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1.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209163

RESUMO

The feasibility of obtaining resistant starch type III (RS3) from malanga flour (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), as an unconventional source of starch, was evaluated using the hydrothermal treatment of autoclaving. The physicochemical characterization of RS3 made from malanga flour was carried out through the evaluation of the chemical composition, color attributes, and thermal properties. In addition, the contents of the total starch, available starch, resistant starch, and retrograded resistant starch were determined by in vitro enzymatic tests. A commercial corn starch sample was used to produce RS3 and utilized to compare all of the analyses. The results showed that native malanga flour behaved differently in most of the evaluations performed, compared to the commercial corn starch. These results could be explained by the presence of minor components that could interfere with the physicochemical and functional properties of the flour; however, the RS3 samples obtained from malanga flour and corn starch were similar in their thermal and morphological features, which may be related to their similarities in the content and molecular weight of amylose, in both of the samples. Furthermore, the yields for obtaining the autoclaved powders from corn starch and malanga flour were similar (≈89%), which showed that the malanga flour is an attractive raw material for obtaining RS3 with adequate yields, to be considered in the subsequent research.


Assuntos
Farinha , Amido Resistente , Xanthosoma/química , Zea mays/química
2.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 97: 319-359, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311903

RESUMO

Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott and Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott are the most popular tubers among the Araceas family. Their chemical composition related to their nutritional benefits could make these rhizomes a valid option for the nutritional and technological improvement of food products. This chapter provide a clarification about the correct nomenclature of both tubers giving an insight around the principle components and their health effects. The scientific literature review has primarily highlighted several in vitro and animal studies where the consumption (leaves and whole tuber) of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott and Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott was related with certain antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic and prebiotic effects. Owing to their functional properties, different component from these rhizomes, specially starch, mucilage and powders are being used by the food industry. Their ability to behave as thickener and gelling agent has allowed their incorporation in baked food, food paste and beverages. This chapter suggests the development of more research around these rhizomes since they could potentially play, with other crops, an important role in the future sustainable strategies to feed the planet.


Assuntos
Araceae , Colocasia , Xanthosoma , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Tubérculos
3.
Mol Ecol ; 30(5): 1311-1321, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459427

RESUMO

Animals forming social groups that include breeders and nonbreeders present evolutionary paradoxes; why do breeders tolerate nonbreeders? And why do nonbreeders tolerate their situation? Both paradoxes are often explained with kin selection. Kin selection is, however, assumed to play little or no role in social group formation of marine organisms with dispersive larval phases. Yet, in some marine organisms, recent evidence suggests small-scale patterns of relatedness, meaning that this assumption must always be tested. Here, we investigated the genetic relatedness of social groups of the emerald coral goby, Paragobiodon xanthosoma. We genotyped 73 individuals from 16 groups in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, at 20 microsatellite loci and estimated pairwise relatedness among all individuals. We found that estimated pairwise relatedness among individuals within groups was significantly higher than the pairwise relatedness among individuals from the same reef, and pairwise relatedness among individuals from the same reef was significantly higher than the pairwise relatedness among individuals from different reefs. This spatial signature suggests that there may be very limited dispersal in this species. The slightly positive relatedness within groups creates the potential for weak kin selection, which may help to resolve the paradox of why breeders tolerate subordinates in P. xanthosoma. The other paradox, why nonbreeders tolerate their situation, is better explained by alternative hypotheses such as territory inheritance, and ecological and social constraints. We show that even in marine animals with dispersive larval phases, kin selection needs to be considered to explain the evolution of complex social groups.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Perciformes , Xanthosoma , Animais , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Papua Nova Guiné , Perciformes/genética , Seleção Genética , Comportamento Social
4.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245120, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411726

