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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795408

RESUMO

Vertical partially saturated (VPS) constructed wetlands (CWs) are a novel wastewater treatment system for which little information is known about its design parameters and performance under tropical climates. The objective of this study is to evaluate the nitrogen removal process from domestic wastewater and the production of tropical ornamental plants (Canna hybrids and Zantedeschia aethiopica) in VPS CWs at a mesocosms scale. Nine VPS CWs, with a free-flow zone of 16 cm and a saturated zone of 16 cm, were used as experimental units. Three units were planted with Canna hybrids., and three, with Zantedeschia aethiopica (one plant per unit); the remaining three units were established as controls without vegetation. They were fed with domestic wastewater intermittently and evaluated for the elimination of COD, N-NH4, N-NO3, Norg, NT, and PT. The results showed an increase in the removal for some pollutants in the vegetated systems, i.e., N-NH4 (35%), Norg (16%), TN (25%), and TP (47%) in comparison to the unvegetated systems. While N-NO3 removal showed better removal in 10% of the systems without vegetation, no significant differences were found (p > 0.05) for COD removal. The aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the VPS CWs favor the elimination of pollutants in the systems, and also the development of the tropical species evaluated in this study; good development was exhibited by a high growth rate and biomass production.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas , Biomassa , Clima Tropical , Zantedeschia/metabolismo , Zingiberales/metabolismo
2.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 93(6): 1265-1275, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865369

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small molecules present in all living beings. Despite their huge sequence variability, AMPs present great structural conservation, mainly in cysteine-stabilized families. Moreover, in non-model plants, it is possible to detect cysteine-stabilized AMPs (cs-AMPs) with different sequences not covered by conventional searches. Here, we described a threading application for cs-AMP identification in the non-model arum lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica) plant, exploring the spathe transcriptome. By using the predicted proteins from the Z. aethiopica transcriptome as our primary source of sequences, we have filtered by using structural alignments of 12 putative cs-AMP sequences. The two unreported sequences were submitted to PCR validation, and ZaLTP7 gene was confirmed. By using the structure alignments, we classified ZaLTP7 as an LTP type 2-like. The successful threading application for cs-AMP identification is an important advance in transcriptomic and proteomic data mining. Besides, the same approach could be applied to the use of NGS public data to discover molecules to combat multidrug-resistant bacteria.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Transcriptoma , Zantedeschia/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antibacterianos/química , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 42(3): 275-283, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885535

RESUMO

Four Gram-negative, rod-shaped pectinolytic bacterial strains designated as 2M, 9M, DPMP599 and DPMP600 were subjected to polyphasic analyses that revealed their distinctiveness from the other Pectobacterium species. Strains 2M and 9M were isolated from Calla lily bulbs cultivated in Central Poland. DPMP599 and DPMP600 strains were isolated from Calla lily leaves from plants grown in Serbia. Phylogenetic analyses based on nine housekeeping genes (gapA, gyrA, icdA, pgi, proA, recA, recN, rpoA, and rpoS), as well as phylogeny based on the 381 most conserved universal proteins confirmed that Pectobacterium zantedeschiae strains were distantly related to the other Pectobacterium, and indicated Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Pectobacterium betavasculorum, Pectobacterium parmentieri and Pectobacterium wasabiae as the closest relatives. Moreover, the analysis revealed that Pectobacterium zantedeschiae strains are not akin to Pectobacterium aroidearum strains, which were likewise isolated from Calla lily. The genome sequencing of the strains 2M, 9M and DPMP600 and their comparison with whole genome sequences of other Pectobacterium type strains confirmed their distinctiveness and separate species status within the genus based on parameters of in silico DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values. The MALDI-TOF MS proteomic profile supported the proposition of delineation of the P. zantedeschiae and additionally confirmed the individuality of the studied strains. Based on of all of these data, it is proposed that the strains 2M, 9M, DPMP599, and DPMP600 isolated from Calla lily, previously assigned as P. atrosepticum should be reclassified as Pectobacterium zantedeschiae sp. nov. with the strain 9MT (PCM2893=DSM105717=IFB9009) as the type strain.


