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2.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 57, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Young workers (aged 15-24 years) experience higher rates of job-related injury compared with workers aged 25-44 years in the United States. Young workers may have limited or no prior work experience or safety training, which can contribute to their injury risk. In 2018, Alaska had the second highest work-related fatality rate and 14th highest non-fatal injury rate in the United States. This study aimed to characterize nonfatal and fatal occupational injuries among young workers in Alaska. METHODS: To describe injury patterns among Alaska young workers from 2014-2018, we used data from four datasets: Alaska Workers' Compensation, Alaska Occupational Injury Surveillance System, Alaska Trauma Registry, and Alaska Fishermen's Fund. The datasets were merged two at a time and filtered by the worker characteristics (e.g., age and sex) and incident characteristics (e.g., date of injury). Duplicates were then manually identified between the datasets using the variables above. The injury narrative and Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System codes were used last to verify true duplicates. Descriptive analyses were performed after the duplicates were merged. RESULTS: During the 5-year study period 2014-2018, young workers experienced 20 fatal and 12,886 nonfatal injuries. Residents of Alaska comprised 85% of nonfatal and 70% of fatal injuries. The top three major occupation groups with the highest number of injuries were production (1,391, 14%), food preparation (1,225, 12%), and transportation/material moving (1,166, 11%). The most common events leading to injuries were struck by object or equipment (2,027, 21%), overexertion involving outside sources (1,385, 14%), and struck against object or equipment (905, 9%). The most common nature of injuries were sprains/strains/tears (3,024, 29%), cuts/lacerations (1,955, 19%), and bruises/contusions (1,592, 15%). CONCLUSION: Although progress has been made in reducing worker injuries, Alaskan young workers still experience injuries and fatalities frequently. Based on findings, there is a clear need for employers, researchers, public health professionals, parents, and young workers to prioritize young worker safety through an integrated approach, from education and training to adequate workplace supervision and support.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Ocupacionais , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Alaska/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Dados , Acidentes de Trabalho , Local de Trabalho , Indenização aos Trabalhadores , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Emerg Med ; 23(1): 2, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-hospital blood transfusion (PHBT) is a safe and gradually expanding procedure applied to trauma patients. A proper decision to activate PHBT with the presently limited diagnostic options at the site of an incident poses a challenge for pre-hospital crews. The purpose of this study was to compare the selected scoring systems and to determine whether they can be used as valid tools in identifying patients with PHBT requirements. METHODS: A retrospective single-center study was conducted between June 2018 and December 2020. Overall, 385 patients (aged [median; IQR]: 44; 24-60; 73% males) were included in this study. The values of five selected scoring systems were calculated in all patients. To determine the accuracy of each score for the prediction of PHBT, the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was used and to measure the association, the odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals was counted (Fig. 1). RESULTS: Regarding the proper indication of PHBT, shock index (SI) and pulse pressure (PP) revealed the highest value of AUC and sensitivity/specificity ratio (SI: AUC 0.88; 95% CI 0.82-0.93; PP: AUC 0.85 with 95% CI 0.79-0.91). CONCLUSION: Shock index and pulse pressure are suitable tools for predicting PHBT in trauma patients.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Ferimentos e Lesões , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Pressão Sanguínea , Hospitais , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36613175

RESUMO

Trauma-related injuries in traffic-accident victims can be quite serious. Evaluating the factors contributing to traffic accidents is critical for the effective design of programs aimed at reducing traffic accidents. Therefore, this study identified which factors related to traffic accidents are associated with injury severity in hospitalized victims. Factors related to traffic accidents, injury severity, disability and data collected from blood toxicology were evaluated, along with associated severity and disability indices with data collected from toxicology on victims of traffic accidents at the largest tertiary hospital in Latin America. One hundred and twenty-eight victims of traffic accidents were included, of whom the majority were young adult men, motorcyclists, and pedestrians. The most frequent injuries were traumatic brain injury and lower-limb fractures. Alcohol use, hit-and-run victims, and longer hospital stays were shown to lead to greater injury severity. Women, elderly individuals, and pedestrians tend to suffer greater disability post-injury. Therefore, traffic accidents occur more frequently among young male adults, motorcyclists, and those who are hit by a vehicle, with trauma to the head and lower limbs being the most common injury. Injury severity is greater in pedestrians, elderly individuals and inebriated individuals. Disability was higher in older individuals, in women, and in pedestrians.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Fraturas Ósseas , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Acidentes de Trânsito , Motocicletas , Extremidade Inferior , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1391, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697474