RESUMO

Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott) is an exotic species from tropical America that is widely cultivated in Ethiopia for its edible cormels and leaves. There is a dearth of information on the genetic diversity of Ethiopian cocoyam. In order to evaluate and select cocoyam germplasm for breeding and conservation, genetic diversity of 100 Ethiopian cocoyam accessions (65 green- and 35 purple- cocoyam) were analyzed using 29 morphological traits (16 qualitative and 13 quantitative) and 12 SSR loci. Two classes of qualitative traits were observed. ANOVA revealed significant variation in 11 (84.6%) of the 13 studied quantitative traits. The SSR marker analysis showed high genetic diversity. A total of 36 alleles were detected with a range of 2 to 5 (average of 3.273) alleles per locus. The average observed heterozygosity (Ho) and expected heterozygosity (He) values across populations were 0.503 and 0.443, respectively. The analysis of molecular variance showed that the variation among populations, among individuals within populations, and within individuals explained 14%, 18%, and 68% of the total variation, respectively. Cluster analysis grouped the accessions irrespective of the collection sites. A dendrogram based on Nei's standard genetic distance grouped the green cocoyam accessions together while the purple cocoyam accessions occupied a separate position within the dendrogram. Significant variation in quantitative traits and the high level of genetic diversity revealed by the SSR markers suggest that diverse cocoyam accessions, probably with multiple lineage, were introduced multiple times, through multiple routes and probably by multiple agents, an hypothesis that needs futher testing and analyis. The crop, therefore, needs more research efforts commensurate with its economic and social values than it has been accorded thus far. Further study is recommended to clarify the taxonomic status of Ethiopian cocoyam accesions and to trace their evolutionary relationships with Xanthosoma species elsewhere.


Assuntos
Alelos , Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogenia , Xanthosoma/genética , Etiópia
5.
Food Chem ; 344: 128666, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248837

RESUMO

The corms of cocoyams, specifically Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott and Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott are usually consumed as pastes. Nevertheless, the secondary corms, also named cormels, are not fully exploited. In this study, the chemical composition and functional properties of cormels from different botanical sources were evaluated, and the digestibility of the resulting pastes investigated. Colocasia spp. flour contained significantly higher protein (10.32% vs 9.65%), ash (5.65% vs 5.05%) and oxalates (0.32% vs 0.22%) content, and exhibited lower Amylab gel strength (773 g vs 1040 g) than Xanthosoma spp. flour. In the resulting pastes, micrographs revealed that starch gelatinization depended on cocoyam variety. Indeed, the very tight and closed microstructure of pastes containing Colocasia spp. flour led them to better stability during storage with lower syneresis. Lower protein digestibility was obtained in Colocasia spp. gels (67.56% vs 70.91%), but they showed faster (higher k) in vitro starch hydrolysis (0.0140 vs 0.0050) with lower estimated glycemic index (61.29 vs 65.84) than Xanthosoma spp. gels. The present findings offer ways to develop cocoyam based foods by using cormels, enhancing the applicability of cocoyams.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Colocasia/química , Farinha/análise , Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Xanthosoma/química , Índice Glicêmico , Pomadas , Amido/química
6.
Polim Med ; 50(1): 21-31, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ibuprofen is used both for acute and chronic disorders, such as ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis; however, ibuprofen causes gastrointestinal disturbances. Therefore, it would be desirable to design it as a sustained-release preparation. OBJECTIVES: To design ibuprofen microbeads using polymers obtained from Xanthosoma sagittifolium starch and Dillenia indica mucilage to provide sustained-release delivery of ibuprofen. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The polymers were extracted using standard methods and characterized by their material, physicochemical, elemental, and rheological profiles. Microbeads loaded with ibuprofen were prepared using the ionotropic gelation method utilizing blends of the polymers and sodium alginate. The microbeads were evaluated using particle shape, particle size, swelling index, entrapment efficiency, and release assays. RESULTS: The results showed that the polymers have distinct material and physicochemical properties unique to their botanical sources. The microbeads were spherical and free-flowing, and they rolled without friction. The swelling properties ranged from 47.62 ±2.74% to 79.49 ±3.66%. The particle size of the microbeads ranged from 88.14 ±68.57 µm to 214.90 ±66.95 µm, while the encapsulation efficiencies ranged from 20.67 ±4.66% to 83.61 ±6.35%. The dissolution times suggested that the concentration of the natural polymers in the bead formulation could be used to modulate the dissolution properties. Generally, formulations containing the mucilage yielded higher dissolution times than those containing the starch. The kinetics of drug release from the microbeads containing the polymer blends generally fitted the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. The highest similarity was found between formulations C6 and D4 with f2 of 81.07. CONCLUSIONS: The microbeads prepared with polymers obtained from Xanthosoma and Dillenia showed acceptable physicochemical properties, dependent upon polymer type, blend and concentration.


