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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130606, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311233

RESUMO

A natamycin-based non-migratory antimicrobial packaging for extending shelf-life of yogurt drink (Doogh) was developed. Firstly, the surface of low-density polyethylene film (LDPE) was modified with acrylic acid at different times of UV exposure (0-10 min) to produce carboxylic functional groups. Then, natamycin was applied to the UV-treated films to bind covalently with the pendent functional groups. The maximum grafting efficiency (81.96%) was obtained for the 6 min treated film. Moreover, surface properties of films were evaluated by Attenuated Total Reflectance/Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Antifungal activity of different treatments of natamycin grafted film was evaluated against two common spoilage yeasts of Doogh including Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Candida parapsilosis. Results showed that 6 min treated film provides maximum anti-yeast activity and can be applied to control fungal growth in Doogh. Natamycin-grafted film postponed the yeast spoilage in Doogh and prolonged its shelf-life to 23 days.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Natamicina , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Embalagem de Alimentos , Rhodotorula , Iogurte
2.
Food Chem ; 372: 131327, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818741

RESUMO

A dynamic in vitro human stomach (DIVHS), simulating the anatomical structures, peristalsis, and biochemical environments of a real stomach as practically as possible, was applied to mimic the gastric pH and emptying during yogurt digestion in short/long gastric residence times. The influences of peristalsis, dilution, and proteolysis on digesta viscosity were quantified respectively, indicating the dominant role of proteolysis and dilution. After incorporating curcumin-whey protein microparticles with targeted-release formula in yogurt, the peak curcumin release during intestinal digestion reached 43% at 120 min in the short gastric residence time and 16% at 180 min in the long gastric residence time. The change in the maximum curcumin release depended on the gastric emptying kinetics in each residence time. This emptying-kinetics dependence was reflected by the slower microparticle disintegration and proteolysis in the long gastric residence time. The dynamic reproduction of realistic gastric conditions using DIVHS helps revealing controlled release from foods.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Digestão , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Humanos , Estômago , Iogurte
3.
Food Chem ; 375: 131718, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34953236

RESUMO

Probiotics are beneficial viable microorganisms that protects from pathogens, enhance immunity and health. In this study, a biosurfactant from marine sponge associated bacteria MS48 was used to effectively enhance the survival of starter cultures and thereby improving their functional properties. The biosurfactant MS48 was characterized as lipopeptide based upon the spectroscopic analysis. The GC-MS analysis showed the moiety as l-glutamic acid methyl ester with the mass of m/z 161.16. Probiotics supplemented with lipopeptide showed better survival in the stress tolerance assays includes acid, bile, heat, salt stress and other assays including auto-aggregation, hydrophobicity, microbial adhesion to solvents (MATS), and simulated gastric juice. Yogurt formulated using lipopeptide showed enhanced flavor components, stability, improved characteristics, EPS production, and lower syneresis than the control. Malonic acid, acidity regulator was detected in the mass spectrum of lipopeptide added yogurt. The texture analysis of the lipopeptide added yogurt showed improved textural and sensorial properties when compared to the control.


Assuntos
Probióticos , Iogurte , Aromatizantes , Lipopeptídeos , Paladar
4.
Talanta ; 236: 122833, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635223

RESUMO

A dynamic pH junction was used in capillary electrophoresis (CE-DAD) to on-line preconcentrate, separate, and determine trace amounts of sulfonamide antibiotics (SAs) in milk and yoghurt samples in this study. A sample matrix with 0.15% acetic acid and 10% methanol (MeOH) at a pH of 4.0, and a background electrolyte (BGE) that contained 35 mM sodium citrate with 10% MeOH at a pH of 8.5, and an acidic barrage of 0.4% acetic acid with 10% MeOH at a pH of 2.5 were utilised to achieve a stacking effect for SAs through a dynamic pH junction. Under optimised conditions, the proposed preconcentration method showed good linearity (30-500 ng/mL, r2 ≥ 0.9940), low limits of detection (LODs) of 4.1-6.3 ng/mL, and acceptable analytes recovery (81.2-106.9%) with relative standard deviations (RSDs) within 5.3-13.7 (n = 9). The limits of quantification (LOQs) were below the maximum residue limit approved by the European Union (EU) in this type of matrices. Sensitivity enhancement factors of up to 129 were reached with the optimised dynamic pH junction using CE with a diode array detector (DAD). The method was used to determine SAs in fresh milk, low-fat milk, full-cream milk, and yoghurt samples.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Iogurte , Animais , Eletroforese Capilar , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Leite , Sulfonamidas
5.
Food Chem ; 369: 130957, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488134

