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1.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 147: 47-61, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789587

RESUMO

Sponges are fundamental components of coral reef communities and, unfortunately, like other major benthic members, they too have been impacted by epizootic and panzootic events. We report on the prevalence of disease-like conditions affecting populations of the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta across shallow and mesophotic coral reefs off La Parguera Natural Reserve (LPNR) and Mona Island Marine Reserve (MIMR) in Puerto Rico. Four different conditions affecting X. muta were observed during our surveys, of which 3 have been previously reported: cyclic spotted bleaching (CSB; apparently non-lethal), Xestospongia-tissue wasting disease (X-TWD; apparently lethal), and sponge orange band disease (SOB; sparsely associated with X-TWD infected individuals). Additionally, we describe a fourth condition, Xestospongia-tissue hardening condition (X-THC), a previously unreported disease recently observed along the insular shelf margin off LPNR and MIMR. Within LPNR, a total of 764 specimens of X. muta were inspected and measured. Of these, 590 sponges (72.2%) had CSB, 25 (3.27%) had signs of X-TWD, 7 (0.92%) had SOB, and the remaining 142 (18.6%) were apparently healthy. Three colonies inhabiting upper mesophotic depths on the LPNR insular shelf showed signs of CSB and X-TWD. At MIMR, video-transect surveys revealed a total of 514 colonies, of which 40 (7.78%) had signs of CSB and/or XTWD, 14 (2.72%) were affected by X-THC, while the remaining 460 (89.5%) showed no external signs of disease and appeared healthy. The presence of 4 concomitant disease-like conditions in barrel sponges of Puerto Rico is alarming, and indicative of the deteriorating status of Caribbean coral reefs.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Xestospongia , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Porto Rico/epidemiologia
2.
Mar Environ Res ; 172: 105503, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673313

RESUMO

The biochemical differentiation of widely distributed long-living marine organisms according to their age or the depth of waters in which they grow is an intriguing topic in marine biology. Especially sessile life forms, such as sponges, could be expected to actively regulate biological processes and interactions with their environment through chemical signals in a multidimensional manner. In recent years, the development of chemical profiling methods such as metabolomics provided an approach that has encouraged the investigation of the chemical interactions of these organisms. In this study, LC-MS based metabolomics followed by Feature-based molecular networking (FBMN) was used to explore the effects of both biotic and environmental factors on the metabolome of giant barrel sponges, chosen as model organisms as they are distributed throughout a wide range of sea-depths. This allowed the identification of differences in the metabolic composition of the sponges related to their age and depth.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Xestospongia , Animais , Região do Caribe , Cromatografia Líquida , Metaboloma
3.
Mar Drugs ; 19(5)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063628

RESUMO

It has been recognized that cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) in tumor tissue crucially contribute to therapeutic failure, resulting in a high mortality rate in lung cancer patients. Due to their stem-like features of self-renewal and tumor formation, CSCs can lead to drug resistance and tumor recurrence. Herein, the suppressive effect of jorunnamycin A, a bistetrahydroisoquinolinequinone isolated from Thai blue sponge Xestospongia sp., on cancer spheroid initiation and self-renewal in the CSCs of human lung cancer cells is revealed. The depletion of stemness transcription factors, including Nanog, Oct-4, and Sox2 in the lung CSC-enriched population treated with jorunnamycin A (0.5 µM), resulted from the activation of GSK-3ß and the consequent downregulation of ß-catenin. Interestingly, pretreatment with jorunnamycin A at 0.5 µM for 24 h considerably sensitized lung CSCs to cisplatin-induced apoptosis, as evidenced by upregulated p53 and decreased Bcl-2 in jorunnamycin A-pretreated CSC-enriched spheroids. Moreover, the combination treatment of jorunnamycin A (0.5 µM) and cisplatin (25 µM) also diminished CD133-overexpresssing cells presented in CSC-enriched spheroids. Thus, evidence on the regulatory functions of jorunnamycin A may facilitate the development of this marine-derived compound as a novel chemotherapy agent that targets CSCs in lung cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Isoquinolinas/química , Isoquinolinas/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Homeobox Nanog/genética , Proteína Homeobox Nanog/metabolismo , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Quinolonas/química , Quinolonas/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Xestospongia/química
4.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(6): 937-944, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210054