Assuntos
Dilleniaceae/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Ibuprofeno/administração & dosagem , Microesferas , Xanthosoma/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Tamanho da Partícula , Mucilagem Vegetal/química , Polímeros , Amido/química
7.
Curr Protoc Protein Sci ; 101(1): e113, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882112

RESUMO

Glycosylated proteins, namely glycoproteins and proteoglycans (collectively called glycoconjugates), are indispensable in a variety of biological processes. The functions of many glycoconjugates are regulated by their interactions with another group of proteins known as lectins. In order to understand the biological functions of lectins and their glycosylated binding partners, one must obtain these proteins in pure form. The conventional protein purification methods often require long times, elaborate infrastructure, costly reagents, and large sample volumes. To minimize some of these problems, we recently developed and validated a new method termed capture and release (CaRe). This method is time-saving, precise, inexpensive, and it needs a relatively small sample volume. In this approach, targets (lectins and glycoproteins) are captured in solution by multivalent ligands called target capturing agents (TCAs). The captured targets are then released and separated from their TCAs to obtain purified targets. Application of the CaRe method could play an important role in discovering new lectins and glycoconjugates. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Preparation of crude extracts containing the target proteins from soybean flour Alternate Protocol 1: Preparation of crude extracts from Jack bean meal Alternate Protocol 2: Preparation of crude extracts from the corms of Colocasia esculenta, Xanthosoma sagittifolium, and from the bulbs of Allium sativum Alternate Protocol 3: Preparation of Escherichia coli cell lysates containing human galectin-3 Alternate Protocol 4: Preparation of crude extracts from chicken egg whites (source of ovalbumin) Basic Protocol 2: Preparation of 2% (v/v) red blood cell suspension Basic Protocol 3: Detection of lectin activity of the crude extracts Basic Protocol 4: Identification of multivalent inhibitors as target capturing agents by hemagglutination inhibition assays Basic Protocol 5: Testing the capturing abilities of target capturing agents by precipitation/turbidity assays Basic Protocol 6: Capturing of targets (lectins and glycoproteins) in the crude extracts by target capturing agents and separation of the target-TCA complex from other components of the crude extracts Basic Protocol 7: Releasing the captured targets (lectins and glycoproteins) by dissolving the complex Basic Protocol 8: Separation of the targets (lectins and glycoproteins) from their respective target capturing agents Basic Protocol 9: Verification of the purity of the isolated targets (lectins or glycoproteins).


Assuntos
Galectina 3/isolamento & purificação , Glicoconjugados/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação/normas , Testes de Hemaglutinação/normas , Proteoglicanas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Bovinos , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida/métodos , Eritrócitos/química , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Filtração/métodos , Farinha/análise , Galectina 3/química , Galectina 3/genética , Galectina 3/metabolismo , Galectinas , Glicoconjugados/química , Glicosilação , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Proteoglicanas/química , Coelhos , Soja/química , Tireoglobulina/farmacologia , Xanthosoma/química
8.
Environ Microbiol ; 22(12): 5137-5155, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524747