RESUMO

This study elaborated different probiotic goat milk yogurt formulations with addition of a low-calorie Isabel "Precoce" grape preparation and flour from derived solid by-products. Physicochemical characteristics, probiotic counts, phenolic and protein/peptide molecular weight profile, antioxidant capacity (AC) and sensory acceptance of different yogurt formulations were evaluated. Yogurts with Isabel grape ingredients (IGI) had high nutritional value, distinct phenolic profile and high AC. High counts of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus La-05 were found in yogurts during storage. AC of yogurts with IGI increased during a simulated gastrointestinal digestion with breakdown of high molecular weight proteins and release of protein-bound phenolics. AC of yogurts with IGI should be linked to goat milk peptides and Isabel grape phenolics. Yogurts with IGI had enhanced sensory acceptance. Incorporation of Isabel grape preparation and derived by-product flour into probiotic goat milk yogurt resulted in an added-value product with multifunctional characteristics and improved sensory characteristics.


Assuntos
Probióticos , Vitis , Animais , Cabras , Leite , Iogurte
6.
Food Chem ; 370: 130993, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509945

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study the changes in the functional characteristics of a fermented maize product containing fruits, and enriched with phytosterols. Functional characteristics (natural antioxidants and phytosterols content, in vitro antioxidant capacity and probiotic viability), lipid oxidation, and physicochemical parameters were investigated during 4 weeks of storage at 4 °C. The differences between one formulation elaborated with semi-skimmed powdered milk (Basic Product) and another with whey protein isolate (WPI Product) were evaluated. The content of polyphenols, carotenoids and tocopherols remained unchanged during the storage of both formulations. These compounds increased the antioxidant capacity in both products compared to the control formulation (without fruits), which was displayed along the whole storage period. The doses of phytosterols and the probiotic potential were maintained to the end of the storage period for both formulations. Basic and WPI products represent novel foods with desirable functional characteristics preserved during commercial storage.


Assuntos
Fitosteróis , Probióticos , Grão Comestível , Frutas , Iogurte/análise
7.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(1): 101, 2021 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964911

RESUMO

In recent years, the use of bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus species has received much attention in different areas, including using as probiotics, food preservation, and as broad antimicrobial spectrum activity. In this study, a bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus strain was isolated from traditional yogurt. The isolate was identified by morphological, biochemical, 16S rRNA analyses, and designated as Latilactobacillus curvatus LAB-3H. The primary antimicrobial activity of the isolate was evaluated on Micrococcus luteus PTCC 1408 by the agar gel diffusion method. The growth of L. curvatus LAB-3H in MRS broth at 37 °C and its antimicrobial activity against Lactobacillus casei ATCC 39,392 was evaluated. In batch culture analysis, bacteriocin production starts at the early exponential growth phase and continues to the middle of the stationary phase about (660 AU/ml) at 28 h and pH 3.8. Bacteriocin produced by L. curvatus LAB-3H showed antibacterial activity against some selected foodborne pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes PTCC1294, Bacillus cereus PTCC1857, Staphylococcus aureus PTCC1917, and Escherichia coli PTCC1276. For purification of bacteriocin, ammonium sulfate precipitation and cation exchange chromatography methods were used. The maximum antimicrobial activity observed was about 3985.15 AU/mg of protein, which was a 249.22-fold increase, and 5.21% yield compared with that in the cell-free supernatant. The molecular weight of bacteriocin was approximately 55 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The obtained results in this study demonstrate that bacteriocin from L. curvatus LAB-3H is a potential candidate for controlling microbial contaminations and can be used in different sectors, such as food industries.


