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1.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(11): e461-e464, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757873

RESUMO

Children represent a small fraction of total cumulative cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The potential health consequences related to infection for children are not inconsequential. For example, some may develop multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, which is commonly associated with cardiovascular involvement. Nevertheless, the short- and long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection remain unknown. In particular, the impact on physical health and how it affects one's ability to return to physical activity are continuously evolving. As more youth sports organizations are lifting restrictions, the volume of youth athletes will increase and the demand for providing medical clearance will grow. This article aims to provide a review of return to physical activity guidelines for young athletes post-SARS-CoV-2 infection based on expert consensus statements and professional organization recommendations. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(11):e461-e464.].


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Volta ao Esporte , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica
2.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(11): e454-e460, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757874

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought to forefront the large morbidity, mortality, and complications that viral illnesses can cause. For athletes, viral illnesses can be disruptive toward their participation in youth sports. This article outlines the details of how the most common viral illnesses affect the youth athlete and youth sports, including COVID-19, non-COVID-19 upper respiratory infections, influenza, Epstein-Barr virus, varicella, herpes, and other dermatologic infections. In this article, we review current available guidelines and recommendations on how to handle these infections in athletes during sports as well as return-to-play recommendations. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(11):e454-e460.].


Assuntos
Atletas , COVID-19 , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(11): e450-e453, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757876

RESUMO

The American Academy of Pediatrics estimates that approximately 35 to 45 million young people age 6 to 18 years participate in some type of athletics every year. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic interrupted youth sports and left many children unable to train in-person with teammates and coaches. Given the large impact sports and physical activity have on the lives of children and adolescents, the effect that coronavirus disease 2019 restrictions have had on the psychological and physical well-being of young athletes is significant. The youth sports community has worked hard to find creative ways to safely bring children and adolescents back to the fields and courts with rules and regulations in place. Youth practices and competitions are potential spreader events for SARS-CoV-2, especially given the challenge of identifying young athletes and other participants with asymptomatic active viral infection. With the implementation of rapid result testing programs and the US Food and Drug Administration approval of a highly effective vaccine in adolescents and, most recently, in younger children, youth sports are once again becoming a place for young athletes to train, socialize, and learn invaluable lessons in teamwork and leadership. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(11):e450-e453.].


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Esportes
5.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(11): e470-e473, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757878

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic profoundly impacted athletes and organizations of all ages and calibers. As optimism grows and restrictions lift, the mindset of youth sports shifts to prospection. Using the lessons learned during the cancelled, postponed, or modified 2020-2021 season, stakeholders should envision a different playing field moving forward. The void of youth sports highlighted the many values it brings to athletes physically, mentally, and socially. The regionality of sport during the pandemic highlighted resource and funding disparities among communities. Consideration must be given to the overall health of the student-athlete and how to return to competition and spectatorship safely and responsibly. The pandemic required youth sport to collaborate with public health with the hope of creating a semblance of normalcy in upcoming seasons. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(11):e470-e473.].


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Volta ao Esporte , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Esportes
6.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(11): e465-e469, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757879

RESUMO

The widespread shutdown in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, although varied across state and county levels, has undoubtedly impacted everyone to some degree. Within the pediatric population, the closure of schools and organized youth athletic programs has resulted in a unique situation that has made athletes physically deconditioned and at risk for injury. As sports and competition gradually restart, there are considerable risks to the skeletally immature athlete. The anatomic and physiologic changes that occur to bone and cartilage during growth make the young athlete particularly susceptible to both acute and overuse injuries. In the context of the pandemic, deconditioning, obesity, lack of variety, and the resultant mental health burden pose unique challenges in ensuring that young athletes safely return to the field. This review aims to identify risk factors for sport-related injuries and to outline strategies for minimizing these injuries as pediatric patients return-to-play after COVID-19. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(11):e465-e469.].