RESUMO

Pseudomonas isolates from tropical environments have been underexplored and may form an untapped reservoir of interesting secondary metabolites. In this study, we compared Pseudomonas and cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) diversity in the rhizosphere of a cocoyam root rot disease (CRRD) suppressive soil in Boteva, Cameroon with those from four conducive soils in Cameroon and Nigeria. Compared with other soils, Boteva andosols were characterized by high silt, organic matter, nitrogen and calcium. Besides, the cocoyam rhizosphere at Boteva was characterized by strains belonging mainly to the P. koreensis and P. putida (sub)groups, with representations in the P. fluorescens, P. chlororaphis, P. jessenii and P. asplenii (sub)groups. In contrast, P. putida isolates were prominent in conducive soils. Regarding CLP diversity, Boteva was characterized by strains producing 11 different CLP types with cocoyamide A producers, belonging to the P. koreensis group, being the most abundant. However, putisolvin III-V producers were the most dominant in the rhizosphere of conducive soils in both Cameroon and Nigeria. Furthermore, we elucidated the chemical structure of putisolvin derivatives-putisolvin III-V, and described its biosynthetic gene cluster. We show that high Pseudomonas and metabolic diversity may be driven by microbial competition, which likely contributes to soil suppressiveness to CRRD.


Assuntos
Lipopeptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Xanthosoma/microbiologia , Camarões , Lipopeptídeos/química , Nigéria , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/classificação , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Pythium/patogenicidade , Rizosfera , Solo/química
9.
Int Microbiol ; 23(2): 179-188, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267375

RESUMO

This investigation was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activities and involvement of extracellular lytic enzymes produced by four strains of Trichoderma in the inhibition of Pythium myriotylum. Antagonistic effects were tested by dual culture. Activities of lytic enzymes were evaluated from the filtrate of each strain after cultivation in selected media. Organic extracts were obtained from liquid media subsequent to the cultivation of Trichoderma in potato dextrose broth (PDB). Non-volatile organic compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids were evaluated spectrophotometrically while volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antimicrobial activity of the organic extracts was determined using the poisoning method. Results have shown that all the strains were antagonists against P. myriotylum. T. erinaceum (IT-58), T. gamsii (IT-62), T. afroharzianum (P8), and T. harzianum (P11) that were found to produce cellulase, protease, and xylanase. Over 20 compounds were identified in each extract, including esters, lactones, and organic acids. The organic extracts also contained high amounts of polyphenolic compounds and flavonoids and significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of P. myriotylum. The minimal inhibition concentrations were 80 µg/µL, 40 µg/µL, 20 µg/µL, and 10 µg/µL, for extracts obtained from T. erinaceum (IT-58), T. gamsii (IT-62), T. afroharzianum (P8), and T. harzianum (P11), respectively. There was significant correlation between the production of total polyphenol and flavonoid content and the antagonistic effects of the tested strains.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Pythium/microbiologia , Trichoderma , Xanthosoma/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Celulase/metabolismo , Misturas Complexas/química , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Enzimas/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Metabolismo Secundário , Trichoderma/química , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Xanthosoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Environ Microbiol ; 21(3): 1019-1034, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623562