Assuntos
Bacteriocinas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriocinas/farmacologia , Lactobacillus , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Iogurte
8.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(5): 735-755, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the level of yogurt intake in the Chinese population and its relationship between the level of yogurt intake and metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Samples were taken from populations in 8 cities in China. Dietary surveys, physical examinations, and blood sample were collected. The level of yogurt intake of the population were calculated and evaluated. The relationship between yogurt intake and metabolic syndrome and its components was analyzed by multiple logistic regression. The yogurt intake was investigated using a diet frequency questionnaire to record the frequency and intake of yogurt in the past month. RESULTS: A total of 1508 respondents were included in this study, including 538 males and 970 females; the average age was 51.74 years; the distribution ratio in the North and South regions was 5∶4.The rate of Chinese population in 8 cities which eat yogurt was 50.1%. The intake of yogurt was 3.7 g/d. Yogurt accounts for 27.22% of dairy products. There were differences in the distribution of different yogurt intake groups in different genders, age groups, Body Mass Index(BMI)groups, regions, education levels, monthly income, and smoking. The differences in calcium, fruit, and total dairy product intake among different yogurt intake groups were statistically significant difference. Sample analysis found that yogurt intake was negatively correlated with metabolic syndrome and its components. We adjusted gender, age group, body mass index group, region, education grade, monthly income, smoking, total energy, protein, fat, Ca, fruit, total dairy products for multi-factor analysis and found that this negative correlation was weakened. But this negative correlation remained on abnormal blood glucose[OR=0.61(95%CI 0.42-0.89)]. CONCLUSION: The yoghurt intake of Chinese residents is low. The intake of yogurt has a negative correlation with abnormal blood glucose.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Iogurte , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Laticínios , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Adv Nutr ; 12(Suppl 1): 1S-13S, 2021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632478

RESUMO

Systemic chronic inflammation may be a contributing factor to many noncommunicable diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. With the rapid rise of these conditions, identifying the causes of and treatment for chronic inflammation is an important research priority, especially with regard to modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet. An emerging body of evidence indicates that consuming certain foods, including dairy foods like milk, cheese, and yogurt, may be linked to a decreased risk for inflammation. To discuss both broader research on diet and inflammation as well as research on links between individual foods and inflammation, the National Dairy Council sponsored a satellite session entitled "Exploring the Links between Diet and Inflammation: Dairy Foods as Case Studies" at the American Society for Nutrition's 2020 LIVE ONLINE Conference. This article, a review based on the topics discussed during that session, explores the links between diet and inflammation, focusing most closely on the relations between intake of dairy fat and dairy foods like milk, cheese, and yogurt, and biomarkers of inflammation from clinical trials. While there is currently insufficient evidence to prove an "anti-inflammatory" effect of dairy foods, the substantial body of clinical research discussed in this review indicates that dairy foods do not increase concentrations of biomarkers of chronic systemic inflammation.


Assuntos
Queijo , Laticínios , Animais , Dieta , Humanos , Inflamação , Leite , Fatores de Risco , Iogurte
10.
J Food Sci ; 86(11): 4892-4900, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643273

RESUMO

The probiotic yogurt market is strong because of the potential benefits that probiotics provide to the host, such as relieving lactose intolerance symptoms, easing diarrhea, and improving the immune system. However, probiotics are sensitive to processing conditions and the high acidity of yogurt can reduce survival of probiotics and limit yogurt shelf life. Here, oleocolloid technology (bigels) was used to improve the survival of probiotics during yogurt shelf life. Bigels are semisolid systems containing a polar and a non-polar phase mixed forming a material with improved properties. Probiotic bigels were prepared by mixing a soy lecithin-stearic acid oleogel emulsion and a whey protein hydrogel, followed by the incorporation of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis suspended in milk. Yogurt was prepared with 18% wt/wt probiotic bigels with (Swiss-style) and without (sundae-style) agitation. Probiotic viability was monitored for 6 weeks. The total counts of L. acidophilus and B. lactis entrapped in bigels were significantly higher than free bacteria in yogurt after 3 and 5 weeks, respectively, indicating that probiotics could be entrapped and their survival enhanced. Both yogurt styles showed a meant total count of 3.3 and 4.5 log CFU/g for L. acidophilus and B. lactis, respectively at the end of storage time suggesting that despite agitation of yogurt, bigel structure played a key role in protecting probiotic viability.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium animalis , Probióticos , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Proteínas do Soro do Leite , Iogurte
11.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641276

RESUMO

The incorporation of prebiotics in fermented milk products is one of the best ways to promote health benefits while improving their sensory characteristics at the same time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of fructose and oligofructose (1% and 2%) on the physicochemical, rheological, sensory, and microbiological quality attributes of fermented milk products inoculated with indigenous probiotic starter cultures of Lactobacillus isolated from Polish traditional fermented foods. The samples were evaluated during 35 days of refrigerated storage. The oligofructose and fructose caused increases in the populations of bacteria in comparison to the control fermented milk products without the addition of saccharides. The degrees of acidification in different fermented milk samples, as well as their viscosity, firmness, syneresis, and color attributes, changed during storage. The highest overall sensory quality levels were observed for the samples supplemented with L. brevis B1 and oligofructose. This study is the first attempt to compare the influences of different sugar sources on the physicochemical, rheological, sensory, and microbiological quality attributes of fermented milk products.