RESUMO

The injury severity score (ISS) is used in daily practice to evaluate the severity of trauma patients; however, the score is not always consistent with the prognosis. After injury, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS) are related to the prognosis of trauma patients. We aimed to evaluate the associations between the immune response and prognosis in trauma patients. Patients who admitted to the Trauma Intensive Care Unit (ICU) were eligible. Whole blood samples were collected at admission, and then 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after admission. Natural killer (NK) cells, lymphocyte subset population and cytokines release were identified using flow cytometry. We grouped patients by their ISS (≤ 25 and > 25 as very severe injury) and ICU stay (≤ 10 days as a short ICU stay and > 10 days as a long ICU stay) for evaluation. Fifty-three patients were enrolled. ICU stay but not ISS was close correlated with activity daily living (ADL) at discharge. Patients with a long ICU stay had an immediate increase in NK cells followed by lymphopenia which persisted for 48 h. Immediate activation of CD8+ T cells and then exhaustion with a higher programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) expression and suppression of CD4+ T cells with a shift to an anti-inflammatory Th2 phenotype were also observed in the patients with a long ICU stay. When the patients were grouped by ISS, the dynamics of immune responses were inconsistent to those when the patients were grouped by ICU stay. Immune responses are associated with the prognosis of trauma patients, however the currently used clinical parameters may not accurately reflect immune responses. Further investigations are needed to identify accurate predictors of prognosis in trauma patients.


Assuntos
Imunidade , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Hospitalização , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais , Células Th2 , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos
7.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 42, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nursing experts regularly visited the community to deliver safety education on the prevention of unintentional injuries in children to the parents of children aged 0-6 years and to pregnant women in a maternity school. This was undertaken to explore the effects of the measure on preventing unintentional injuries in children in Chizhou, China. METHODS: Using the convenience sampling method, the guardians(it means mother in this study)of children were investigated. The nursing experts visited communities in which the number of nursing experts is declining. Data on unintentional injuries in children in the previous year were collected retrospectively. RESULTS: After the nursing experts delivered safety education to the community, the scores of the questionnaire on unintentional injury prevention knowledge completed by children's guardians increased significantly (p < 0.01). Among the children whose guardians completed the questionnaire, there were 157 cases of unintentional injury in 2020 and 103 cases in 2021 (p < 0.05). The types of unintentional injuries included scratches, falls, sharp object injuries, swallowing of foreign bodies, burns and traffic accidents; there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05). However, there were significant differences in terms of gender ratio and location (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In conjunction with the maternity school for pregnant women and the vaccination programme, nursing experts delivered safety education regarding unintentional injuries in children; this may have promoted safety and protection awareness in the children's guardians and reduced unintentional injuries.


Assuntos
Lesões Acidentais , Queimaduras , Ferimentos e Lesões , Gravidez , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidentes de Trânsito , Participação da Comunidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
8.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 94(2): 212-219, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694332