RESUMO

Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.)), an important tuber crop in the tropics, is severely affected by the cocoyam root rot disease (CRRD) caused by Pythium myriotylum. The white cocoyam genotype is very susceptible while the red cocoyam has some field tolerance to CRRD. Fluorescent Pseudomonas isolates obtained from the rhizosphere of healthy red and white cocoyams from three different fields in Cameroon were taxonomically characterized. The cocoyam rhizosphere was enriched with P. fluorescens complex and P. putida isolates independent of the plant genotype. LC-MS and NMR analyses revealed that 50% of the Pseudomonas isolates produced cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) including entolysin, lokisin, WLIP, putisolvin and xantholysin together with eight novel CLPs. In general, CLP types were linked to specific taxonomic groups within the fluorescent pseudomonads. Representative CLP-producing bacteria showed effective control against CRRD while purified CLPs caused hyphal branching or hyphal leakage in P. myriotylum. The structure of cocoyamide A, a CLP which is predominantly produced by P. koreensis group isolates within the P. fluorescens complex is described. Compared with the white cocoyam, the red cocoyam rhizosphere appeared to support a more diverse CLP spectrum. It remains to be investigated whether this contributes to the field tolerance displayed by the red cocoyam.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Lipopeptídeos/genética , Peptídeos Cíclicos/genética , Pseudomonas fluorescens/genética , Xanthosoma/microbiologia , Fluorescência , Variação Genética , Pseudomonas fluorescens/isolamento & purificação , Pythium , Rizosfera
11.
J Texture Stud ; 50(2): 148-154, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548624

RESUMO

Growing interest in processed frozen products with similar characteristics to natural products has generated the study of new products in the food industry field. The characteristics of each matrix, the process of elaboration, composition, and structure of the additives and the interactions amongst these modify the food's texture, structure, physical and sensory properties and, hence, interfere directly with consumer acceptance. This research studied the effect of adding cryoprotectors during frozen storage on the rheological, physicochemical, structural, and microbiological properties in a Mafafa-quinoa-olive oil puree. To carry out the study, the rheological properties were determined through dynamic oscillatory tests and in steady state; likewise, the physicochemical properties (humidity, color, pH, and syneresis) were analyzed. Regarding physicochemical properties, the humidity content in the purees formulated varied between 57 and 74%, without important variation (p > .05) with respect to the formulation, however, in the storage during the freezing/thawing process, this parameter diminished in greater proportion in those purees containing carrageenan as cryoconservant. Both the addition of cryoconservants and the storage time affected significantly (p < .05) the puree's syneresis, with the degree of exudation being lower in the formulation containing xanthan gum at 1% w/w. During the freezing/thawing process, decreased apparent viscosity was noted. Additionally, the analysis of the viscoelastic properties of the purees evidences that already described, given that a significant effect (p < .05) was observed of the formulation of purees in the elastic component G', in contrast with a notable decrease in the viscous component G″.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Reologia , Xanthosoma/química , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Congelamento , Azeite de Oliva/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos , Viscosidade
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(36): 35949-35959, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29796887

RESUMO

During last decades, there has been a growing interest of decreasing the environmental impact generated by humans. This situation has been approached from different perspectives being the integral use of raw materials as one of the best alternatives. It was estimated that 3.7 × 109 tonnes of agricultural residues are produced annually worldwide. Then, the integral use of feedstocks has been studied through the biorefinery concept. A biorefinery can be a promissory option for processing feedstocks in rural zones aiming to boost the techno-economic and social growth. However, many plants produced at small scale in rural zones without high industrial use contribute with residues usually not studied as raw materials for other processes. Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) is a plant grown extensively in tropical regions. Nigeria, China, and Ghana are the main producers with 1.3, 1.18, and 0.9 million tonnes/year, respectively. In Colombia, there are no technified crops, but it is used where it is grown mainly as animal feed. This plant consists of leaves, stem, and a tuber but the use is generally limited to the leaves, discarding the other parts. These discarded parts have great potential (lignocellulose and starch). This work proposes different processing schemes using the parts of the plant to obtain value-added products, and their techno-economic and environmental assessment. The simulation was performed with Aspen Plus and the economic package was used for the economic assessment. For the environmental assessment, Waste Algorithm Reduction of the U.S. EPA was implemented. The obtained results showed that the integral use of plants under a biorefinery scheme allows obtaining better techno-economic and environmental performance and that small-scale biorefineries can be a promissory option for boosting rural zones.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Produtos Agrícolas , Resíduos Sólidos , Amido , Xanthosoma , Agricultura , Animais , Celulose , China , Colocasia , Colômbia , Meio Ambiente , Gana , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais , Nigéria , Folhas de Planta
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 90(2): 1775-1787, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694497