Assuntos
Pectobacterium/classificação , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Zantedeschia/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biologia Computacional , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Genes Essenciais/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Pectobacterium/química , Pectobacterium/genética , Polônia , Proteômica , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sérvia , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 19(1): 35-48, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27671364

RESUMO

The identification of phytopathogen proteins that are differentially expressed during the course of the establishment of an infection is important to better understand the infection process. In vitro approaches, using plant extracts added to culture medium, have been used to identify such proteins, but the biological relevance of these findings for in planta infection are often uncertain until confirmed by in vivo studies. Here, we compared the proteins of Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum strain PccS1 differentially expressed in Luria-Bertani medium supplemented with extracts of the ornamental plant Zantedeschia elliotiana cultivar 'Black Magic' (in vitro) and in plant tissues (in vivo) by two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 53 differentially expressed proteins (>1.5-fold) were identified (up-regulated or down-regulated in vitro, in vivo or both). Proteins that exhibited increased expression in vivo but not in vitro, or in both conditions, were identified, and deletions were made in a number of genes encoding these proteins, four of which (clpP, mreB, flgK and eda) led to a loss of virulence on Z. elliotiana, although clpP and mreB were later also shown to be reduced in growth in rich and minimal media. Although clpP, flgK and mreB have previously been reported as playing a role in virulence in plants, this is the first report of such a role for eda, which encodes 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate (KDPG) aldolase, a key enzyme in Entner-Doudoroff metabolism. The results highlight the value of undertaking in vivo as well as in vitro approaches for the identification of new bacterial virulence factors.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Pectobacterium carotovorum/genética , Pectobacterium carotovorum/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Zantedeschia/microbiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Genes Bacterianos , Mutação/genética , Óperon/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteômica , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Transcrição Genética , Regulação para Cima/genética , Virulência/genética
5.
J Econ Entomol ; 110(5): 2046-2051, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29048586

RESUMO

In this article, the efficacy of nitric oxide (NO) fumigation to control bulb mites in the genus Rhizoglyphus and its effects on germination and growth of flower bulbs were studied. Bulb mites on infested peanuts were fumigated with NO at different concentrations under ultralow oxygen conditions in 1.9-liter jars for 4-48 h at various temperatures ranging from 2 to 20 °C. Bulb mites were susceptible to NO fumigation treatment. Efficacy of fumigation treatment increased with increased concentration, treatment time, and temperature within the ranges tested. Complete control of bulb mites was achieved in 24-h fumigation with 3.0% and 5.0% NO at 10 °C and with 2.0% NO at 20 °C. A fumigation treatment with 3.0% NO at 20 °C for 24 h, which was stronger than necessary for bulb mite control, was tested on bulbs of four flower varieties to determine its safety on germination and growth of the flower bulbs. The NO fumigation treatments did not significantly affect germination and growth of flower bulbs. This study showed that NO fumigation was effective against bulb mites on peanuts and did not affect germination and growth of flower bulbs. Therefore, NO fumigation has potential for postharvest control of bulb mites on flower bulbs.


Assuntos
Fumigação , Ácaros , Óxido Nítrico , Animais , Zantedeschia
6.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 67(9): 3615-3621, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28875911

RESUMO

A bacterial strain, designated TPY-10T, was isolated from calla lily roots in Taiwan and characterized by using a polyphasic taxonomy approach. Cells of strain TPY-10T were Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, motile and creamy white rods. Growth occurred at 15-35 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), at pH 6-7 (optimum, pH 6) and with 0-1 % NaCl (optimum, 0 %). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain TPY-10T belonged to the genus Cellvibrio and was most closely related to Cellvibriomixtus ACM 2601T with sequence similarity of 97.8 %. Strain TPY-10T contained C16 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and C18 : 1ω7c as the predominant fatty acids. The only isoprenoid quinone was Q-9. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 49.8 mol%. The DNA-DNA hybridization value for strain TPY-10T with Cellvibriomixtus ACM 2601T was less than 21 %. On the basis of the phylogenetic inference and phenotypic data, strain TPY-10T should be classified as a novel species, for which the name Cellvibrio zantedeschiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TPY-10T (=BCRC 80525T=LMG 27291T=KCTC 32239T).