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Thromboelastography (TEG)-derived maximum amplitude-reaction time (MA-R) ratio that accounts for both hypocoagulable and hypercoagulable changes in coagulation is associated with poor outcomes in adults. The relationship between these TEG values and outcomes has not been studied in children. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, a level I pediatric trauma center database was queried for children younger than 18 years who had a TEG assay on admission between 2016 and 2020. Demographics, injury characteristics, and admission TEG values were recorded. The MA-R ratio was calculated and divided into quartiles. Main outcomes included mortality, transfusion within 24 hours of admission, and thromboembolism. A logistic regression model was generated adjusting for age, Injury Severity Score, injury mechanism, admission shock, and Glasgow Coma Scale. RESULTS: In total, 657 children were included, of which 70% were male and 75% had blunt mechanism injury. The median (interquartile range) age was 11 (4-14) years, the median (interquartile range) Injury Severity Score was10 (5-22), and in-hospital mortality was 7% (n = 45). Of these patients, 17% (n = 112) required transfusion. Most R and MA values were within normal limits. On unadjusted analysis, the lowest MA-R ratio quartile was associated with increased mortality (15% vs. 4%, 5%, and 4%, respectively; p < 0.001) and increased transfusion need (26% vs. 12%, 16%, and 13%, respectively; p = 0.002) compared with higher quartiles. In the logistic regression models, a low MA-R ratio was independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 4.4 [1.9-10.2]) and increased need for transfusion within 24 hours of admission (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 2.0 [1.2-3.4]) compared with higher MA-R ratio. There was no association between MA-R ratio and venous thromboembolic events (venous thromboembolic event rate by quartile: 4%, 2%, 1%, and 3%). CONCLUSION: Although individual admission TEG values are not commonly substantially deranged in injured children, the MA-R ratio is an independent predictor of poor outcome. Maximum amplitude-reaction time ratio may be a useful prognostic tool in pediatric trauma; validation is necessary. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/Care Management; Level III.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , Trombofilia , Tromboembolia Venosa , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Adolescente , Feminino , Tromboelastografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo de Reação , Trombofilia/complicações , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/complicações
9.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 94(2): 205-211, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Balanced transfusion is lifesaving for hemorrhagic shock. The American Red Cross critical blood shortage in 2022 threatened the immediate availability of blood. To eliminate waste, we reviewed the utility of transfusions per unit to define expected mortality at various levels of balanced transfusion. METHODS: A retrospective study of 296 patients receiving massive transfusion on presentation at a level 1 trauma center was performed from January 2018 to December 2021. Units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and platelets received in the first 4 hours were recorded. Patients were excluded if they died in the emergency department, died on arrival, received <2 U PRBCs or FFP, or received PRBC/FFP >2:1. Primary outcomes were mortality and odds of survival to discharge. Subgroups were defined as transfused if receiving 2 to 9 U PRBCs, massive transfusion for 10 to 19 U PRBCs, and ultramassive transfusion for ≥20 U PRBCs. RESULTS: A total of 207 patients were included (median age, 32 years; median Injury Severity Score, 25; 67% with penetrating mechanism). Mortality was 29% (61 of 207 patients). Odds of survival is equal to odds of mortality at 11 U PRBCs (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-1.79). Beyond 16 U PRBCs, odds of mortality exceed survival (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.16-0.82). Survival approaches zero >36 U PRBCs (OR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.00-0.56). Subgroup mortality rates increased with unit transfused (16% transfused vs. 36% massive transfusion, p = 0.003; 36% massive transfusion vs. 67% ultramassive transfusion, p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Mortality increases with each unit balanced transfusion. Surgeons should view efforts heroic beyond 16 U PRBCs/4 hours and near futile beyond 36 U PRBCs/4 hours. While extreme outliers can survive, consider cessation of resuscitation beyond 36 U PRBCs. This is especially true if hemostasis has not been achieved or blood supplies are limited. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and Epidemiologic; Level IV.


