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1.
Int J Med Educ ; 13: 176-186, 2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909338

RESUMO

Objectives: To design, apply, evaluate, and analyse a pedagogical model to enhance nurses' ability to create pedagogical encounters to support patients' learning. Methods: The study relies on an educational design research approach. A pedagogical model based on learning theories was designed, applied, evaluated, and analysed in a specialist nursing programme in cancer care. All students (n=28) who attended the programme accepted to participate in the evaluation of the model. Their perception of the learning activities was evaluated in a questionnaire, and 16 (57%) students responded. The students' learning was assessed in written assignments, including all students. Descriptive statistics, content analysis and theoretical reasoning, were used to analyse data and interpret the usefulness and shortcomings of the model. Results: The most appreciated learning activities were to study learning theories, observe pedagogical encounters, act as a critical friend, and document one's own pedagogical encounters. The written assignments about observing and performing their own pedagogical encounters with patients showed students' increased awareness of how to support patients' learning. The clinical supervisors' lack of pedagogical knowledge inhibited the feedback on students' performances. Conclusions: The theoretical analysis of the evaluation identified strengths and needs for further development. The strengths tend to be the ongoing learning process created by learning activities supporting students to continuously study, experience, and apply their knowledge. Nurse supervisors and other stakeholders at the clinics are suggested to be involved in improving the design and require pedagogical competence. Further research should include observational and interview studies related to students' performance in pedagogical encounters.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Modelos Educacionais , Redação
3.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 7501765, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35800693

RESUMO

The accuracy of video and goal enables students to learn and strengthen their ability constantly. Strengthening our country's study initiative degree can promote student study more effectively. As a new teaching method, students can not only obtain the basic knowledge, learning priorities, and difficulties needed for learning through video, but also understand the content of the text, the content of the article, and even cultivate students' interest in many related languages, such as writing, text, sound, image, color, and video, which can be displayed, clarified, and displayed intuitively, creating a free and relaxed learning environment, an interesting background teaching process, encouraging students to experience emotion, including physical experience, and being open and open. Establishing a complete and comprehensive ideological channel to further improve students' acceptance of information is helpful for students' analysis and training, understanding, and evaluation. Therefore, this paper first identifies video and excavates the intrinsic value of video application. This can provide technical and methodological support for the design of video teaching system.


Assuntos
Idioma , Aprendizagem , Humanos , Motivação , Estudantes , Ensino , Redação
6.
Ann Sci ; 79(3): 292-319, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802391

RESUMO

In an unpublished anatomical treatise written around 1670, the English anatomist and fellow of the Royal Society of London Edmund King proposed that the human body was ultimately an assemblage of tubes and contained liquids. Without literally seeing every of its constituents to be tubular, how did King come to posit a tubular body? This article tackles the question by examining King's inquiry about the pulse against his framing of the circulatory system into a universally tubular model. Asking how King registered this model despite the limited visibility of vascularity in practice, I discuss the place of analogy in his anatomical observation. I argue that analogy constituted an essential strategy for extending what King had perceived to account for the hardly perceptible nuances of the human body. I concentrate on two of his analogies, in which the artery was compared to the cord and the ureter. These two analogies revealed remarkable epistemic potency in representing and reasoning the pulse as the inherent motion of the living artery. They suggest that in seventeenth-century observation accounts, analogy was not simply a rhetoric suspicious of violating the principle of scientific empiricism; rather, they opened up ways of seeing and imagining nature.


Assuntos
Anatomistas , Humanos , Idioma , Londres , Redação
7.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269544, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834491