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Volta ao Esporte , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639386

RESUMO

One of the key elements of effective sports programs that contribute to a child's sense of joy and satisfaction in participating in sports is contact with an adult who builds a caring climate deliberately and intentionally. Referees play a special role in providing positive experiences for young athletes. The main aim of this study was to assess the quality of referee-player interactions in terms of building a positive climate during the game and the referee's responsiveness to the health, emotional, social, and cognitive needs of young rugby players aged 6-12 years. The research was conducted among 23 referees refereeing children's rugby matches in Poland. The structure observation method and The Referee-Players' Interaction Assessment Scoring System tool were used in the study. Each referee was observed twice. The referee's verbal and non-verbal communication was recorded using a GoPro Hero 8 camera and an Ejeas Fbim wireless intercom system. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to examine differences between referees' ratings on two dimensions. The Mann-Whitney U test was employed to test the significance of differences in the mean scores of referees between groups divided by experience. The referees, in both dimensions (building positive climate and responsiveness to the players' needs), scored on a 7-point scale, were rated at an average level of 3.22 (SD = 1.65) and 4.39 (SD = 1.67), respectively, with the responsiveness dimension rating being statistically significantly higher than the positive climate rating. The results showed that referee experience was not a determinant of the rating of the quality of referee-players' interactions in both dimensions. From these studies, it was concluded that there is a need to complement the existing training programs for referees with the contents from the field of pedagogy and developmental psychology. This will help them build a positive climate during the game and show how to respond to children's health, cognitive, emotional, and social needs. Furthermore, developing a referee's pedagogical skills can improve their relationship with players, which can ultimately translate into a greater sense of job satisfaction. The formulated practical implications can also be transposed to other team sports.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano , Esportes Juvenis , Adulto , Atletas , Criança , Emoções , Humanos , Polônia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682695

RESUMO

During children's sports competitions, the referees play a special role. The referees are expected to be able to identify behavioral problems (of players, coaches, and fans), applying specific techniques to prevent negative behavior of players. Adapting these actions to the specifics of the group or individuals is crucial in providing a safe educational environment that promotes child development. The main objective of this research was to assess the quality of referees' interactions with players in terms of positive behavior management and proficiency during rugby matches of children aged 6-12 years. Twenty-three rugby referees officiating matches organized by the Polish Rugby Union in Poland participated in the study. The research used the Referee-Players' Interaction Assessment Scoring System tool. Additionally, referee-player interactions were recorded with a GoPro 8 camera along with audio from a wireless intercom. The significance of differences between the ratings for each indicator was tested by chi-squared test, while a non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the mean ratings of positive behavior management and proficiency. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare differences between assessments of experienced and inexperienced referees. The observations showed that referees were rated significantly higher in the proficiency dimension than in positive behavior management dimension. Nevertheless, both ratings represent an average level of quality of interactions with the players. The referee's experience did not determine the quality of his or her interactions with the players in the specific dimensions. The following conclusion was drawn from the research: referees should be trained in the methods and techniques for managing player behavior and should act to prevent the occurrence of negative behavior, by presenting clear and understandable expectations to players before the match and using preventive measures.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano , Esportes Juvenis , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia
9.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257487, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534246

RESUMO

Many youths participate in sports, and it is of interest to understand the impact of youth sports participation on later-life outcomes. However, prospective studies take a long time to complete and retrospective studies may be more practical and time-efficient to address some questions. We pilot a retrospective survey of youth sports participation and examine agreement between respondent's self-reported participation with high school records in a sample of 84 adults who graduated from high school between 1948 and 2018. The percent agreement between our survey and the school resources for individual sports ranged between 91.5% and 100%. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the reliability of retrospective self-report of youth sports participation. This survey may serve as an efficient approach for evaluating relationships between involvement in youth sports and health outcomes later in adulthood.


Assuntos
Esportes Juvenis/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Esportes Juvenis/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(3): 299-302, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288575