Assuntos
Choque Hemorrágico , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Adulto , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transfusão de Sangue , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Ressuscitação , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
10.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 94(2): 295-303, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American College of Surgeons (ACS) requires trauma centers to use six minimum criteria (ACS-6) for full trauma team activation. Our goal was to evaluate the effect of adding age-adjusted shock index (SI) to the ACS-6 for the prediction of severe injury among pediatric trauma patients with the hypothesis that SI would significantly improve sensitivity with an acceptable decrease in specificity. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of prospectively collected EMS and trauma registry data from two urban pediatric trauma centers. Age-adjusted SI thresholds were calculated as heart rate divided by systolic blood pressure using 2020 Pediatric Advanced Life Support SI vital sign ranges and previously published Shock Index, Pediatric Adjusted (SIPA) thresholds. The primary outcome was a composite of emergency operative (within 1 hour of arrival) or emergency procedural intervention (EOPI) or Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than 15. Sensitivities, specificities, and 95% CIs were calculated for the ACS-6 alone and in combination with age-adjusted SI. RESULTS: There were 8,078 patients included; 20% had an elevated age-adjusted SI and 17% met at least one ACS minimum criterion; 1% underwent EOPI; and 17% had ISS >15. Sensitivity and specificity of the ACS-6 for EOPI or ISS > 5 were 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 41-50%) and 89% (95% CI, 81-96%). Inclusion of Pediatric Advanced Life Support-SI and SIPA resulted in sensitivities of 51% (95% CI, 47-56%) and 69% (95% CI, 65-72%), and specificities of 80% (95% CI, 71-89%) and 60% (95% CI, 53-68%), respectively. Similar trends were seen for each secondary outcome. CONCLUSION: In this cohort of pediatric trauma registry patients, the addition of SIPA to the ACS-6 for trauma team activation resulted in significantly increased sensitivity for EOPI or ISS greater than 15 but poor specificity. Future investigation should explore using age-adjusted shock index in a two-tiered trauma activation system, or in combination with novel triage criteria, in a population-based cohort. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic Tests or Criteria; Level II.


Assuntos
Choque , Cirurgiões , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Criança , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Centros de Traumatologia , Triagem/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Choque/diagnóstico
11.
J Trauma Nurs ; 30(1): 20-26, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 challenged U.S. trauma centers to grapple with demands for expanded services with finite resources while also experiencing a concurrent increase in violent injuries. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of COVID-19 on the roles and duties of U.S. hospital-based injury prevention professionals. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional survey study of hospital-based injury prevention professionals was conducted between June 2021 and August 2021. Participants were recruited from six organizational members of the national Trauma Prevention Coalition, including the American Trauma Society, Emergency Nurses Association, Injury Free Coalition for Kids, Safe States Alliance, Society for Trauma Nurses, and Trauma Center Association of America. Results were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: A total of 216 participants affiliated with 227 trauma centers responded. The following changes were reported during 2020: change in injury prevention position (range = 31%-88%); change in duties (range = 92%-100%); and change to hospital-based injury prevention programs (range = 75%-100%). Sixty-one (43%) single-center participants with a registered nurse license were reassigned to clinical duties compared with six (10%) nonlicensed participants (OR = 5.6; 95% CI [1.96, 13.57]; p < .001). Injury prevention programs at adult-only and combined adult and pediatric trauma centers had higher odds of suspension than pediatric-only trauma centers (OR = 3.6; 95% CI [1.26, 10.65]; p < .017). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 response exposed the persistent inequity and limited prioritization of injury prevention programming as a key deliverable for trauma centers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Centros de Traumatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Hospitais , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
12.
Accid Anal Prev ; 182: 106964, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638723