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to characterize the nutritional compounds of interest present in vegetables known as non-conventional, in Brazil. The following evaluations were carried out: antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, vitamin C, calories, carbohydrates, humidity, lipids, proteins, fiber, acidity and quantification of minerals (P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and B). The species studied were Amaranthus hybridus L., Amaranthus viridis L., Basella alba L., Eryngium campestre L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lactuca canadensis L., Rumex acetosa L., Stachys byzantina K. Koch, Tropaeolum majus L. and Xanthosoma sagittifolium L. Representative samples of plant structures of interest were harvested from each species suitable for human consumption such as leaves, flowers and flower buds. The results were submitted to multivariate analysis - principal components analysis (PCA). All the species present nutritional compounds of interest in different levels among the evaluated structures.


Assuntos
Flores/química , Magnoliopsida/química , Valor Nutritivo , Brotos de Planta/química , Verduras/química , Amaranthus/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Brasil , Caryophyllales/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Eryngium/química , Hibiscus/química , Minerais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Rumex/química , Stachys/química , Tropaeolum/química , Xanthosoma/química
14.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 67(6): 337-342, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28288491

RESUMO

The management of diabetes mellitus (DM) targets glycemic control as well as prevention or reversal of other complications associated with the metabolic disorder. One of such complications is the infertility which has been traced to oxidative stress and DNA damage caused by DM. In this study, experimentally-induced diabetic male Wistar rats were fed with Xanthosoma sagittifolium (cocoyam) for 14 days and its effect on sperm morphology and characteristics, as well as histology of the testes were assessed. X. sagittifolium corm feed (Xs) were reconstituted with commercial rat feed to contain 25, 50, 75 or 100% X. sagittifolium on a weight/weight basis. One primary and 7 secondary cell abnormalities were observed with overall increased total abnormal sperm cells in the diabetic rats. Sperm cell motility was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in all diabetic rats, but diabetic rats fed with Xs showed increased motility and liveability. Sperm volume was unchanged, but the depressed sperm count in the untreated diabetic rats was increased in Xs-fed rats. Histology of Xs-fed diabetic rats showed reduction in seminiferous tubule diameter and luminal diameter which was significantly enlarged in untreated diabetic rats. X. sagittifolium significantly (p<0.05) prevented further deterioration of sperm cell quality and reversed cell apoptosis as presented by increased sperm motility, liveability and count. In the overall, the chances of fertilization by sperm cells from diabetic patients will be increased as well as achievement of good glycemic control and prevention of further damage by the disease condition.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Genitália Masculina/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Xanthosoma/química , Aloxano , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 189(4): 186, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28349313

RESUMO

The growing population number and traffic loads, increasing environmental pressures, agricultural intensification, and the establishment of Mount Cameroon National Park demand farsighted environmental management in the region and the definition of a favorable ecological status. Since plants grow in the interface between soils and the atmosphere they can be used as passive biomonitors for the environmental quality. At the same time, the accumulation of nutrients and pollutants in crops is linked to human health, so that foliar elemental levels can be used as an integrative measure for environmental pollution and impact assessment. In the present study, we collected leaf samples of plantain, cassava, cocoyam, and maize on 28 sites at the southern flanks of Mt. Cameroon and determined 20 chemical elements. Air pollution in the study area comes from biomass and waste burning mainly, but emissions from traffic and a large refinery were believed to also play a significant role. However, spatial patterns in foliar elemental concentrations reflected the geochemistry rather than specific sources of pollution. Significant differences in foliar metal and nutrient levels were observed between the four species, indicating a different demand and uptake of specific elements. The results were compared to published data on nutrient concentrations in the tested species and the so-called reference plant. The data can be used as a baseline for future studies in plant nutrition and the environmental monitoring in inner tropical regions where these crops are grown.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Camarões , Monitoramento Ambiental , Manihot , Musa , Xanthosoma , Zea mays
16.
J Complement Integr Med ; 14(2)2017 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28306532