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction The paper investigates burnout causes and relevant affecting factors of juvenile trampolinists. Objective With 93 participants aged U10-16 of 2019 National Juvenile Trampoline Championship as investigation objects, to improve the current situation of juvenile burnout, exploring the methodology to alleviate and eliminate it, enhancing the sense of achievement in training and competition and providing a theoretical basis for coaches to train and cultivate athletes. Methods Questionnaire survey, semi-structured interview, mathematical statistics. Results The burnout level of the trampolinists is below the moderate level, and the overall burnout level of athletes is not high; the sense of achievement decrease> negative evaluation of sports>emotional/physical exhaustion; the correlation between the overall level of burnout of athletes and different genders, training age, education stage and athlete level is not significant; in terms of burnout, there are very significant positive correlations(P<0.01) between overload factor, personal factor, and situational factor, and emotional/physical exhaustion, sense of achievement decrease and negative evaluation of sports respectively. Conclusions Strengthen the communication with trampolinists, improve their self-regulation ability in various ways, master the methods to alleviate burnout, and increase social support for them. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução O artigo investiga as causas do burnout e os fatores que afetam os jovens trampolinistas. Objetivo Ter como objeto de pesquisa 93 participantes de U10-16 do Campeonato Nacional Juvenil de Trampolim 2019, para melhorar a situação atual do burnout juvenil, explorando a metodologia para amenizá-lo e eliminá-lo, potencializando a sensação de realização em treinamentos e competições e proporcionando uma base para os treinadores trabalharem com os atletas. Métodos Questionário de levantamento, entrevista semiestruturada, estatística matemática. Resultados O nível de burnout dos trampolinistas está abaixo do nível moderado e o nível geral de burnout dos atletas não é alto; diminuição da sensação de realização> avaliação negativa de esportes> burnout emocional/físico; a correlação entre o nível geral de burnout dos atletas e os diferentes gêneros, a idade de treinamento, o estágio educacional e o nível do atleta não é significativa; Em termos de burnout, existem correlações positivas altamente significativas (P <0,01) entre o fator de sobrecarga, o fator pessoal e o fator situacional, e burnout emocional/físico, a diminuição do senso de realização e a avaliação negativa dos esportes, respectivamente. Conclusões Fortalecer a comunicação com os trampolinistas, melhorar sua capacidade de autorregulação de várias maneiras, dominar os métodos para aliviar o burnout e aumentar o apoio social para eles. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos: investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción El artículo investiga las causas del burnout y los factores que afectan a los trampolinistas juveniles. Objetivo Con 93 participantes de edades U10-16 del Campeonato Nacional Juvenil de Trampolín 2019 como objetos de investigación, mejorar la situación actual del burnout juvenil, explorando la metodología para aliviarlo y eliminarlo, potenciando el sentido de logro en entrenamientos y competencias y brindando un base para que los entrenadores trabajen con los atletas. Métodos Encuesta por cuestionario, entrevista semiestructurada, estadística matemática. Resultados El nivel de burnout de los trampolinistas está por debajo del nivel moderado y el nivel de burnout general de los atletas no es alto; disminución del sentido de logro> evaluación negativa de los deportes> burnout emocional / físico; la correlación entre el nivel general de burnout de los atletas y los diferentes géneros, la edad de entrenamiento, la etapa educativa y el nivel del atleta no es significativa; en términos de burnout, existen correlaciones positivas muy significativas (P <0,01) entre el factor de sobrecarga, el factor personal y el factor situacional, y el burnout emocional / físico, la disminución del sentido de logro y la evaluación negativa de los deportes, respectivamente. Conclusiones Fortalecer la comunicación con los trampolinistas, mejorar su capacidad de autorregulación de diversas formas, dominar los métodos para aliviar el burnout y aumentar el apoyo social a ellos. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Atletas/psicologia , Esportes Juvenis/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Risco , Modelos Teóricos
11.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 41(10): 617-624, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little data exists on surgical outcomes of sports-related cervical spine injuries (CSI) sustained in children and adolescent athletes. This study reviewed demographics, injury characteristics, management, and operative outcomes of severe CSI encountered in youth sports. METHODS: Children below 18 years with operative sports-related CSI at a Level 1 pediatric trauma center were reviewed (2004 to 2019). All patients underwent morden cervical spine instrumentation and fusion. Clinical, radiographic, and surgical characteristics were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 3231 patients (mean, 11.3±4.6 y) with neck pain were evaluated for CSI. Sports/recreational activities were the most common etiology in 1358 cases (42.0%). Twenty-nine patients (2.1%) with sports-related CSI (mean age, 14.5 y; range, 6.4 to 17.8 y) required surgical intervention. Twenty-five were males (86%). Operative CSI occurred in football (n=8), wrestling (n=7), gymnastics (n=5), diving (n=4), trampoline (n=2), hockey (n=1), snowboarding (n=1), and biking (n=1). Mechanisms were 27 hyperflexion/axial loading (93%) and 2 hyperextension injuries (7%). Most were cervical fractures (79%) and subaxial injuries (79%). Seven patients (24%) sustained spinal cord injury (SCI) and 3 patients (10%) cord contusion or myelomalacia without neurological deficits. The risk of SCI increased with age (P=0.03). Postoperatively, 2 SCI patients (29%) improved 1 American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale Grade and 1 (14%) improved 2 American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale Grades. Increased complications developed in SCI than non-SCI cases (mean, 2.0 vs. 0.1 complications; P=0.02). Bony fusion occurred in 26/28 patients (93%) after a median of 7.2 months (interquartile range, 6 to 15 mo). Ten patients (34%) returned to their baseline sport and 9 (31%) to lower-level activities. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of sports-related CSI requiring surgery is low with differences in age/sex, sport, and injury patterns. Older males with hyperflexion/axial loading injuries in contact sports were at greatest risk of SCI, complications, and permanent disability. Prevention campaigns, education on proper tackling techniques, and neck strength training are required in sports at high risk of hyperflexion/axial loading injury. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III-retrospective cohort study.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Futebol Americano , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/cirurgia , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/lesões , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia
12.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 20(9): 494-498, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524194