Assuntos
Cellvibrio/classificação , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Zantedeschia/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Cellvibrio/genética , Cellvibrio/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Taiwan , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
7.
Phytopathology ; 107(11): 1322-1330, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28853642

RESUMO

Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum strain PccS1, a bacterial pathogen causing soft rot disease of Zantedeschia elliotiana (colored calla), was investigated for virulence genes induced by the host plant. Using a promoter-trap transposon (mariner), we obtained 500 transposon mutants showing kanamycin resistance dependent on extract of Z. elliotiana. One of these mutants, PM86, exhibited attenuated virulence on both Z. elliotiana and Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis. The growth of PM86 was also reduced in minimal medium (MM), and the reduction was restored by adding plant extract to the MM. The gene containing the insertion site was identified as rplY. The deletion mutant ΔrplY, exhibited reduced virulence, motility and plant cell wall-degrading enzyme production but not biofilm formation. Analysis of gene expression and reporter fusions revealed that the rplY gene in PccS1 is up-regulated at both the transcriptional and the translational levels in the presence of plant extract. Our results suggest that rplY is induced by Z. elliotiana extract and is crucial for virulence in P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Pectobacterium carotovorum/patogenicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Zantedeschia/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Virulência
8.
Nat Prod Commun ; 10(3): 425-7, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25924520

RESUMO

We aimed to identify the main compounds responsible for low temperature-induced yellow pigmentation of the bracts of Zantedeschia aethiopica 'Wedding March'. On the basis of the area ratios estimated from absorbance at 400 nm in HPLC analyses, we identified two flavonoids, isoorientin and swertiajaponin, as such compounds. We also identified two additional flavonoids, isovitexin and swertisin, which do not contribute considerably to the yellow pigmentation. Flavonoids of Zantedeschia bracts seem to belong to the class of flavone C-glycosides.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Flavonas/química , Flores/fisiologia , Glucosídeos/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Zantedeschia/fisiologia , Flores/química , Estrutura Molecular , Zantedeschia/química
9.
Physiol Plant ; 154(1): 128-41, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25243478

RESUMO

The mature pigmented spathe of Zantedeschia is characterized by a developmental process, wherein the spathe regreens after anthesis and prior to senescence of the inflorescence. Previous research has shown that spathe regreening involves redifferentiation of chloroplasts and re-accumulation of chlorophyll, but the detailed physiological changes associated with regreening are still largely unknown. Using Zantedeschia aethiopica and the Zantedeschia pentlandii variety 'Best Gold' as models, this study explores the physiological mechanism and possible roles of fructification, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and gibberellin (GA3 ) in induction or progression of spathe regreening. Application of BAP stimulated regreening in spathe tissue of 'Best Gold' by enhancing accumulation of carotenoid and chlorophyll, and also increasing stacking of grana. In contrast, GA3 retarded formation of double-membrane lamella during chloroplast redifferentiation, thus delaying the onset of regreening. We suggest that these actions of BAP and GA3 have a synergistic effect in delaying the onset of regreening in 'Best Gold' so that when applied together retardation of chlorophyll accumulation, chloroplast redifferentiation and accumulation of carotenoids were enhanced. The elimination of fructification did not prevent the occurrence of regreening in either Zantedeschia model plants, indicating that fructification was not a prerequisite for the induction of regreening. It is still unclear how regreening in Zantedeschia is triggered. We propose that the onset of regreening in Zantedeschia is likely to be a genetically programmed event.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Topos Floridos/fisiologia , Zantedeschia/fisiologia , Compostos de Benzil , Topos Floridos/ultraestrutura , Giberelinas , Cinetina , Purinas , Zantedeschia/ultraestrutura
10.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 30(5): 1412-1420, sept./oct. 2014. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-946606