RESUMO

Ancient undeciphered scripts present problems of different nature, not just tied to linguistic identification. The undeciphered Cypro-Minoan script from second millennium BCE Cyprus, for instance, currently does not have a standardized, definitive inventory of signs, and, in addition, stands divided into three separate subgroups (CM1, CM2, CM3), which have also been alleged to record different languages. However, this state of the art is not consensually accepted by the experts. In this article, we aim to apply a method that can aid to shed light on the tripartite division, to assess if it holds up against a multi-pronged, multi-disciplinary approach. This involves considerations linked to paleography (shapes of individual signs) and epigraphy (writing style tied to the support used), and crucially, deep learning-based strategies. These automatic methods, which are widely adopted in many fields such as computer vision and computational linguistics, allow us to look from an innovative perspective at the specific issues presented by ancient, poorly understood scripts in general, and Cypro-Minoan in particular. The usage of a state-of-the-art convolutional neural model that is unsupervised, and therefore does not use any prior knowledge of the script, is still underrepresented in the study of undeciphered writing systems, and helps to investigate the tripartite division from a fresh standpoint. The conclusions we reached show that: 1. the use of different media skews to a large extent the uniformity of the sign shapes; 2. the application of several neural techniques confirm this, since they highlight graphic proximity among signs inscribed on similar supports; 3. multi-stranded approaches prove to be a successful tool to investigate ancient scripts whose language is still unidentified. More crucially, these aspects, together, point in the same direction, namely the validation of a unitary, single Cypro-Minoan script, rather than the current division into three subgroups.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Conhecimento , Idioma , Linguística , Redação
8.
Vertex ; 33(156): 44-50, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The analysis of Editorials is a little explored topic, which can facilitate the understanding of historical processes and changes in Psychiatry. In the case of de Vertex Revista Argentina de Psiquiatría, the Editorials were written by the same person for 30 years. The most frequently used thematic areas were studied, using graph theory, to characterize the orientation of the editorial lines. This analysis was complemented with semi-structured interviews with the Editor. METHOD: The most significant words of the Editorials were determined and analyzed through a system of graph theory, divided by lustrums. RESULTS: The thematic areas of the journal were concentrated in five main themes that were reiterated in each lustrum: Ethics, History, Mental Health, Psychiatry and, in the last two, Politics. The editorials showed different degrees of complexity, being those of the first 15 years simpler than the last ones. The recurrence tendencies of the thematic areas of the Editorials were related to expressions arising from the interviews. CONCLUSION: The analysis with graph theory has made it possible to visualize aspects of the de Vertex Revista Argentina de Psiquiatría Editorials, their degree of thematic complexity and how some themes were reiterated over and over again throughout the 30 years of the journal.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Argentina , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Redação
9.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0267590, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857768

RESUMO

The analysis of an author's writing style implies the characterization and identification of the style in terms of a set of features commonly called linguistic features. The analysis can be extrinsic, where the style of an author can be compared with other authors, or intrinsic, where the style of an author is identified through different stages of his life. Intrinsic analysis has been used, for example, to detect mental illness and the effects of aging. A key element of the analysis is the style markers used to model the author's writing patterns. The style markers should handle diachronic changes and be thematic independent. One of the most commonly used style marker in extrinsic style analysis is n-gram. In this paper, we present the evaluation of traditional n-grams (words and characters) and dependency tree syntactic n-grams to solve the task of detecting changes in writing style over time. Our corpus consisted of novels by eleven English-speaking authors. The novels of each author were organized chronologically from the oldest to the most recent work according to the date of publication. Subsequently, two stages were defined: initial and final. In each stage three novels were assigned, novels of the initial stage corresponded to the oldest and those at the final stage to the most recent novels. To analyze changes in the writing style, novels were characterized by using four types of n-grams: characters, words, Part-Of-Speech (POS) tags and syntactic relations n-grams. Experiments were performed with a Logistic Regression classifier. Dimension reduction techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) algorithms were evaluated. The results obtained with the different n-grams indicated that all authors presented significant changes in writing style over time. In addition, representations using n-grams of syntactic relations have achieved competitive results among different authors.


Assuntos
Linguística , Redação , Idioma , Linguística/métodos , Semântica , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado
10.
Gastroenterol Nurs ; 45(4): 208-209, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35901241

Assuntos
Redação , Humanos
11.
Nurse Pract ; 47(8): 5, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35877139
12.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 223: 105482, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35785589

RESUMO

Number writing involves transcoding from number words (e.g., "thirty-two") to written digit strings (32) and is an important unique predictor of arithmetic. The existing longitudinal evidence about the relation between transcoding and arithmetic is mostly language specific. In languages with number word inversion (e.g., German), the order of tens and units is transposed in spoken number words compared with Arabic numbers. This makes transcoding more challenging than in languages without number word inversion (e.g., English). In the current study, we aimed to understand whether the contribution of number writing to the development of arithmetic is similar in languages with and without number word inversion. German-speaking children (n = 166) and English-speaking children (n = 201) were followed over the first 3 years of primary school. In a series of multiple linear regressions, we tested whether number writing of multi-digit numbers was a significant unique predictor of arithmetic after controlling for well-known non-numerical predictors (nonverbal reasoning and working memory) and numerical predictors (symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude comparison). Number writing in Grade 1 predicted arithmetic in Grades 1, 2, and 3 over and above the other predictors. Crucially, number writing performance was of comparable importance for arithmetic development in German- and English-speaking children. Our findings extend previous evidence by showing that transcoding predicts the development of arithmetic skills during the first 3 years of primary school in languages with and without number word inversion.