RESUMO

A new antimalarial sterol, kaimanol (1), along with a known sterol, saringosterol (2) was isolated from the Indonesian Marine sponge, Xestospongia sp. The chemical structure of the new compound was determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and by comparison to those related compounds previously reported. Isolated compounds, 1 and 2 were evaluated for their antiplasmodial effect against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strains. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 359 and 0.250 nM, respectively.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteróis/isolamento & purificação , Esteróis/farmacologia , Xestospongia/química , Animais , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Indonésia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética
5.
Inflammopharmacology ; 28(4): 1091-1119, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232632

RESUMO

Marine sponges are prolific producers of an array of diverse chemical structures containing compounds with multiple biological activities. In this study, whole methanol extracts and fractionated compounds from three marine sponges namely Xestospongia carbonaria, Sarcotragus foetidus and Spongia obscura were thoroughly investigated for their antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Methanol extracts and fractionated compounds were characterised using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Extracts were checked for cytotoxicity in RAW macrophages by MTT assay, before using them for the treatment study. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits were used to check the effects on inflammatory mediator's levels (PGE2, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α) in vitro. The results demonstrated good anti-inflammatory activity of all the three marine sponges; X. carbonaria, S. foetidus and S. obscura suppressed the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines in vitro. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction confirmed the inhibition of IL-1ß and IL-6 genes expression by the isolates of X. carbonaria and S. foetidus, while reducing cytokine levels in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro as well as in carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats. Two semi pure compounds isolated from X. carbonaria and S. foetidus also confirmed suppression of IL-1ß and IL-6 genes expression in RAW macrophages.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poríferos/química , Xestospongia/química , Animais , Carragenina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
6.
Mar Drugs ; 17(10)2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614540

RESUMO

Sponge-associated bacteria have been mostly cultured from shallow water (≤30 m) sponges, whereas only few studies targeted specimens from below 30 m. This study assessed the cultivability of bacteria from two marine sponges Xestospongia muta and Agelas sventres collected from shallow (<30 m), upper mesophotic (30-60 m), and lower mesophotic (60-90 m) reefs. Sponge-associated bacteria were cultivated on six different media, and replicate plates were used to pick individual colonies or to recover the entire biomass. Prokaryotic community analysis was conducted using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 144 bacterial isolates were picked following a colony morphology coding scheme and subsequently identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Sponge individuals at each depth-range harboured specific cultivable bacteria that were not retrieved from specimens collected at other depths. However, there were substantial differences in the number of colonies obtained for replicate sponges of the same species. In addition, source of inoculum and cultivation medium had more impact on the cultured prokaryotic community than sample collection depth. This suggests that the "plate count anomaly" is larger than differences in sponge-associated prokaryotic community composition related to depth.


Assuntos
Agelas/microbiologia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poríferos/microbiologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Xestospongia/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
7.
Mar Drugs ; 17(9)2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527453

RESUMO

Renieramycin M (RM) is a KCN-stabilized tetrahydroisoquinoline purified from the blue sponge Xestospongia sp., with nanomolar IC50s against several cancer cell lines. Our goal is to evaluate its combination effects with doxorubicin (DOX) in estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells were treated simultaneously or sequentially with various combination ratios of RM and DOX for 72 h. Cell viability was determined using the MTT assay. Synergism or antagonism was determined using curve-shift analysis, combination index method and isobologram analysis. Synergism was observed with pharmacologically achievable concentrations of DOX when administered simultaneously, but not sequentially. The IC95 values of RM and DOX after combination were reduced by up to four-fold and eight-fold, respectively. To gain insights on the mechanism of synergy, real-time profiling, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis assays, and transcriptome analysis were conducted. The combination treatment displayed a similar profile with DNA-damaging agents and induced a greater and faster cell killing. The combination treatment also showed an increase in apoptosis. DOX induced S and G2/M arrest while RM did not induce significant changes in the cell cycle. DNA replication and repair genes were downregulated commonly by RM and DOX. p53 signaling and cell cycle checkpoints were regulated by DOX while ErbB/PI3K-Akt, integrin and focal adhesion signaling were regulated by RM upon combination. Genes involved in cytochrome C release and interferon gamma signaling were regulated specifically in the combination treatment. This study serves as a basis for in vivo studies and provides a rationale for using RM in combination with other anticancer drugs.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Xestospongia/química , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/isolamento & purificação , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
J Nat Prod ; 82(7): 1861-1873, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260310