RESUMO

Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a influência da concentração do extrato de folhas maduras de Zantesdeschia aethiopica sobre atributos fisiológicos de sementes e plântulas de arroz vermelho. Os tratamentos foram extratos nas concentrações 0; 12; 25; 50 e 75%. Foram avaliados germinação, primeira contagem, comprimento de parte aérea e raiz, massa seca total de plântulas, condutividade elétrica, teores de clorofila a, b e total, atividade das enzimas superóxido-dismutase, catalase e ascorbarto peroxidase, peroxidação lipídica e teor de peróxido de hidrogênio, emergência de plântulas, comprimento de parte aérea e de raiz e massa seca total das plântulas emergidas. Os teores de clorofila foram alterados quanti-qualitativamente, a emergência de plântulas, o comprimento de raiz e a massa seca total de plântulas emergidas foram reduzidos pelo aumento da concentração do extrato. A peroxidação de lipídeos, a atividade das enzimas superóxido-dismutase, ascorbato-peroxidase e catalase aumentaram com a concentração. Os resultados encontrados no trabalho demonstraram que o extrato de folhas maduras de Z. aethiopica altera diferentes atributos fisiológicos e apresenta toxidez a sementes e a plântulas de arroz vermelho.


The work aimed to evaluate the leaves extract concentration influence Zantedeschia aethiopica on physiological attributes of red rice seeds and seedlings. Treatments were mature leaf extracts at concentrations of 0; 12; 25; 50 and 75%. Were evaluated the germination, first count germination, length of shoot and root, seedling total dry mass, chlorophyll content, electrical conductivity, activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbarto peroxidase, lipid peroxidation, content of hydrogen peroxide and seedling emergence, length of organs and total dry mass of seedlings emerged. Chlorophyll contents were changed quantitavely and qualitatively, seedling emergence, the root lenght and total dry mass of seedlings was reduced by increasing the concentration of the extract. There was increase in lipid peroxidation, the activity increase of enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase with the concentration of the extract. The results of the work demonstrated that extract of mature leaves of Z. aethiopica alters different physiological attributes and features toxicity of red rice seeds and seedlings.


Assuntos
Oryza , Sementes , Clorofila , Zantedeschia , Plântula
11.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 15(4): 364-78, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24822269

RESUMO

The defence response of Zantedeschia aethiopica, a natural rhizomatous host of the soft rot bacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum, was studied following the activation of common induced resistance pathways­systemic acquired resistance and induced systemic resistance. Proteomic tools were used, together with in vitro quantification and in situ localization of selected oxidizing enzymes. In total, 527 proteins were analysed by label-free mass spectrometry (MS) and annotated against the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) nonredundant (nr) protein database of rice (Oryza sativa). Of these, the fore most differentially expressed group comprised 215 proteins that were primed following application of methyl jasmonate (MJ) and subsequent infection with the pathogen. Sixty-five proteins were down-regulated following MJ treatments. The application of benzothiadiazole (BTH) increased the expression of 23 proteins; however, subsequent infection with the pathogen repressed their expression and did not induce priming. The sorting of primed proteins by Gene Ontology protein function category revealed that the primed proteins included nucleic acid-binding proteins, cofactor-binding proteins, ion-binding proteins, transferases, hydrolases and oxidoreductases. In line with the highlighted involvement of oxidoreductases in the defence response, we determined their activities, priming pattern and localization in planta. Increased activities were confined to the area surrounding the pathogen penetration site, associating these enzymes with the induced systemic resistance afforded by the jasmonic acid signalling pathway. The results presented here demonstrate the concerted priming of protein expression following MJ treatment, making it a prominent part of the defence response of Z. aethiopica to P. carotovorum.