Assuntos
Idioma , Resolução de Problemas , Criança , Humanos , Matemática , Memória de Curto Prazo , Redação
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(7): e1010164, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862309

RESUMO

Conferences are spaces to meet and network within and across academic and technical fields, learn about new advances, and share our work. They can help define career paths and create long-lasting collaborations and opportunities. However, these opportunities are not equal for all. This article introduces 10 simple rules to host an inclusive conference based on the authors' recent experience organizing the 2021 edition of the useR! statistical computing conference, which attracted a broad range of participants from academia, industry, government, and the nonprofit sector. Coming from different backgrounds, career stages, and even continents, we embraced the challenge of organizing a high-quality virtual conference in the context of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and making it a kind, inclusive, and accessible experience for as many people as possible. The rules result from our lessons learned before, during, and after the organization of the conference. They have been written mainly for potential organizers and selection committees of conferences and contain multiple practical tips to help a variety of events become more accessible and inclusive. We see this as a starting point for conversations and efforts towards building more inclusive conferences across the world. * Translated versions of the English abstract and the list of rules are available in 10 languages in S1 Text: Arabic, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Spanish, Tamil, and Thai.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia , Itália , Pandemias , Redação
14.
Rev Neurol ; 75(4): 77-86, 2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35866532

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ten years ago, Revista de Neurologia published the validation of a new free tool: the Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory (PSI), from which an abbreviated version (PSI-20) was subsequently extracted. Over this decade, authors have demonstrated its excellent psychometric properties and clinical usefulness. This systematic review, conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement, aims to analyse the body of research that has used the PSI or PSI-20 in order to assess its relevance in other research teams, other clinical populations and even other cultures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search was conducted to find articles written in Spanish, English, French and Portuguese that have used the inventory to carry out empirical research. Finally, 56 articles were selected. RESULTS: The results show that the PSI and the PSI-20 have been widely used in Spain as well as in other Spanish-speaking countries (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador or Venezuela) and employed to a moderate extent in non-Spanish-speaking countries (Belgium, Brazil, Sweden or Switzerland). The clinical populations in which they have been used range from acquired brain injury and degenerative dementias to chronic pain, fibromyalgia, addictive behaviours or personality disorders. Given their versatility, they have also been used with the general population, including prison inmates, women in rural areas, university students or to study cognitive reserve. CONCLUSIONS: The PSI and PSI-20 are useful instruments for research and clinical use, and the next challenge is to validate an English version, which is currently being worked on.


TITLE: Diez años del inventario de síntomas prefrontales (ISP). Una revisión sistemática.Introducción. Hace 10 años, Revista de Neurología publicaba la validación de una nueva herramienta gratuita: el inventario de síntomas prefrontales (ISP), de la que posteriormente se extrajo su versión abreviada (ISP-20). Durante esta década, los autores han acreditado sus excelentes propiedades psicométricas y su utilidad clínica. La presente revisión sistemática, sometida a la declaración PRISMA, tiene el objetivo de analizar el corpus de investigación que ha utilizado el ISP o el ISP-20, para valorar su trascendencia en otros equipos de investigación, en otras poblaciones clínicas e incluso en otras culturas. Materiales y métodos. Se buscaron artículos que hayan utilizado el inventario para realizar trabajos empíricos, en español, inglés, francés y portugués. Finalmente, se seleccionaron 56 trabajos. Resultados. Los resultados muestran que el ISP y el ISP-20 han tenido un uso elevado en España, así como en otros países de habla hispana (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador o Venezuela), y un uso moderado en países de habla no hispana (Bélgica, Brasil, Suecia o Suiza). Las poblaciones clínicas en las que se han utilizado abarcan desde el daño cerebral adquirido y las demencias degenerativas hasta el dolor crónico, la fibromialgia, las conductas adictivas o los trastornos de la personalidad. Dada su versatilidad, también se han usado con población general, incluyendo población reclusa, mujeres en entorno rural, estudiantes universitarios o para el estudio de la reserva cognitiva. Conclusiones. El ISP y el ISP-20 son instrumentos útiles para la investigación y la clínica, cuyo siguiente desafío es la validación de una versión en inglés, en la que se está trabajando.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Argentina , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Psicometria , Redação
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 249, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35841067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the publication rate of free paper abstracts presented by the postgraduate (PG) trainees and determine the reasons for non-publication. A mixed methods study was conducted. PG trainees presenting free papers at the at the Pakistan Society of Chemical Pathologist conferences from 2012 to 2018 were included. Three databases were searched to identify if the abstracts were published or not. The PG trainee authors of abstracts not published as full manuscript, were surveyed to determine the barriers and challenges in publishing a manuscript. RESULTS: The average rate of full manuscript publication was 51.8% (n = 93/177) for the abstracts presented by the PG trainees. Publication rate was higher for oral (n = 73/119, 61.3%) compared to poster presentation (n = 20/58, 34.5%). Most of the manuscripts were published after two years of abstract presentation. The survey showed that the main challenges to publishing an abstract were lack of time, limited scientific writing or submission skills, lack of funding for publication fee, and negative or statistically non-significant results. This reflects a need to arrange workshops/symposia for the PG trainees of low-middle income country (LMIC) to enhance their writing and time management skills and improve the full manuscript publication rate from LMICs.