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Participation in youth sports can have a positive, lasting impact on a child's general health and physical well-being. Unfortunately, some youth populations are unable to participate and/or reap the benefits of sports because of existing inequities. Youth from lower socioeconomic status and ethnic minority children have been found to participate in sports less. These disparities are unfortunately pervasive and likely the result of multiple barriers, including financial and time constraints, limited resources and the inability to access facilities both in and out of school, and lack of familial support. There also exist inequities with regard to sports injury management, including knowledge, access to athletic trainers, and care. This article provides a review of the numerous disparities and inequities in youth sports. Compiling and understanding these data may help develop a framework to make youth sports more equitable and beneficial for all.


Assuntos
Esportes , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , Criança , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Instituições Acadêmicas , Classe Social
13.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(4): 363-366, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288599

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Education administrative departments and schools should regard sports as an integral part of school education and allow students to use sports every day. Guarantee the time for sports activities; schools should organize various forms of extracurricular sports activities". Objective: Based on the ecological system theory, the paper constructs a three-factor structural model that restricts youth sports participation and compiles a scale of factors restricting youth sports participation. Methods: The thesis selected 1,800 primary and secondary school students as the research object and used exploratory factor analysis to explore the questionnaire structure on the obstacles to sports participation. Results: 1) Exploratory factor analysis, the cumulative contribution rate of the first three factors extracted was 58.90%, and the load of each factor was more significant than 0.4. The three factors were school factors, family factors, and personal factors in order; 2) Reselected subjects, Exploring the three-factor structural model of obstacles to sports participation were verified. The final modified model RMSEA was 0.071, CFI was 0.98, and χ2/df was 8.55. The three factors were school factors, family factors, and personal factors. Conclusions: The fit of the three-factor structural indicators restricting youth sports participation is ideal, and the model is relatively stable. The "Questionnaire on Restricting Factors of Youth Sports Participation" can be used as a measurement tool to evaluate and understand youth sports participation constraints. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: Departamentos administrativos de educação e escolas devem considerar os esportes como parte integrante da educação escolar e permitir que os alunos pratiquem esportes todos os dias. Garantia de tempo para atividades esportivas; as escolas devem organizar várias formas de atividades esportivas extracurriculares. Objetivo: Com base na teoria do sistema ecológico, o artigo constrói um modelo estrutural de três fatores que restringe a participação em esportes de jovens e compila uma escala de fatores que restringem a participação em esportes de jovens. Métodos: a tese selecionou 1.800 alunos do ensino fundamental e médio como objeto de pesquisa e utilizou uma análise fatorial exploratória para explorar a estrutura do questionário sobre obstáculos à participação esportiva. Resultados: 1) Análise fatorial exploratória, a taxa de contribuição cumulativa dos três primeiros fatores extraídos foi de 58,90% e a carga de cada fator foi mais significativa do que 0,4. Os três fatores eram fatores escolares, fatores familiares e fatores pessoais em ordem; 2) Foram verificados os temas reelecionados, explorando o modelo estrutural de três fatores de obstáculos à participação esportiva. O modelo RMSEA modificado final foi 0,071, CFI foi 0,98 e χ2 / df foi 8,55. Os três fatores eram fatores escolares, fatores familiares e fatores pessoais. Conclusões: O ajuste dos indicadores estruturais de três fatores que restringem a participação dos jovens em esportes é ideal e o modelo é relativamente estável. O "Questionário sobre Fatores Restritivos da Participação em Esportes de Jovens" pode ser usado como uma ferramenta de medição para avaliar e compreender as limitações da participação em esportes de jovens. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos: investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: Los departamentos administrativos de educación y las escuelas deben considerar los deportes como una parte integral de la educación escolar y permitir que los estudiantes utilicen los deportes todos los días. Garantizar el tiempo para actividades deportivas; las escuelas deberían organizar diversas formas de actividades deportivas extracurriculares. Objetivo: Basado en la teoría del sistema ecológico, el artículo construye un modelo estructural de tres factores que restringe la participación deportiva juvenil y compila una escala de factores que restringen la participación deportiva juvenil. Métodos: La tesis seleccionó a 1.800 estudiantes de primaria y secundaria como objeto de investigación y utilizó un análisis factorial exploratorio para explorar la estructura del cuestionario sobre los obstáculos a la participación deportiva. Resultados: 1) Análisis factorial exploratorio, la tasa de contribución acumulada de los tres primeros factores extraídos fue de 58,90% y la carga de cada factor fue más significativa que 0,4. Los tres factores fueron factores escolares, factores familiares y factores personales en orden; 2) Se verificaron sujetos reselegidos, Explorando el modelo estructural de tres factores de obstáculos a la participación deportiva. El modelo final modificado RMSEA fue 0.071, CFI fue 0.98 y χ2 / df fue 8.55. Los tres factores fueron factores escolares, factores familiares y factores personales. Conclusiones: El ajuste de los indicadores estructurales de tres factores que restringen la participación deportiva juvenil es ideal y el modelo es relativamente estable. El "Cuestionario sobre factores restrictivos de la participación deportiva juvenil" puede utilizarse como una herramienta de medición para evaluar y comprender las limitaciones de la participación deportiva juvenil. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Participação Social , Esportes Juvenis/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise Fatorial , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Análise de Classes Latentes , Fatores Sociais
14.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 41(8): 507-513, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is significant emerging evidence that early sport specialization is a potential risk factor for injury in youth sports. Despite basketball being the most popular youth team sport in the United States, sport specialization research, specifically in youth basketball players, has been limited. The purpose of this paper was to examine the association of sport specialization behaviors with injury history by surveying a nationally representative sample of parents of youth basketball athletes. We hypothesized that athletes who specialized in basketball, participated on multiple teams at the same time, and traveled regularly for basketball competitions would be more likely to report a basketball-related injury in the previous year. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 805 parents of 805 youth basketball players (female N=241, 29.9%; age: 12.9±2.5 y old) completed an online questionnaire that had 3 sections: (1) parent/child demographics, (2) child basketball participation information for the previous year, and (3) child basketball injury history in the previous year. Multivariate logistic regression examined the associations between variables of interest and injury history, adjusting for covariates. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for the variables of interest from the logistic regression model. RESULTS: Highly specialized athletes were more likely than low specialization athletes to report history of basketball injury in the previous year [OR (95% CI): 2.47 (1.25-4.88), P=0.009]. The odds of reporting an injury in the previous year were twice as great among athletes who played on a basketball team at the same time as another sport team compared with those who played basketball only [OR (95% CI): 1.98 (1.30-3.01), P=0.001]. The odds of reporting an injury in the previous year were 3 times greater among athletes who received private coaching compared with those who did not receive private coaching [OR (95% CI): 2.91 (1.97-4.31), P<0.001]. CONCLUSION: Specialization in basketball, along with several other behaviors that have become typical of modern youth sport participation, were associated with reported injury history. Further prospective research is necessary to determine whether sport specialization behaviors increase the risk of injury in youth basketball. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III-cross-sectional study.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Basquetebol , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Especialização , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444446