Assuntos
Pectobacterium carotovorum/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Zantedeschia/metabolismo , Zantedeschia/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Zantedeschia/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 9(3): e90487, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24614014

RESUMO

Zantedeschia aethiopica is an evergreen perennial plant cultivated worldwide and commonly used for ornamental and medicinal purposes including the treatment of bacterial infections. However, the current understanding of molecular and physiological mechanisms in this plant is limited, in comparison to other non-model plants. In order to improve understanding of the biology of this botanical species, RNA-Seq technology was used for transcriptome assembly and characterization. Following Z. aethiopica spathe tissue RNA extraction, high-throughput RNA sequencing was performed with the aim of obtaining both abundant and rare transcript data. Functional profiling based on KEGG Orthology (KO) analysis highlighted contigs that were involved predominantly in genetic information (37%) and metabolism (34%) processes. Predicted proteins involved in the plant circadian system, hormone signal transduction, secondary metabolism and basal immunity are described here. In silico screening of the transcriptome data set for antimicrobial peptide (AMP) -encoding sequences was also carried out and three lipid transfer proteins (LTP) were identified as potential AMPs involved in plant defense. Spathe predicted protein maps were drawn, and suggested that major plant efforts are expended in guaranteeing the maintenance of cell homeostasis, characterized by high investment in carbohydrate, amino acid and energy metabolism as well as in genetic information.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Zantedeschia/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Meio Ambiente , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Ligantes , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Imunidade Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos de Tecidos , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Zantedeschia/efeitos dos fármacos , Zantedeschia/imunologia
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 71: 218-25, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23968930

RESUMO

In geophyte plants, such as Zantedeschia, individual leaves are directly connected to a specialized underground storage organ (rhizome/tuber), raising a question regarding systemic resistance as a mechanism of defense. A systemic response requires a transfer of a signal through the storage organ which has been evolutionary adapted to store food, minerals and moisture for seasonal growth and development. We have characterized the nature of induced defense responses in Zantedeschia aethiopica, a rhizomatous (tuber-like) ornamental plant by the application of local elicitation using two well-known defense elicitors, benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH) and methyl jasmonate (MJ). The system consisted leaves in which local responses were directly induced, and systemically responsive leaves in which defense molecules were detected, demonstrating a transported vascular signal. Using anatomical and biochemical tools and local elicitation with MJ, the systemic nature of the response was verified in adjacent leaves by unique protein expression patterns; similarly polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was found to increase systemically in all parts of the locally induced plants, including the rhizome, and adjacent leaves; finally, significant accumulation of defense signal molecules such as salicylic and jasmonic acids was recorded in local and systemic leaves following elicitation with BTH. Anatomical sections through the leaves and the rhizome revealed that to be transferred from one leaf to its neighbor, signal molecules must have been transferred through the storage organ. The collected data strongly support our hypothesis that defense signals may and are transferred through the storage organ in monocot geophytes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Zantedeschia/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Zantedeschia/genética
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 94: 67-72, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23688730

RESUMO

Zantedeschia aethiopica (calla lily) and Anemopsis californica (yerba mansa) are plant species capable of accumulating arsenic (As) and therefore proposed as phytoremediation for removal of As from drinking water. The effects of a continuous 6 month As exposure (34±11 µg/L) from local contaminated groundwater on the antioxidant response of Z. aethiopica and A. californica were evaluated in leaves and stems of the plants bimonthly in a subsurface flow constructed wetland. As increased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase where higher levels were observed in Z. aethiopica than A. californica. No significant differences were detected on lipid peroxidation levels or antioxidant capacity evaluated by ORAC and DPPH assays or total phenol contents in any part of the plant, although in general the leaves of both plants showed the best antioxidant defense against the metal. In conclusion, Z. aethiopica and A. californica were able to cope to As through induction of a more sensitive enzymatic antioxidant response mechanism.