Assuntos
Indexação e Redação de Resumos , Editoração , Bases de Dados Factuais , Sociedades Médicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Redação
17.
AMA J Ethics ; 24(7): E676-680, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838397

RESUMO

The popularity of portraits of clinicians during the COVID-19 pandemic suggested the importance of visual representation of what mass illness demands of us all-and particularly those on the front lines of health care. In addition to surges in variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, persons of Asian descent have endured waves of bigotry and violence. With the myriad of natural and man-made threats confronting the world today, an ancient Confucian proverb on the common good prompts us to recognize humanity's shared future. Although text-based, calligraphy is visually engaging and reminds us of the importance and poignancy of words that are well chosen and beautifully rendered. This article displays and describes Chinese calligraphies by Terry Zhizhong Yuan, commissioned by the AMA Journal of Ethics, to commemorate the American Medical Association's 175th anniversary and the extraordinary times in which we live.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , China , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Redação
18.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 14(6): 765-772, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Strong writing skills are critical to the pharmacy profession. This paper describes the design, delivery, and impact of a course intended to develop pharmacy students' scientific writing, peer assessment, and critical appraisal skills. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: The course was offered in the final year of an undergraduate pharmacy program with students whose first language is not English. In this course, students write two structured pharmacy review articles (PRA) based on assigned scientific research articles and peer assess each others' written PRAs. Students also critically appraise scientific research articles on a weekly basis, complete one pre-journal club written reflective critique based on a assigned scientific research article, and moderate one journal club session. FINDINGS: Course rubrics were developed and validated by the course coordinators. A survey administered to students enrolled in the course identified that 85% of the students perceived that they gained adequate writing skills in the course. More than 70% of the students indicated they had the necessary skills to evaluate their peers' written assessments, and 93% felt comfortable providing and receiving feedback from peers. More than 90% of the students indicated that writing PRAs and the peer assessment improved their critical and analytical skills. SUMMARY: This course improved students' scientific writing, peer assessment, and critical appraisal skills. Further practice is required to reinforce the skills learned and to strengthen the writing skills of students.


Assuntos
Educação em Farmácia , Estudantes de Farmácia , Currículo , Humanos , Revisão por Pares , Redação
19.
Fam Pract Manag ; 29(4): 3-4, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35820190
20.
FEBS J ; 289(13): 3592-3602, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792782

RESUMO

Literature reviews are valuable resources for the scientific community. With research accelerating at an unprecedented speed in recent years and more and more original papers being published, review articles have become increasingly important as a means to keep up to date with developments in a particular area of research. A good review article provides readers with an in-depth understanding of a field and highlights key gaps and challenges to address with future research. Writing a review article also helps to expand the writer's knowledge of their specialist area and to develop their analytical and communication skills, amongst other benefits. Thus, the importance of building review-writing into a scientific career cannot be overstated. In this instalment of The FEBS Journal's Words of Advice series, I provide detailed guidance on planning and writing an informative and engaging literature review.


Assuntos
Redação
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