RESUMO

Parents play a key role in the youth sports educational experience. They are responsible for the introduction of their children to physical or sporting education and their involvement has been associated with sport participation in early stages. The aims of this cross-sectional study were, first, to assess the perceived and desired parental involvement by children and, secondly, to examine their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with any specific behavior. 80 male soccer players filled the Parental Involvement in Sport Questionnaire (PISQ) before or after a training session in presence of a coach. PISQ results revealed excessive active involvement and pressure, insufficient praise and understanding and satisfactory directive behavior from children's parents. Our findings suggest that excessive parental involvement can cause pressure on children who would prefer parental participation characterized by praise and understanding. A balance between a supporting involvement without putting too much pressure is needed by the parents. To prevent burnout and dropout and to facilitate future practice, parents should be counseled (possibly by a sport educator) on how to positively support their children concerning their sport experience.


Assuntos
Futebol , Esportes , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Athl Train ; 56(6): 542-547, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375980

RESUMO

CONTEXT: As sports are reinitiated around the United States, the incidence of COVID-19 among youth soccer athletes remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of COVID-19 among youth soccer athletes and the risk-mitigation practices used by youth soccer organizations. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Survey distributed to Elite Clubs National League member clubs. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Youth soccer club directors throughout the United States. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Surveys were completed in late August 2020 regarding the club's current phase of return to soccer (individual only, group noncontact, group contact), date of reinitiation, number of players, cases of COVID-19, and risk-reduction procedures being implemented. Case and incidence rates were compared with national pediatric data and county data from the prior 10 weeks. A negative binomial regression model was developed to predict club COVID-19 cases using the local incidence rate and phase of return as covariates and the log of club player-days as an offset. RESULTS: A total of 124 respondents had reinitiated soccer, representing 91 007 players with a median duration of 73 days (interquartile range = 53-83 days) since restarting. Of the 119 clubs that had progressed to group activities, 218 cases of COVID-19 were reported among 85 861 players. Youth soccer players had a lower case rate and incidence rate than children in the United States (254 versus 477 cases per 100 000; incidence rate ratio = 0.511, 95% CI = 0.40, 0.57; P < .001) and the general population in the counties where data were available (268 versus 864 cases per 100 000; incidence rate ratio = 0.202, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.21; P < .001). After adjusting for the local COVID-19 incidence, we found no relationship between the club COVID-19 incidence and the phase of return (noncontact: b = 0.35 ± 0.67, P = .61; contact: b = 0.18 ± 0.67, P = .79). Soccer clubs reported using a median of 8 (interquartile range = 6-10) risk-reduction procedures. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of COVID-19 among youth soccer athletes was relatively low when compared with the background incidence among children in the United States during the summer of 2020. No relationship was identified between the club COVID-19 incidence and the phase of return to soccer.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Futebol , Adolescente , Atletas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Incidência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Esportes Juvenis
17.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444722

RESUMO

Dietary patterns, exercise, sport, and physical activity have been shown to improve body composition in children. This systematic review with meta-analysis analyzed the effects of practicing football on body composition (fat mass, lean body mass, and bone mineral content) in children. An initial search in PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus was carried out in April 2021 to identify relevant articles. Inclusion criteria required children up to 12 years of age with a minimum football intervention duration of 10 weeks. Methodological quality of the articles was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Between the 1803 articles originally founded, only 14 articles were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 1643 subjects between the 14 studies were identified. The review and meta-analysis were conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and used Review Manager and Full Meta-Analysis software. The results between the control and experimental groups showed significantly better lean body mass and fat mass values in the experimental group (p < 0.05). Football practice was positively associated with increases in lean body mass (mean difference of 1.55; 95% CI, 0.96, 2.15), decreases in fat mass (mean difference of -0.81; 95% CI, -1.49, -0.13), and increases in whole body bone mineral content (mean difference of 117.68; 95% CI, 83.69, 151.67). In conclusion, the results of this systematic review with meta-analysis suggest that football positively affects body composition in children. However, further research is needed to confirm the results for bone mineral content.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Estado Nutricional , Futebol , Esportes Juvenis , Tecido Adiposo , Peso Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444723