RESUMO

Pedestrians and bicyclists from marginalized and underserved populations experienced disproportionate fatalities and injury rates due to traffic crashes in the US. This disparity among road users of different races and the increasing trend of traffic risk for underserved racial groups called for an urgent agenda for transportation policy making and research to ensure equity in roadway safety. Pedestrian and bicyclist crashes involved drivers and pedestrians/bicyclists; the latter were usually victims. Traditional safety studies did not account for the interaction between the two parties and assumed that they were independent from each other. In this study we paired the driver and pedestrian/bicyclist involved in the same crash to understand the socioeconomic and demographic make-up of the two parties involved in crashes and assessed the geographic distribution of these crashes and crash-contributing factors. For this purpose, we applied thelatent class clustering analysis (LCA) to classify different crash types and analyze the patterns of the crashes based on the income and ethnicity of both drivers and victims involved in pedestrian and bicyclist crashes. We then used random forest algorithms and partial dependence plots (PDPs) to model and interpreted the contributing factors of the clusters in both pedestrian and bicyclist models. The clustering results showed a pattern of social segregation in pedestrian and bicyclist crashes that drivers and victims with similar socioeconomic characteristics tend to be involved in one crash. Pedestrian/bicyclist exposure, driver's age, victim's age, year of the car in use, annual average daily traffic (AADT), speed limit, roadbed width, and lane width were the most influential factors contributing to this pattern. Crashes that involved drivers and victims with lower income and non-white ethnicity tended to happen in the location with higher pedestrian/bicyclist exposure, higher speed limit, and wider road. The findings of this research can help to inform the decision-making process for improving safety to ensure equitable and sustainable safety for all road users and communities.


Assuntos
Pedestres , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Acidentes de Trânsito , Ciclismo/lesões , Análise por Conglomerados
14.
R I Med J (2013) ; 106(1): 29-33, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36706205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the epidemiology and clinical outcomes of older adult pedestrian injury in Rhode Island. METHODS: Descriptive univariate analysis of data from Rhode Island Hospital's trauma registry on patients admitted for pedestrian-related injuries between 2017-2020. RESULTS: The rate of pedestrian injury in older adults was 1.5 times the rate in adults age 18-49. Injured older adult pedestrians experienced a higher rate of serious adverse events during hospitalization (18.0%) than their younger counterparts (10.3%) and had almost twice the mortality rate (14.9% versus 7.6%). Across ages, pedestrian injury rates are higher in densely populated areas, and those injured disproportionately are male and have comorbid alcohol and substance use disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk of pedestrian injury in older adults is evident and necessitates intervention. Further research is warranted on the root causes of higher pedestrian injury and mortality rates among older adults.


Assuntos
Pedestres , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Acidentes de Trânsito , Rhode Island/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Hospitalização , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
15.
Air Med J ; 42(1): 19-23, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early identification of the subset of trauma patients with acute hemorrhage who require resuscitation via massive transfusion protocol (MTP) initiation is vital because such identification can ensure the availability of resuscitation products immediately upon hospital arrival and result in improved clinical outcomes, including reduced mortality. However, there are currently few studies on the predictors of MTP in the unique setting of flight transport. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of adult trauma patients transported from the scene via flight to 6 trauma centers between March 1, 2019, and January 21, 2021. Patients were included if they had emergency medical service vitals documented. The variables collected included demographics, comorbidities, cause of injury, body regions injured, in-flight treatments, and transport vitals. The primary outcome was MTP initiated by the receiving hospital. RESULTS: A total of 212 patients were included, of whom 16 (8%) had MTP initiated. During flight transport, 24 (11%) received whole blood, 9 (4%) received packed red blood cells, 11 (5%) had a tourniquet placed, and 5 (2%) received tranexamic acid. In adjusted analyses, receiving whole blood during transport (odds ratio [OR] = 8.52, P < .01), systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mm Hg (OR = 8.07, P < .01), and a Glasgow Coma Scale score < 13 (OR = 8.38, P < .01) were independently associated with MTP. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective cohort study showed that 3 factors readily available in the flight setting-receipt of whole blood, systolic blood pressure, and Glasgow Coma Scale score-are strong predictors of MTP at the receiving facility, particularly when considered in aggregate.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/terapia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
16.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280345, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36716316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults have become a significant portion of the trauma population. Exploring their specificities is crucial to better meet their specific needs. The primary objective was to evaluate the temporal changes in the incidence, demographic and trauma characteristics, injury pattern, in-hospital admission, complications, and outcome of older trauma patients. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Quebec Trauma Registry. Patients aged ≥16 years admitted to one of the three adult level-I trauma centers between 2003 and 2017 were included. Descriptive analyses and trend-tests were performed to describe temporal changes. RESULTS: A total of 53,324 patients were included, and 24,822 were aged ≥65 years. The median [IQR] age increased from 57[36-77] to 67[46-82] years, and the proportion of older adults rose from 41.8% in 2003 to 54.1% in 2017. Among those, falls remain the main mechanism (84.7%-88.3%), and the proportion of severe thorax (+8.9%), head (+8.7%), and spine (+5%) injuries significantly increased over time. The proportion of severely injured older patients almost doubled (17.6%-32.3%), yet their mortality decreased (-1.0%). Their average annual bed-days consumption also increased (+15,004 and +1,437 in non-intensive care wards and ICU, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Since 2014, older adults have represented the majority of admissions in Level-I trauma centers in Québec. Their bed-days consumption has greatly increased, and their injury pattern and severity have deeply evolved, while we showed a decrease in mortality.