RESUMO

Metastasis is a key driving force behind the high mortality rate associated with lung cancer. Herein, we report the first study revealing the antimetastasis activity of jorunnamycin A, a bistetrahydroisoquinolinequinone isolated from a Thai blue sponge Xestospongia sp. evidenced by its inhibition of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), sensitization of anoikis, and suppression of anchorage-independent survival in human lung cancer cells. Treatment with jorunnamycin A (0.05-0.5 µM) altered the expression of p53 and Bcl-2 family proteins, particularly causing the down-regulation of antiapoptosis Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 proteins. Under detachment conditions for 12 h, jorunnamycin A-treated cells exhibited diminution of pro-survival proteins p-Akt and p-Erk as well as the survival-promoting factor caveolin-1. Corresponding with the inhibition on the Akt and Erk pathway as well as activation of p53, there was an increase in the epithelial marker E-cadherin and a remarkable decrease of EMT markers and associated proteins including vimentin, snail, and claudin-1. As the loss of anchorage dependence is an important barrier to metastasis, the observed inhibitory effects of jorunnamycin A on the coordinating networks of EMT and anchorage-independent growth emphasize the potential development of jorunnamycin A as an effective agent against lung cancer metastasis.


Assuntos
Anoikis/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Xestospongia/química , Animais , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Isoquinolinas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Quinolonas/isolamento & purificação
9.
Mar Drugs ; 17(2)2019 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30754694

RESUMO

Lung cancer is one of the most significant cancers as it accounts for almost 1 in 5 cancer deaths worldwide, with an increasing incident rate. Management of the cancer has been shown to frequently fail due to the ability of the cancer cells to resist therapy as well as metastasis. Recent evidence has suggested that the poor response to the current treatment drugs and the ability to undergo metastasis are driven by cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumor. The discovery of novel compounds able to suppress CSCs and sensitize the chemotherapeutic response could be beneficial to the improvement of clinical outcomes. Herein, we report for the first time that 5-O-acetyl-renieramycin T isolated from the blue sponge Xestospongia sp. mediated lung cancer cell death via the induction of p53-dependent apoptosis. Importantly, 5-O-acetyl-renieramycin T induced the death of CSCs as represented by the CSC markers CD44 and CD133, while the stem cell transcription factor Nanog was also found to be dramatically decreased in 5-O-acetyl-renieramycin T-treated cells. We also found that such a CSC suppression was due to the ability of the compound to deplete the protein kinase B (AKT) signal. Furthermore, 5-O-acetyl-renieramycin T was able to significantly sensitize cisplatin-mediated apoptosis in the lung cancer cells. Together, the present research findings indicate that this promising compound from the marine sponge is a potential candidate for anti-cancer approaches.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Xestospongia/química , Células A549 , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/química
10.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(8): 1175-1181, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29683344

RESUMO

A new sterol, langcosterol A (1), together with two known sterols 2 and 3, were isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected in Vietnam. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparisons with published data. The new compound 1 and the known compound 3 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cell lines (A549, lung cancer; MCF7, breast cancer; HeLa, cervical cancer) and a human normal cell line (WI-38 fibroblast), with IC50 values ranging from 29.0 to 68.0 µM.


Assuntos
Esteróis/isolamento & purificação , Esteróis/farmacologia , Xestospongia/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Estrutura Molecular , Poríferos/química , Análise Espectral , Esteróis/química , Vietnã
11.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(3): 400-406, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29595068

RESUMO

A new stereoisomer Meso-araguspongine C together with nine reported macrocyclic bis-quinolizidine alkaloids araguspongines A, C, E, L, N-P, petrosin, and petrosin A were isolated from marine sponge Xestospongia muta. Stereochemistry of meso-araguspongine C (2) and araguspongines N-P (3-5) were established by their NMR data and conformational analyses. Both araguspongine C (1) and meso-araguspongine C (2) exhibited great cytotoxic activity towards HepG-2, HL-60, LU-1, MCF-7, and SK-Mel-2 human cancer cells (IC50 in the range of 0.43-1.02 µM). At a concentration of 20 µM, isolated compounds (1-10) also showed modest inhibitory effects (from 7.6 to 40.8%) on the NO production in LPS activated RAW264.7 macrophages.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Quinolizidinas/isolamento & purificação , Quinolizinas/isolamento & purificação , Xestospongia/química , Alcaloides/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Compostos Macrocíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7
12.
Microb Ecol ; 78(1): 243-256, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413836