RESUMO

There is a paucity of research examining hydration and nutrition behaviors in youth American football players. A potentially unique risk factor are league restrictions based on weight (WR) or age (AR). The purpose of this study was to examine hydration status between WR and AR leagues. The secondary purpose was to describe eating patterns in players. An observational cohort design with 63 youth football players (10 ± 1 yrs, 148.2 ± 9.4 cm, 44.9 ± 15.3 kg) was utilized. Independent variables were league (AR (n = 36); WR (n = 27)) and activity type (practice (PX = 8); game (GM = 3)). Dependent variables were hydration status (urine osmolality; percent change in body mass (%BM)), eating attitudes (Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT-26)) and self-reported frequency of meals. On average, players arrived activity mildly hypohydrated (830 ± 296 mOsm/kg) and %BM was minimal (-0.1 ± 0.7%) during events. Players consumed 2 ± 1 meals and 1 ± 1 snack before events. The ChEAT-26 survey reported 21.6% (n = 8) of players were at risk for abnormal eating attitudes. Among these players, eating binges, vomiting, excessive exercise and drastic weight loss were reported. Youth American football players arrived activity mildly hypohydrated and consumed enough fluid during activity to maintain euhydration. Abnormal eating attitudes and the use of unhealthy weight loss methods were reported by some youth American football players.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Líquidos , Comportamento Alimentar , Futebol Americano , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , Atitude , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Fatores de Risco , Sudorese , Estados Unidos , Perda de Peso
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299729

RESUMO

Little is known about provision of medical services to adolescents prior to participating in international top-level sports. This study aimed to investigate experiences of medical service provision among high-level adolescent athletics (track and field) athletes from three continents. A thematic narrative analysis was applied to data collected from 14 athletes by semi-structured interviews. Although competing at the highest international level, these adolescent athletes had difficulties making sense of symptoms of ill health, especially on their own. With increasing exercise loads, the athletes' medical support needs had extended beyond the capacity of parents and local communities. As there was no organized transfer of the responsibility for medical support to sports organizations, the athletes often had to manage their health problems by themselves. There were major variations among the adolescent athletes with regards to medical service access and quality. The services used ranged from sophisticated computer-assisted biomechanical analyses to traditional healers. Decreased exercise load was the common sports injury treatment. The results of this study demonstrate how the ethical standards underpinning youth sports as well as the equal provision of medical services to adolescents are challenged across the world. Further research on health service provision to adolescent top-level athletes is warranted.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Medicina Esportiva , Atletismo , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , Atletas , Humanos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206869

RESUMO

Knee trauma can lead to poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and osteoarthritis. We aimed to assess HRQoL 3-12 years following youth sport-related knee injury considering HRQoL and osteoarthritis determinants. Generic (EQ-5D-5L index, EQ-VAS) and condition-specific (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score quality of life subscale, KOOS QOL) HRQoL were assessed in 124 individuals 3-12 years following youth sport-related knee injury and 129 uninjured controls of similar age, sex, and sport. Linear regression examined differences in HRQoL outcomes by injury group. Multivariable linear regression explored the influence of sex, time-since-injury, injury type, body mass index, knee muscle strength, Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP) score, and Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) moderate-to-strenuous physical activity. Participant median (range) age was 23 years (14-29) and 55% were female. Injury history was associated with poorer KOOS QOL (-8.41; 95%CI -10.76, -6.06) but not EQ-5D-5L (-0.0074; -0.0238, 0.0089) or EQ-VAS (-3.82; -8.77, 1.14). Injury history (-5.14; -6.90, -3.38), worse ICOAP score (-0.40; -0.45, -0.36), and anterior cruciate ligament tear (-1.41; -2.77, -0.06) contributed to poorer KOOS QOL. Worse ICOAP score contributed to poorer EQ-5D-5L (-0.0024; -0.0034, -0.0015) and higher GLTEQ moderate-to-strenuous physical activity to better EQ-VAS (0.10; 0.03, 0.17). Knee trauma is associated with poorer condition-specific but not generic HRQoL 3-12 years post-injury.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Traumatismos do Joelho , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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