significant increase in the protein content of soft tissues was observed for C. edule at AEA concentrations ≥ 25%, unlike for C. fluminea. Similarly, significant effects on lipid peroxidation were observed for cockles, but not for clams. For both species, a significant effect in the total glutathione peroxidase activity was observed at AEA concentrations ≥ 25%. Relative to the control, AEAs-exposed clams showed higher Cd content, whereas AEAs-exposed cockles showed higher Cu content, thus exhibiting different responses to the exposure to wildfire ash. The susceptibility of bivalves to ashes, at environmentally relevant concentrations, raises concern about the effects of post-fire runoff to bivalve species.


Assuntos
Corbicula , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Incêndios Florestais , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Metais/toxicidade , Metais/metabolismo , Corbicula/metabolismo , Proteínas , Água Doce , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 864: 160968, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549541

RESUMO

Natural toxicants, particularly methoxy phenols (MPs) generated by wildfire lignin, can accumulate in the environment, and cause serious health hazards in living organisms. Although the toxicity of MPs such as guaiacol and catechol has recently been described, there is minimal evidence of ecotoxicological effects of syringol. As a result, this study focuses on determining the toxicity by evaluating the cytotoxic and teratogenic effects of syringol in vitro and in vivo in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells and zebrafish embryos, respectively. The ecotoxicity of syringol was predicted to be 63.8 mg/L using the ECOSAR (ECOlogical Structure Activity Relationship) prediction tool, and molecular docking analysis was used to determine the interaction and binding affinities of syringol with human apoptotic proteins in silico. In HEK-293 cells, exposure of syringol (0.5-2 mg/L) has induced cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. In zebrafish larvae, exposure of syringol (0.5-2 mg/L) has induced dose-dependent embryo toxic effects (or growth abnormalities such as yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, skeletal abnormality, and hyperemia), and changes in growth morphometrics (head height, eye, yolk sac, and pericardial area, heart rate) in particular, the heart rate of larvae was found to be significantly decreased (p<0.001). After a 4-day experimental trial, the accumulated concentration of syringol in zebrafish larvae was confirmed both qualitatively (HPLC-MS - High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass spectrometry) and quantitatively (LC-QTOF-HRMS - Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupolar Time of Flight-High Resolution Mass spectrometry). The craniofacial abnormalities induced by syringol exposure (0.5-2 mg/L) were detected as anomalies in cartilaginous development and locomotor deficits using alcian blue staining and locomotor analyses, respectively. Significant increase in oxidative stress parameters (including reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, lactate dehydrogenase and nitric oxide production) (p<0.001) and substantial decrease in glutathione levels were observed (p<0.05) in syringol exposed zebrafish larvae through enzymatic analysis. Additionally, through acridine orange staining and gene expression analyses, syringol (2 mg/L) was found to activate apoptosis in zebrafish larvae. Considering the cytotoxic, embryotoxic (teratogenicity), and oxidative stress-related apoptotic effects of syringol in the zebrafish model, syringol has the potential to emerge as a potent environmental toxicant posing serious health hazards in many living systems; however, further research on its toxicological effects on the actual ecosystem and in higher animal models is required to confirm its consequences.


Assuntos
Teratogênese , Incêndios Florestais , Animais , Humanos , Peixe-Zebra , Ecossistema , Células HEK293 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Embrião não Mamífero , Estresse Oxidativo , Larva
16.
J Environ Manage ; 329: 117059, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36566736

RESUMO

Rainsplash erosion on forested hillslopes can be increased by both wildfires and post-fire salvage logging, especially under semi-arid Mediterranean conditions. However, few studies have compared rainsplash erosion among forest sites impacted by logging to other forest areas. To fill this gap, this study has evaluated surface runoff and soil erosion in a burnt and logged (manually or mechanically) pine forest of Central-Eastern Spain under simulated rainfall and compared it to unlogged and unburnt plots. Compared to the unburnt plots, surface runoff significantly increased (over 150%) in logged areas, with a peak of 220% on the areas directly subjected to logging machinery. Peak runoff was substantially increased by fire (+130%) and less by logging (+8. Soil loss due to rainsplash erosion was about 235% (manual logging) to 750% (mechanical logging) higher compared to the unburnt plots. Wildfire exerted a much higher soil disturbance compared to salvage logging, with a soil hydrological response that can be up to an order of magnitude higher. The increased runoff and erosion rates in response to wildfire and logging were ascribed to soil compaction, which increased on average 60% on logged plots as well as to the removal of vegetation cover (-80%), whereas soil roughness played a minor role. From these results, we suggest using lightweight machinery in burnt soils, to reduce surface runoff and erosion. The possibility of building contour felled log debris using the burnt wood may also be considered, in order to retain the eroded sediments.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Pinus , Incêndios Florestais , Espanha , Florestas , Solo
17.
J Environ Manage ; 328: 116788, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36525738

RESUMO

Wildfires have changed in recent decades. The catastrophic wildfires make it necessary to have accurate predictive models on a country scale to organize firefighting resources. In Mediterranean countries, the number of wildfires is quite high but they are mainly concentrated around summer months. Because of seasonality, there are territories where the number of fires is zero in some months and is overdispersed in others. Zero-inflated negative binomial mixed models are adapted to this type of data because they can describe patterns that explain both number of fires and their non-occurrence and also provide useful prediction tools. In addition to model-based predictions, a parametric bootstrap method is applied for estimating mean squared errors and constructing prediction intervals. The statistical methodology and developed software are applied to model and to predict number of wildfires in Spain between 2002 and 2015 by provinces and months.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Incêndios Florestais , Espanha , Modelos Estatísticos , Estações do Ano
18.
J Environ Manage ; 328: 116918, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36529003