RESUMO

Xestospongia muta is among the most emblematic sponge species inhabiting coral reefs of the Caribbean Sea. Besides being the largest sponge species growing in the Caribbean, it is also known to produce secondary metabolites. This study aimed to assess the effect of depth and season on the symbiotic bacterial dynamics and major metabolite profiles of specimens of X. muta thriving in a tropical marine biome (Portobelo Bay, Panamá), which allow us to determine whether variability patterns are similar to those reported for subtropical latitudes. The bacterial assemblages were characterized using Illumina deep-sequencing and metabolomic profiles using UHPLC-DAD-ELSD from five depths (ranging 9-28 m) across two seasons (spring and autumn). Diverse symbiotic communities, representing 24 phyla with a predominance of Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi, were found. Although several thousands of OTUs were determined, most of them belong to the rare biosphere and only 23 to a core community. There was a significant difference between the structure of the microbial communities in respect to season (autumn to spring), with a further significant difference between depths only in autumn. This was partially mirrored in the metabolome profile, where the overall metabolite composition did not differ between seasons, but a significant depth gradient was observed in autumn. At the phyla level, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Spirochaete showed a mild-moderate correlation with the metabolome profile. The metabolomic profiles were mainly characterized by known brominated polyunsaturated fatty acids. This work presents findings about the composition and dynamics of the microbial assemblages of X. muta expanding and confirming current knowledge about its remarkable diversity and geographic variability as observed in this tropical marine biome.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Água do Mar/química , Xestospongia/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Biodiversidade , Região do Caribe , Recifes de Corais , Panamá , Filogenia , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Simbiose , Xestospongia/fisiologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15317, 2018 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333574

RESUMO

Describing life history dynamics of functionally important species is critical for successful management. Barrel sponges (Xestospongia spp.) fill ecologically important roles on coral reefs due to their large size and water column interactions. Studies of Caribbean X. muta suggest they may be up to 1000 s of years old. However, nothing is known of barrel sponge growth rates outside the Caribbean. We assessed Indo-Pacific barrel sponge demography with a focus on specific growth rate (SGR), density, and mean volume across four sites of varying habitat quality. Four growth models were compared using Akaike's Information Criterion using a multi-model inference approach. Age was extrapolated and validated based on sponge size on a shipwreck of known age. Sponges from different sites showed differences in density, volume gained, and mean volume, but not growth rates. Interestingly, SGRs were slightly slower than that of X. muta, yet growth models supported rapid growth; Indo-Pacific sponges were over twice as old as published estimates of comparably sized X. muta (53-55 as compared to 23 years of age, respectively), although extrapolation errors are likely to increase with sponge size. This suggests that barrel sponge growth rates in the Indo-Pacific might be more comparable to Pines rather than Redwoods.


Assuntos
Longevidade , Xestospongia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Oceano Índico , Oceano Pacífico , Xestospongia/fisiologia
14.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 94(12)2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289448

RESUMO

Sponges harbor complex communities of microorganisms that carry out essential roles for the functioning and survival of their hosts. In some cases, genetically related sponges from different geographic regions share microbes, while in other cases microbial communities are more similar in unrelated sponges collected from the same location. To better understand how geography and host phylogeny cause variation in the prokaryotic community of sponges, we compared the prokaryotic community of 44 giant barrel sponges (Xestospongia spp.). These sponges belonged to six reproductively isolated genetic groups from eight areas throughout the Indo-Pacific region. Using Illumina sequencing, we obtained 440 000 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene V3V4 variable region that were assigned to 3795 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The prokaryotic community of giant barrel sponges was characterized by 71 core OTUs (i.e. OTUs present in each specimen) that represented 57.5% of the total number of sequences. The relative abundance of these core OTUs varied significantly among samples, and this variation was predominantly related to the geographic origin of the sample. These results show that in giant barrel sponges, the variation in the prokaryotic community is primarily associated with geography as opposed to phylogenetic relatedness.