RESUMO

Background Hematological and biochemical changes associated with diabetes mellitus and probable reversal were assessed in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats fed with varied percentages of Xanthosoma sagittifolium corm feed (Xs). The changes were compared to normoglycemic rats and diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide. Methods The study had eight groups in all with group 8 (control) consisting of five normoglycemic rats fed with normal rat pellets (Nrp). Diabetes was experimentally induced by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan to normoglycemic rats. Diabetic rats (serum glucose >200 mg/dL) at 48 h postinjection were randomly divided into the seven groups, each diabetic group consisting of five rats. One group was untreated and fed with Nrp, four groups were fed with 25 %, 50 %, 75 % or 100 % Xs, one group was fed with 100 % Xs and administered with glibenclamide, while a 7th group was fed with Nrp and administered with glibenclamide. Results This study shows that treatment of diabetes with corm of X. sagittifolium increases cellular response to inflammation which is required for body defense against assaulting agents. Decreased serum protein levels observed in untreated diabetic rats were restored in diabetic rats fed with X. sagittifolium corm with particular increase in serum albumin levels but depression of globulin fraction, except in rats fed with X. sagittifolium feed and administered with glibenclamide. X. sagittifolium showed a potent antihyperglycemic effect and corrected the dyslipidemia in a manner comparable to that observed for glibenclamide. Although HDL levels were still low, significant (p<0.05) decrease of LDL levels was a positive indicator of reduced risk for development of cardiovascular and/or coronary heart disease. Conclusions X. sagittifolium corm can be recommended for inclusion in diets of diabetics without causing further deterioration of health of the diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Xanthosoma , Animais , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/dietoterapia , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/dietoterapia , Globulinas/metabolismo , Glibureto/farmacologia , Glibureto/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Tubérculos , Ratos Wistar , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo
17.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 16: 9, 2016 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26753836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to investigate the antibacterial activities of the methanol extract of three edible plants, namely Xanthosoma mafaffa, Moringa oleifera and Passiflora edulis and their synergistic effects with some commonly used antibiotics against MDR Gram-negative bacteria expressing active efflux pumps. METHODS: Broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the extracts, as well as those of antibiotics in association with the extracts. RESULTS: The phytochemical test indicate that all tested crude extracts contained polyphenols, triterpenes and steroids whilst other phytochemical classes were selectively distributed. Extracts showed antibacterial activities with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 128-1024 µg/mL on the majority of the 19 tested Gram-negative bacterial strains. Extract from the pericarp of P. edulis inhibited the growth of 89.5% of the 19 tested bacterial strains, the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 128 µg/mL being recorded against Escherichia coli AG100 strain. In the presence of Phenylalanine-Arginine ß-Naphtylamide (PAßN)], an efflux pump inhibitor (EPI), the activity of the extract from X. mafaffa increased on 40% of tested strains. In combination with antibiotics, extracts of X. mafaffa, M. oleifera and pericarp of P. edulis showed synergistic effects with some antibiotics against more than 75% of the tested bacteria. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicate that the tested plants may be used in the treatment of bacterial infections including the multi-resistant bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Moringa oleifera , Passiflora , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Xanthosoma , Colorimetria , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Moringa oleifera/química , Passiflora/química , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Xanthosoma/química
18.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 14: 335, 2014 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25216815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xanthosoma violaceum is commonly observed in fallow areas of Bangladesh but almost no scientific studies exist on this plant. Rural people consume the plant on a frequent basis. The objective of this study was to scientifically analyze the antinociceptive property of methanol extract of aerial parts of the plant along with antihyperglycemic activity. METHODS: Antihyperglycemic activity was measured by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Antinociceptive activity was determined by observed decreases in abdominal constrictions in intraperitoneally administered acetic acid-induced pain model in mice. RESULTS: Administration of methanol extract of aerial parts led to dose-dependent and significant reductions in blood glucose levels in glucose-loaded mice. At doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight, the extract reduced blood sugar levels by 19.3, 23.2, 31.8, and 47.1%, respectively compared to control animals. By comparison, a standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight, reduced blood glucose level by 48.9%. In antinociceptive activity tests, the extract at the above four doses reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 41.4, 44.8, 48.3, and 55.2%, respectively. A standard pain relieving (antinociceptive) drug, aspirin, reduced the number of writhings by 31.0 and 51.7%, respectively, when administered at doses of 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report on oral glucose tolerance and antinociceptive activity evaluation of aerial parts of the plant. Since the plant is widely available in Bangladesh, the aerial parts can be a readily available source for particularly the rural population for lowering blood sugar in diabetic patients and for alleviating pain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Xanthosoma/química , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 65: 222-8, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24463263