Assuntos
Frutose/química , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Oligossacarídeos/química , Iogurte/análise , Animais , Produtos Fermentados do Leite/análise , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Leite/química , Iogurte/microbiologia
12.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684627

RESUMO

Oral processing of food results in the formation of food boluses, which are then swallowed and reach the stomach for further digestion. The number, size and surface properties of the boluses will affect their processing and emptying from the stomach. Knowledge of these parameters, however, is incomplete due to limitations of the techniques used. In this work, non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for the first time to measure boluses in the stomach a few minutes after swallowing. Three groups of nine healthy participants were fed three different meals: chicken and roasted vegetables (Meal 1), bread and jam (Meal 2) and cheese and yogurt (Meal 3), and then, their stomach content was imaged. The median number of boluses within the stomach was 282, 106 and 9 for Meal 1, Meal 2 and Meal 3 (p < 0.0001) with an average volume of 0.47 mL, 2.4 mL and 13.6 mL, respectively (p < 0.0001). The cohesiveness as well as the meal composition seem to play a key role in the resulting boluses. These new in vivo data from undisturbed organ imaging can improve knowledge of the digestion process, which will, in turn, inform in vitro and in silico modelling of digestion, thus improving their in vitro/in vivo relevance.


Assuntos
Digestão , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Refeições , Estômago/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Animais , Pão , Queijo , Feminino , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial , Aves Domésticas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Verduras , Iogurte , Adulto Jovem
13.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 20(6): 6057-6088, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494713

RESUMO

The popularity of fat-free fermented concentrated milk products, such as fresh cheeses and high-protein yogurt, has increased over the recent years, attributed to greater availability and improvements in taste and texture. These improvements have been achieved through modifications and new developments in processing technologies, for example, higher heat treatment intensities and incorporating different membrane filtration technologies. Though numerous processing parameters are discussed in the literature, as well as reasons behind the developments, detailed examinations of how process modifications affect the final textural attributes of these products are lacking. To draw links between processing parameters and texture, we review the literature on fat-free fermented concentrated milk products from the perspective of fermented milk protein-based microgel particles as the basic structural unit. At each main processing step, relationships between process parameters, micro- and macrostructural and sensory (textural) properties are discussed.An overview of particle characteristics that drive structural changes at each processing step is developed in relation to textural characteristics. Using this approach of assessing relationships between structural characteristics of concentrated dispersions of fat-free fermented milk protein-based microgel particles and processing parameters provides a basic context for the selection of optimal parameters to achieve a desired texture.


Assuntos
Queijo , Produtos Fermentados do Leite , Microgéis , Proteínas do Leite , Iogurte
14.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4303-4315, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496055

RESUMO

Polycaprolactone (PCL)was used via double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique for the encapsulation of polyphenols olive leaves (OLs) extracts. In this study, the PCL-microcapsules loaded with OLs polyphenols extract powder were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared spectrometry analysis. Their total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC) contents, and antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS), and polyphenols stability were measured after oral, gastric, and intestinal steps of in vitro digestion. PCL-microcapsules were utilized in formulating novel functional yogurt containing 0, 25, 50, and 75 mg of TPC estimated as mg GAE (added as PCL-microcapsules) per 100g yogurt. All yogurt samples were evaluated for their pH, acidity, syneresis, viscosity, and color during storage. In vitro digestion significantly affected the phenolic composition in non-encapsulated extract whereas it had a lower impact on encapsulated phenolics. Higher protection was provided for encapsulated OLs extract and their higher release was observed at the intestinal phase. Unlike the undigested OLs extract, which had a TPC of 490 mg GAE/100 g, lower values of TPC (136 and 289 mg GAE/100 g) were obtained for non-encapsulated and encapsulated OLs extract, respectively, in the intestinal fluids. Yogurt with PCL-microcapsules had lower viscosity, syneresis, and color parameters, compared to control yogurt. Thus, OLs represent a valuable and cheap source of polyphenols that can be successfully applied in microencapsulated form, in formulating functional yogurt.