Assuntos
Arsênio/toxicidade , Saururaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Zantedeschia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Catalase/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Saururaceae/metabolismo , Zantedeschia/metabolismo
15.
Am J Bot ; 99(12): e493-7, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23196401

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: A new set of microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was developed for arum lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), which is one of the most iconic and widely recognized ornamental plants in the world. • METHODS AND RESULTS: Using 2175 unigenes derived from 4283 random ESTs in arum lily, 166 primer pairs were designed and tested for amplification in 24 accessions from Asia, Europe, and Africa. A total of 43 loci were polymorphic, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from two to 10. The observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphism information content ranged from 0.2313 to 0.8480, 0.3034 to 0.8648, and 0.1015 to 0.7364, respectively. • CONCLUSIONS: These novel polymorphic EST-SSR markers will facilitate future studies of genetic variation and molecular-assisted breeding systems in arum lily.


Assuntos
Primers do DNA/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Repetições de Microssatélites , Polimorfismo Genético , Zantedeschia/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Planta ; 232(2): 523-31, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20490542

RESUMO

A combination of gas exchange and various chlorophyll fluorescence measurements under varying O(2) and CO(2) partial pressures were used to characterize photosynthesis in green, stomata-bearing petioles of Zantedeschia aethiopica (calla lily) while corresponding leaves served as controls. Compared to leaves, petioles displayed considerably lower CO(2) assimilation rates, limited by both stomatal and mesophyll components. Further analysis of mesophyll limitations indicated lower carboxylating efficiencies and insufficient RuBP regeneration but almost similar rates of linear electron transport. Accordingly, higher oxygenation/carboxylation ratios were assumed for petioles and confirmed by experiments under non-photorespiratory conditions. Higher photorespiration rates in petioles were accompanied by higher cyclic electron flow around PSI, the latter being possibly linked to limitations in electron transport from intermediate electron carriers to end acceptors and low contents of PSI. Based on chlorophyll fluorescence methods, similar conclusions can be drawn for green pedicels, although gas exchange in these organs could not be applied due to their bulky size. Since our test plants were not subjected to stress we argue that higher photorespiration and cyclic electron flow rates are innate attributes of photosynthesis in stalks of calla lily. Active nitrogen metabolism may be inferred, while increased cyclic electron flow may provide the additional ATP required for the enhanced photorespiratory activity in petiole and pedicel chloroplasts and/or the decarboxylation of malate ascending from roots.


Assuntos
Respiração Celular/fisiologia , Transporte de Elétrons/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Zantedeschia/metabolismo , Zantedeschia/fisiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo
17.
Mol Biol Rep ; 36(3): 437-41, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18080841

RESUMO

Recombinant Zantedeschia aethiopica agglutinin (ZAA) was expressed in Escherichia coli as N-terminal His-tagged fusion. After induction with isopropylthio-beta-D-galactoside (IPTG), the recombinant ZAA was purified by metal-affinity chromatography. The purified ZAA protein was applied in anti-fungal assay and the result showed that recombinant ZAA had anti-fungal activity towards leaf mold (Fulvia fulva), one of the most serious phytopathogenic fungi causing significant yield loss of crops. This study suggests that ZAA could be an effective candidate in genetic engineering of plants for the control of leaf mold.


Assuntos
Aglutininas/isolamento & purificação , Aglutininas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Zantedeschia/metabolismo , Aglutininas/genética , Aglutininas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Zantedeschia/genética
18.
Environ Microbiol ; 10(10): 2746-59, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18681897