Assuntos
Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Hospitalização , Sistema de Registros , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1681, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36717730

RESUMO

Trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) is a risk factor for death and is associated with deviations in thrombin generation. TIC prevalence and thrombin levels increase with age. We assayed in vivo and ex vivo thrombin generation in injured patients (n = 418) to specifically investigate how age impacts thrombin generation in trauma and to address the prognostic ability of thrombin generation. Biomarkers of thrombin generation were elevated in young (< 40 years) and older (≥ 40 years) trauma patients. In vivo thrombin generation was associated with Injury Severity Score (ISS) and this association was stronger in young than older patients. In vivo thrombin generation decreased faster after trauma in the young than the older patients. Across age groups, in vivo thrombin generation separated patients dying/surviving within 30 days at a level comparable to the ISS score (AUC 0.80 vs. 0.82, p > 0.76). In vivo and ex vivo thrombin generation also predicted development of thromboembolic events within the first 30 days after the trauma (AUC 0.70-0.84). In conclusion, younger trauma patients mount a stronger and more dynamic in vivo thrombin response than older patients. Across age groups, in vivo thrombin generation has a strong ability to predict death and/or thromboembolic events 30 days after injury.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , Traumatismo Múltiplo , Tromboembolia , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Lactente , Trombina , Traumatismo Múltiplo/complicações , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Tromboembolia/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações
18.
Crit Care ; 27(1): 25, 2023 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In-hospital acute resuscitation in trauma has evolved toward early and balanced transfusion resuscitation with red blood cells (RBC) and plasma being transfused in equal ratios. Being able to deliver this ratio in prehospital environments is a challenge. A combined component, like leukocyte-depleted red cell and plasma (RCP), could facilitate early prehospital resuscitation with RBC and plasma, while at the same time improving logistics for the team. However, there is limited evidence on the clinical benefits of RCP. OBJECTIVE: To compare prehospital transfusion of combined RCP versus RBC alone or RBC and plasma separately (RBC + P) on mortality in trauma bleeding patients. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively on patients who received prehospital transfusion (RBC + thawed plasma/Lyoplas or RCP) for traumatic hemorrhage from six prehospital services in England (2018-2020). Retrospective data on patients who transfused RBC from 2015 to 2018 were included for comparison. The association between transfusion arms and 24-h and 30-day mortality, adjusting for age, injury mechanism, age, prehospital heart rate and blood pressure, was evaluated using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Out of 970 recruited patients, 909 fulfilled the study criteria (RBC + P = 391, RCP = 295, RBC = 223). RBC + P patients were older (mean age 42 vs 35 years for RCP and RBC), and 80% had a blunt injury (RCP = 52%, RBC = 56%). RCP and RBC + P were associated with lower odds of death at 24-h, compared to RBC alone (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.69 [95%CI: 0.52; 0.92] and 0.60 [95%CI: 0.32; 1.13], respectively). The lower odds of death for RBC + P and RCP vs RBC were driven by penetrating injury (aOR 0.22 [95%CI: 0.10; 0.53] and 0.39 [95%CI: 0.20; 0.76], respectively). There was no association between RCP or RBC + P with 30-day survival vs RBC. CONCLUSION: Prehospital plasma transfusion for penetrating injury was associated with lower odds of death at 24-h compared to RBC alone. Large trials are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Adulto , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Plasma , Hemorragia/terapia , Ressuscitação , Eritrócitos , Inglaterra , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
19.
Can J Surg ; 66(1): E32-E41, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comparisons across trauma systems are key to identifying opportunities to improve trauma care. We aimed to compare trauma service structures, processes and outcomes between the English National Health Service (NHS) and the province of Quebec, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre cohort study including admissions of patients aged older than 15 years with major trauma to major trauma centres (MTCs) from 2014/15 to 2016/17. We compared structures descriptively, and time to MTC and time in the emergency department (ED) using Wilcoxon tests. We compared mortality, and hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) using multilevel logistic regression with propensity score adjustment, stratified by body region of the worst injury. RESULTS: The sample comprised 36 337 patients from the NHS and 6484 patients from Quebec. Structural differences in the NHS included advanced prehospital medical teams (v. "scoop and run" in Quebec), helicopter transport (v. fixed-wing aircraft) and trauma team leaders. The median time to an MTC was shorter in Quebec than in the NHS for direct transports (1 h v. 1.5 h, p < 0.001) but longer for transfers (2.5 h v. 6 h, p < 0.001). Time in the ED was longer in Quebec than in the NHS (6.5 h v. 4.0 h, p < 0.001). The adjusted odds of death were higher in Quebec for head injury (odds ratio [OR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.51) but lower for thoracoabdominal injuries (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.52-0.90). The adjusted median hospital LOS was longer for spine, torso and extremity injuries in the NHS than in Quebec, and the median ICU LOS was longer for spine injuries. CONCLUSION: We observed significant differences in the structure of trauma care, delays in access and risk-adjusted outcomes between Quebec and the NHS. Future research should assess associations between structures, processes and outcomes to identify opportunities for quality improvement.