Assuntos
Olea , Extratos Vegetais , Polifenóis , Iogurte , Antioxidantes/química , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Olea/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Iogurte/análise
15.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579049

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori (Hp) eradication therapy alters gut microbiota, provoking gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that could be improved by probiotics. The study aim was to assess the effect in Hp patients of a Test fermented milk containing yogurt and Lacticaseibacillus (L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 and I-3689, L. rhamnosus CNCM I-3690) strains on antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) (primary aim), GI-symptoms, gut microbiota, and metabolites. A randomised, double-blind, controlled trial was performed on 136 adults under 14-day Hp treatment, receiving the Test or Control product for 28 days. AAD and GI-symptoms were reported and feces analysed for relative and quantitative gut microbiome composition, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), and calprotectin concentrations, and viability of ingested strains. No effect of Test product was observed on AAD or GI-symptoms. Hp treatment induced a significant alteration in bacterial and fungal composition, a decrease of bacterial count and alpha-diversity, an increase of Candida and calprotectin, and a decrease of SCFA concentrations. Following Hp treatment, in the Test as compared to Control group, intra-subject beta-diversity distance from baseline was lower (padj = 0.02), some Enterobacteriaceae, including Escherichia-Shigella (padj = 0.0082) and Klebsiella (padj = 0.013), were less abundant, and concentrations of major SCFA (p = 0.035) and valerate (p = 0.045) were higher. Viable Lacticaseibacillus strains were detected during product consumption in feces. Results suggest that, in patients under Hp treatment, the consumption of a multi-strain fermented milk can induce a modest but significant faster recovery of the microbiota composition (beta-diversity) and of SCFA production and limit the increase of potentially pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Produtos Fermentados do Leite , Diarreia/terapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/microbiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Iogurte
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(12): 12403-12414, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531052

RESUMO

Adding functional ingredients is an important method to develop functional dairy products. Mulberry pomace (MPo), a byproduct of mulberry fruit processing, is rich in phenolic compounds and anthocyanins and can be served as the functional ingredient in functional dairy products. The aim of this work was to prepare a functional flavored yogurt by incorporating MPo into stirred yogurt and to investigate the effects of MPo on the physicochemical and textural properties of the product during cold storage. We supplemented MPo powder up to 3% (wt/wt) in fermented milk, and the changes in color, pH, titratable acidity (TA), total phenol content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), water-holding capacity, rheological behavior, texture, and microstructure of the functional flavored yogurt were monitored during storage under 4°C for 28 d. The MPo powder brought a pink to dark red color to the yogurt, decreased the lightness (L*) and yellow-blue color (b*) values, increased the red-green color (a*) values, decreased the pH value, and increased the contents of TA, TPC, and TAC in a dose-dependent manner. The addition of MPo at 1%, 2%, and 3% (wt/wt) significantly increased water-holding capacity, consistency, viscosity, and viscosity index, and reduced firmness of yogurt samples. Supplementation of MPo significantly reduced the pore spaces and channels inside the samples and improved microstructure of the functional yogurt. During the 28 d of cold storage, MPo-fortified yogurt samples kept relatively constant color, although their L*, a*, and b* showed a decreasing tendency. The pH of all yogurt samples gradually decreased with increasing of TA. Interestingly, TPC and TAC contents and the texture parameters of MPo-fortified yogurt increased gradually and continuously during the 28 d of cold storage. Mulberry pomace is beneficial to improve the physicochemical and textural properties of yogurt and has the potential as a natural stabilizer to be used in functional yogurt rich in phytochemicals.


Assuntos
Morus , Iogurte , Animais , Antocianinas , Frutas , Leite , Iogurte/análise
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(11): 11401-11412, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454763

RESUMO

Acid whey, a byproduct of Greek yogurt production, has little commercial value due to its low protein content and is also environmentally harmful when disposed of as waste. However, as a product of microbial fermentation, acid whey could be a rich source of beneficial metabolites associated with fermented foods. This study increases understanding of acid whey composition by providing a complete metabolomic profile of acid whey. Commercial and laboratory-made Greek yogurts, prepared with 3 different bacterial culture combinations, were evaluated. Samples of uncultured milk and cultured whey from each batch were analyzed. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics were used to separate and identify 477 metabolites. Compared with uncultured controls, acid whey from fermented yogurt showed decreases in some metabolites and increases in others, presumably due to the effects of microbial metabolism. Additional metabolites appeared in yogurt whey but not in the uncultured control. Therefore, the effect of microbial fermentation is complex, leading to increases or decreases in potentially bioactive bovine metabolites while generating new microbial compounds that may be beneficial. Metabolite production was significantly affected by combinations of culturing organisms and production location. Differences between laboratory-made and commercial samples could be caused by different starting ingredients, environmental factors, or both.