Assuntos
Archaea/classificação , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Xestospongia/microbiologia , Animais , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , Geografia , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
15.
Fitoterapia ; 130: 190-197, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30193789

RESUMO

DPPH assay of the in-house marine-derived fungi uncovered that the EtOAc extract of the cultured fungus Aspergillus europaeus WZXY-SX-4-1, which was isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria, possesses radical scavenging activity. Chromatographic separation of the bioactive extract resulted in the isolation of 20 polyketide derivatives, including six new compounds namely eurobenzophenones A-C (1-3), euroxanthones A-B (4-5), and (+)1-O-demethylvariecolorquinones A (6). The structures of new compounds were determined on the basis of the analyses of spectroscopic data, including the Snatzke method for the configurational assignment. Benzophenones 3, 9 and 10 exhibited potent radical scavenging activity against DPPH. All polyketides were evaluated for the inhibitory effects toward the LPS induced nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse microglia BV2 cells and the NF-κB activation in human colon carcinoma cell line SW480. Compound 9 with the significant DPPH radical scavenging activity is corresponded to the potent inhibition against NF-κB in SW480 cells induced by LPS. Compounds 2, 4, 16-18 exerted remarked down-regulation of NF-κB in LPS-induced SW480 cells with weak inhibitory effects against NO production and the DPPH radical scavenging activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspergillus/química , Policetídeos/farmacologia , Xestospongia/microbiologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Humanos , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Policetídeos/isolamento & purificação
16.
J Nat Prod ; 80(8): 2295-2303, 2017 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28742349

RESUMO

Fractionation of the bioactive CHCl3-MeOH (1:1) extracts obtained from two collections of the sponge consortium Plakortis symbiotica-Xestospongia deweerdtae from Puerto Rico provided two new plakinidone analogues, designated as plakinidone B (2) and plakinidone C (3), as well as the known plakinidone (1), plakortolide F (4), and smenothiazole A (5). The structures of 1-5 were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic, IR, UV, and HRMS analysis. The absolute configurations of plakinidones 2 and 3 were established through chemical correlation methods, VCD/ECD experiments, and spectroscopic data comparisons. When assayed in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, none of the plakinidones 1-3 displayed significant activity, whereas smenothiazole A (5) was the most active compound, exhibiting an MIC value of 4.1 µg/mL. Synthesis and subsequent biological screening of 8, a dechlorinated version of smenothiazole A, revealed that the chlorine atom in 5 is indispensable for anti-TB activity.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/química , Peróxidos/farmacologia , Plakortis/química , Tiazóis/síntese química , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Valina/análogos & derivados , Xestospongia/química , Animais , Antituberculosos/síntese química , Antituberculosos/química , Produtos Biológicos , Dioxinas/síntese química , Dioxinas/química , Dioxinas/farmacologia , Lactonas/síntese química , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Peróxidos/síntese química , Peróxidos/química , Porto Rico , Tiazóis/química , Valina/síntese química , Valina/química , Valina/farmacologia
17.
J Nat Prod ; 80(5): 1541-1547, 2017 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28459574

RESUMO

A series of hydroquinone 5-O-monoester analogues of renieramycin M were semisynthesized via bishydroquinonerenieramycin M (5) prepared from renieramycin M (1), a major cytotoxic bistetrahydroisoquinolinequinone alkaloid isolated from the Thai blue sponge Xestospongia sp. All 20 hydroquinone 5-O-monoester analogues possessed cytotoxicity with IC50 values in nanomolar concentrations against the H292 and H460 human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The improved cytotoxicity toward the NSCLC cell lines was observed from the 5-O-monoester analogues such as 5-O-acetyl ester 6a and 5-O-propanoyl ester 7e, which exhibited 8- and 10-fold increased cytotoxicity toward the H292 NSCLC cell line (IC50 3.0 and 2.3 nM, respectively), relative to 1 (IC50 24 nM). Thus, the hydroquinone 5-O-monoester analogues are a new generation of the renieramycins to be further developed as potential marine-derived drug candidates for lung cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Citotoxinas/química , Hidroquinonas/isolamento & purificação , Hidroquinonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/isolamento & purificação , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Xestospongia/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/química , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Hidroquinonas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/química , Tailândia
18.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0174816, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28419173