Assuntos
Medicina Estatal , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Idoso , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Tempo de Internação , Centros de Traumatologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
20.
BMC Emerg Med ; 23(1): 5, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little evidence suggests that trauma centres are associated with a lower risk of mortality in severely injured patients (Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥16) with multiple injuries in China. The objective of this study was to determine the association between the establishment of trauma centres and mortality among severely injured patients with multiple injuries and to identify some risk factors associated with mortality. METHODS: A retrospective single-centre study was performed including trauma patients admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University (FAHNU) between January 2016 and December 2021. To determine whether the establishment of a trauma centre was an independent predictor of mortality, logistic regression analysis and propensity score matching (PSM) were performed. RESULTS: Among 431 trauma patients, 172 were enrolled before the trauma centre was built, while 259 were included after the trauma centre was built. A higher frequency of older age and traffic accident injury was found in patients diagnosed after the trauma centre was built. The times for the completion of CT examinations, emergency operations and blood transfusions in the "after trauma centre" group were shorter than those in the "before trauma centre" group. However, the total expenditure of patients was increased. In the overall group, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that a higher ISS was an independent predictor for worse mortality (OR = 17.859, 95% CI, 8.207-38.86, P < 0.001), while the establishment of a trauma centre was favourable for patient survival (OR = 0.492), which was also demonstrated by PSM. After determining the cut-off value of time for the completion of CT examination, emergency operation and blood transfusion, we found that the values were within the "golden one hour", and it was better for patients when the time was less than the cut-off value. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that for severely injured patients, the establishment of a trauma centre was favourable for a lower mortality rate. Furthermore, the completion of a CT examination, emergency surgery and blood transfusion in a timely manner and a lower ISS were associated with a decreased mortality rate.


Assuntos
Traumatismo Múltiplo , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Hospitalização , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento
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