RESUMO

The capability of Pectobacterium carotovorum isolates to infect monocotyledonous plants has been previously reported; however, no full consideration was given to characterize the association between such isolates and their monocot hosts. To assess differences in aggressiveness among P. carotovorum ssp. carotovorum isolates originating from monocotyledonous or dicotyledonous plants, we used as model plants two susceptible monocot hosts, the ornamentals Zantedeschia aethiopica and Ornithogalum dubium, as well as two common dicot hosts, Solanum tuberosum and Brassica oleracea. Using virulence assays and different genetic analyses we characterized P. carotovorum ssp. carotovorum isolates from diverse geographical locations which originated from plants belonging to four unrelated orders of monocots and five orders of dicots. Invariably, isolates originating from monocots exhibited higher virulence towards the tested monocot plants than dicot isolates, independently of their geographical source. Moreover, monocot and dicot isolates were clearly differentiated by various genetic analyses, such as 16S rRNA sequence clustering, intergenic transcribed spacer-PCR (ITS-PCR) banding pattern and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). We propose that the observed relationship between pathogenicity and genetic diversity among P. carotovorum ssp. carotovorum isolates reveals a co-evolutionary specialization trend in the interaction between this pathogen and its hosts.


Assuntos
Brassica/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Ornithogalum/microbiologia , Pectobacterium carotovorum/classificação , Pectobacterium carotovorum/patogenicidade , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Zantedeschia/microbiologia , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Impressões Digitais de DNA , DNA Intergênico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genótipo , Pectobacterium carotovorum/genética , Pectobacterium carotovorum/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ribotipagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Virulência
19.
In Silico Biol ; 8(5-6): 413-25, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19374128

RESUMO

Nucleotide sequences of catalase were obtained following amplification using specific primers and were blasted against Musa acuminata catalase 2 mRNA from NCBI (157418810). Clustering of the amino acid sequences from NCBI was done using Clustal X. The latter revealed that FHIA18 catalase is more related to Ravenala madagascariensis (Musa relative) catalase while the Williams catalase is more related to a clade containing a Musa acuminata (Musa ancestor) catalase from NCBI. The tertiary structures and the catalase consensus functional sites, based on the Pseudomonas syringae catalase structural template, were obtained for FHIA18, Williams, Ravenala madagascariensis and Musa acuminata catalases. They were found to differ slightly. Using known features of catalase active sites, four pre-requisite criteria were defined to find such sites: (1) Position of tyrosine axial to heme determined by X-ray diffraction, (2) 7 conserved amino acids in the active site found by sequence alignment, (3) favourable docking energy, and (4) presence of an unobstructed long tunnel that leads the ligand to the active site. Two differing potential docking sites were found for both FHIA18 and Williams that fit a maximum number of criteria. In terms of 1D sequence, the region of the docking site for Williams is within the catalase domains as seen upon NCBI blast. The counterpart of FHIA18 for the same region is not. This sequence difference between FHIA18 and Williams affects the best docking site in FHIA18 and Williams in silico.


Assuntos
Catalase/química , Musa/classificação , Musa/enzimologia , Strelitziaceae/enzimologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Sequência Conservada , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Imageamento Tridimensional , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Musa/genética , Filogenia , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Alinhamento de Sequência , Strelitziaceae/genética , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , Zantedeschia/enzimologia , Zantedeschia/genética
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 55(25): 10315-22, 2007 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17994692

RESUMO

Calla lilies are herbaceous monocotyledonous plants that are highly sensitive to Pectobacterium carotovorum, the causal agent of soft-rot disease. Results demonstrate that, in response to elicitation using plant defense activators, the calla lily produces elevated levels of antimicrobial phenolics and that these compounds contribute to increased resistance against P. carotovorum, as shown by reduced bacterial proliferation in elicited leaves. The polyphenolic nature of the induced compounds was supported by autofluorescence, absorbance spectra, and reaction with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Two plant defense activators, Bion and methyl jasmonate, differed in both their capacity to induce accumulation of polyphenols and their resistance against the pathogen. Methyl jasmonate elicitation brought about higher accumulation of free phenolics relative to Bion, suggesting priming of bioactive polyphenols as a principal factor in the calla lily defense against P. carotovorum. To further characterize the nature of induced compounds, two major compounds were collected and identified as swertisin and isovitexin by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Pectobacterium carotovorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Zantedeschia/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Polifenóis , Zantedeschia/microbiologia
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