RESUMO

The recently described epizoic sponge-sponge symbioses between Xestospongia deweerdtae and two species of Plakortis present an unusual series of sponge interactions. Sponges from the genus Plakortis are fierce allelopathic competitors, rich in cytotoxic secondary metabolites, and yet X. deweerdtae flourishes as an epizoic encrustation on Plakortis deweerdtaephila and Plakortis symbiotica. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that X. deweerdtae grows epizoic to these two species of Plakortis due to a shared chemical defense against predators. We collected free-living individuals of X. deweerdtae and symbiotic pairs from a wide geographical range to generate crude organic extracts and a series of polarity fractions from sponge extract. We tested the deterrency of these extracts against three common coral reef predators: the bluehead wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatum, the Caribbean sharpnose puffer, Canthigaster rostrata, and the white spotwrist hermit crab, Pagurus criniticornis. While the chemical defenses of P. deweerdtaephila and P. symbiotica are more potent than those of X. deweerdtae, all of the sponge species we tested significantly deterred feeding in all three generalist predators. The free-living form of X. deweerdtae is mostly defended across the region, with a few exceptions. The associated form of X. deweerdtae is always defended, and both species of Plakortis are very strongly defended, with puffers refusing to consume extract-treated pellets until the extract was diluted to 1/256× concentration. Using diode-array high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS/IT-TOF), we found two secondary metabolites from P. deweerdtaephila, probably the cyclic endoperoxides plakinic acid I and plakinic acid K, in low concentrations in the associated-but not the free-living-form of X. deweerdtae, suggesting a possible translocation of defensive chemicals from the basibiont to the epibiont. Comparing the immense deterrency of Plakortis spp. extracts to the extracts of X. deweerdtae gives the impression that there may be some sharing of chemical defenses: one partner in the symbiosis is clearly more defended than the other and a small amount of its defensive chemistry may translocate to the partner. However, X. deweerdtae effectively deters predators with its own defensive chemistry. Multiple lines of evidence provide no support for the shared chemical defense hypothesis. Given the diversity of other potential food resources available to predators on coral reefs, it is improbable that the evolution of these specialized sponge-sponge symbioses has been driven by predation pressure.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Plakortis/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Simbiose , Xestospongia/fisiologia , Acetatos/administração & dosagem , Acetatos/análise , Acetatos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Região do Caribe , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Geografia , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Peróxidos/administração & dosagem , Peróxidos/análise , Peróxidos/isolamento & purificação , Plakortis/química , Plakortis/metabolismo , Xestospongia/química , Xestospongia/metabolismo
19.
Org Lett ; 19(6): 1486-1489, 2017 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28272898

RESUMO

Plakortinic acids A (2) and B (3), two polyketide endoperoxides with a bicyclo[4.2.0]octene unit, were isolated as minor constituents from the sponge-sponge symbiotic association Plakortis halichondrioides-Xestospongia deweerdtae, along with known epiplakinic acid F (1). The structures of the mixture of two inseparable compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis. Screening for cytotoxic activity of the mixture against two human tumor cell lines revealed that these compounds are very active at sub-micromolar concentration.


Assuntos
Peróxidos/química , Plakortis/química , Policetídeos/química , Xestospongia/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Humanos , Peróxidos/isolamento & purificação , Peróxidos/farmacologia , Policetídeos/isolamento & purificação , Policetídeos/farmacologia , Estereoisomerismo
20.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 19(7): 732-737, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28152617

RESUMO

A new brominated polyacetylene, xestonariene I (1), along with three known related analogues (2-4), was obtained from Chinese marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria. Its structure was determined on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with literature data. Compound 4 exhibited significant inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase, which plays a key role in preventing obesity, with an IC50 value of 0.61 µM, being comparable to that of the positive control orlistat (IC50 = 0.78 µM).


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/isolamento & purificação , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/farmacologia , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Pâncreas , Poli-Inos/isolamento & purificação , Poli-Inos/farmacologia , Xestospongia/química , Animais , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/química , Biologia Marinha , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/enzimologia , Poli-Inos/química
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