RESUMO

Understanding whether and how wildfires exacerbate COVID-19 outcomes is important for assessing the efficacy and design of public sector responses in an age of more frequent and simultaneous natural disasters and extreme events. Drawing on environmental and emergency management literatures, we investigate how wildfire smoke (PM2.5) impacted COVID-19 infections and deaths during California's 2020 wildfire season and how public housing resources and hospital capacity moderated wildfires' effects on COVID-19 outcomes. We also hypothesize and empirically assess the differential impact of wildfire smoke on COVID-19 infections and deaths in counties exhibiting high and low social vulnerability. To test our hypotheses concerning wildfire severity and its disproportionate impact on COVID-19 outcomes in socially vulnerable communities, we construct a county-by-day panel dataset for the period April 1 to November 30, 2020, in California, drawing on publicly available state and federal data sources. This study's empirical results, based on panel fixed effects models, show that wildfire smoke is significantly associated with increases in COVID-19 infections and deaths. Moreover, wildfires exacerbated COVID-19 outcomes by depleting the already scarce hospital and public housing resources in local communities. Conversely, when wildfire smoke doubled, a one percent increase in the availability of hospital and public housing resources was associated with a 2 to 7 percent decline in COVID-19 infections and deaths. For California communities exhibiting high social vulnerability, the occurrence of wildfires worsened COVID-19 outcomes. Sensitivity analyses based on an alternative sample size and different measures of social vulnerability validate this study's main findings. An implication of this study for policymakers is that communities exhibiting high social vulnerability will greatly benefit from local government policies that promote social equity in housing and healthcare before, during, and after disasters.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desastres , Incêndios Florestais , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , California/epidemiologia , Material Particulado
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 861: 160734, 2023 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481144

RESUMO

Stability of soil organic matter (SOM) is considered to be governed by different protection mechanisms including physical protection (PP), biochemical protection (BCP) and physical plus biochemical protection (PBCP). The thermostability of SOM protected by different mechanisms is unknown, despite its importance for understanding the stability of soil organic carbon (SOC) under frequently occurred wildfires. In this study, we reported for the first time that pyrolysis of SOM under different protection mechanisms in three types of soil (shrub soil, cultivated soil, and meadow soil) followed their own distinct modes regardless of soil type. Specifically, SOM-PP, SOM-PBCP and SOM-BCP from each type of soil were pyrolyzed in the double-step-shape, the mono-step-shape and the linear modes, respectively, when they were heated from room temperature to 800 °C by thermogravimeter. There were more thermolabile organic fractions (pyrolysis temperature < 200 °C) enriched in SOM-PP, while more thermostable organic fractions enriched in SOM-BCP and SOM-PBCP. These findings are of great importance for deeper insight into stability responses of SOM with different occurrence of wildfire.


Assuntos
Carbono , Incêndios Florestais , Solo , Temperatura , Temperatura Alta
20.
Environ Int ; 171: 107704, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wildfire-related fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has many adverse health impacts, but its impacts on human epigenome are unknown. We aimed to evaluate the associations between long-term exposure to wildfire-related PM2.5 and blood DNA methylation, and whether the associations differ from those with non-wildfire-related PM2.5. METHODS: We studied 479 Australian women comprising 132 twin pairs and 215 of their sisters. Blood-derived DNA methylation was measured using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Data on 3-year (year of blood collection and previous two years) average wildfire-related and non-wildfire-related PM2.5 at 0.01°×0.01° spatial resolution were created by combining information from satellite observations, chemical transport models, and ground-based observations. Exposure data were linked to each participant's home address, assuming the address did not change during the exposure window. For DNA methylation of each cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG), and for global DNA methylation represented by the average of all measured CpGs or CpGs in repetitive elements, we evaluated their associations with wildfire- or non-wildfire-related PM2.5 using a within-sibship analysis controlling for factors shared between siblings and other important covariates. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were defined by comb-p and DMRcate. RESULTS: The 3-year average wildfire-related PM2.5 (range: 0.3 to 7.6 µg/m3, mean: 1.6 µg/m3) was negatively, but not significantly (p-values greater than 0.05) associated with all seven global DNA methylation measures. There were 26 CpGs and 33 DMRs associated with wildfire-related PM2.5 (Bonferroni adjusted p-value < 0.05) mapped to 47 genes enriched for pathways related to inflammatory regulation and platelet activation. These genes have been related to many human diseases or phenotypes e.g., cancer, mental disorders, diabetes, obesity, asthma, blood pressure. These CpGs, DMRs and enriched pathways did not overlap with the 1 CpG and 7 DMRs associated with non-wildfire-related PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to wildfire-related PM2.5 was associated with various blood DNA methylation signatures in Australian women, and these were distinct from those associated with non-wildfire-related PM2.5.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Incêndios Florestais , Humanos , Feminino , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Metilação de DNA , Austrália , Material Particulado/análise
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