Assuntos
Soro do Leite , Iogurte , Animais , Bovinos , Fermentação , Metabolômica , Leite , Proteínas do Soro do Leite
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(10): 10528-10539, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334203

RESUMO

The growth behaviors and metabolomic profiles in yogurts induced by multistrain probiotics of Lactobacillus casei Zhang (LCZ) and Bifidobacterium lactis V9 (V9) at the fermentation termination and 10 d of storage at 4°C under different fermentation temperatures (37°C and 42°C) were compared using metabolomics based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The growths of LCZ and V9 were affected by fermentation temperatures; the viable cell density of LCZ was higher at 37°C than that at 42°C; however, V9 was higher at 42°C. Multistrain probiotics had higher contribution to the changes in volatile and nonvolatile metabolomic profiles at 42°C than those at 37°C. At fermentation termination, there were 2 common enriched pathways increased by multistrain probiotics at 37°C and 42°C, which were biosynthesis of peptides and amino- and nucleotide-sugar metabolism. At 10 d of storage, 4 common increased enriched pathways were alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism; tyrosine metabolism; valine, leucine, and isoleucine degradation; and valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis. This work provided a detailed insight into different effects of different multistrain probiotics of LCZ and V9 fermentation temperatures on the growth behaviors and volatile and nonvolatile metabolomic profiles of yogurts.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium animalis , Lactobacillus casei , Probióticos , Animais , Fermentação , Metabolômica , Leite , Temperatura , Iogurte/análise
19.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361753

RESUMO

The popularity and consumption of fermented milk products are growing. On the other hand, consumers are interested in health-promoting and functional foods. Fermented milk products are an excellent matrix for the incorporation of bioactive ingredients, making them functional foods. To overcome the instability or low solubility of many bioactive ingredients under various environmental conditions, the encapsulation approach was developed. This review analyzes the fortification of three fermented milk products, i.e., yogurt, cheese, and kefir with bioactive ingredients. The encapsulation methods and techniques alongside the encapsulant materials for carotenoids, phenolic compounds, omega-3, probiotics, and other micronutrients are discussed. The effect of encapsulation on the properties of bioactive ingredients themselves and on textural and sensory properties of fermented milk products is also presented.


Assuntos
Queijo/análise , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Alimento Funcional/análise , Kefir/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Iogurte/análise , Animais , Carotenoides/administração & dosagem , Carotenoides/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Fermentação , Aditivos Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Leite/química , Leite/microbiologia , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Fenóis/química , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200002, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378758

RESUMO

In the current study, twenty-eight bacterial strains were isolated from home-made yogurt samples from Agri Province, Turkey. The bacterial strains were identified by conventional and molecular techniques. Among the twenty- eight isolates, seventeen isolates were identified according to the 16 S rDNA region and determined to belong to five different genus including Sphingomonas (8 isolates), Burkholderia (5 isolates), Lactobacillus (2 isolates), Lactococcus (1 isolate), Staphylococcus (1 isolate). In this study, the presence of Burkholderia in home-made yogurt samples were reported for the first time, whereas Sphingomonas was detected for the second time. We also investigated the carbonate (CaCO3 and MgCO3) and silicate ( CaSiO3 and MgSiO3) dissolving potential of seventeen bacterial isolates. Among these seventeen bacterial isolates, fifteen bacterial isolates have CaCO3-dissolving and 10 bacterial isolates have MgCO3-dissolving potential. The silicates dissolution ability was relatively less than that of carbonates dissolving. We observed that six bacterial isolates have CaSiO3 and only two bacterial isolates have MgSiO3 dissolution abilities. In conclusion, this work clearly shows the diversity of bacteria existing in fermented cow milk samples in Agri Province, Turkey, which could be considered as valuable sources for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolation and further probiotic potential.


Assuntos
Probióticos , Iogurte , Animais , Carbonatos , Bovinos , Feminino , Lactobacillus , Silicatos
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