RESUMO

This work presents the physicochemical and pasting characterization of isolated mafafa starch and mafafa flour (Xanthosoma robustum). According to SEM images of mafafa starches in the tuber, these starches form Lego-like shaped structures with diameters between 8 and 35 µm conformed by several starch granules of wedge shape that range from 2 to 7 µm. The isolated mafafa starch is characterized by its low contents of protein, fat, and ash. The starch content in isolated starch was found to be 88.58% while the amylose content obtained was 35.43%. X-ray diffraction studies confirm that isolated starch is composed mainly by amylopectin. These results were confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetric analysis. This is the first report of the molecular parameters for mafafa starch: molar mass that ranged between 2×10(8) and 4×10(8) g/mol, size (Rg) value between 279 and 295 nm, and molecular density value between 9.2 and 9.7 g/(mol nm(3)). This study indicates that mafafa starch shows long chains of amylopectin this fact contributes to higher viscosity development and higher gel stability. The obtained gel phase is transparent in the UV-vis region. The viscosity, gel stability and optical properties suggest that there is potential for mafafa starch applications in the food industry.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Reologia , Amido/química , Xanthosoma/química , Amilopectina/análise , Amilose/análise , Farinha/análise , Fenômenos Ópticos , Temperatura
20.
J Food Sci ; 78(12): H1929-34, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24266602

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that fruits and vegetables contribute to protect against degenerative pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer, mainly due to the presence of dietary fiber (DF) and polyphenols. Taioba (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) is an edible aroid widely grown in many parts of Africa, America, and Asia. The tubers portions of taioba are widely consumed; however, the leafy portions are generally discarded, despite their high nutritive value. In this study, we have partly characterized the DF of lyophiized taioba leaf (LTL), and assessed the possible protective effects on biochemical parameters and on bile acid (BA) production in colon and cecum, when fed to healthy rats for 4 wk. Forty-five Wistar rats were assigned to either of 5 groups: group 1 received AIN 93G diet (CG: Control); group 2 received AIN 93G containing 2.5% of cellulose + 2.5% inulin (CEIN_5%); group 3 received AIN 93G containing 2.5% of cellulose + 2.5% taioba fiber (CETA_5%); group 4 received AIN 93G containing 5% cellulose + 2.5% taioba fiber (CETA_7.5%); group 5 received AIN 93G containing 5% cellulose + 2.5% of inulin (CEIN_7.5%). LTL showed high contents of total fiber, predominantly comprising insoluble DF with glucose as the major monomer. Rats receiving LTL had increased fecal mass and fat excretion, and improved BA profiles by diminishing the proportion of secondary acids, thus suggesting that consumption of taioba leaf may have the property of lowering the risk of colon cancer.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Xanthosoma/química , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Ceco/metabolismo , Celulose/análise , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Colo/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Insulina/sangue , Inulina/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triglicerídeos/sangue
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