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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(46): 13772-13779, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767340

RESUMO

Urease is a metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, which has a negative impact on human health and agriculture. In this study, the inactivation of jack bean urease by nitidine chloride (NC) was investigated to elucidate the inhibitory effect, kinetics, and underlying mechanism of action. The results showed that NC acted as a concentration- and time-dependent inhibitor with an IC50 value of 33.2 ± 4.8 µM and exhibited a similar inhibitory effect to acetohydroxamic acid (IC50 = 31.7 ± 5.8 µM). Further kinetic analysis demonstrated that NC was a slow-binding and non-competitive inhibitor for urease. Thiol-blocking reagents (dithiothreitol, glutathione, and l-cysteine) significantly retarded urease inactivation, while Ni2+ competitive inhibitors (boric acid and sodium fluoride) synergetically suppressed urease with NC, suggesting that the active site sulfhydryl groups were possibly obligatory for NC blocking urease. Molecular docking simulation further argued its inhibition mechanism. Additionally, NC-induced deactivation of urease was verified to be reversible since the inactivated enzyme could be reactivated by glutathione. Taking together, NC was a non-competitive inhibitor targeting the thiol group at the active site of urease with characteristics of concentration dependence, reversibility, and slow binding, serving as a promising novel urease suppressant.


Assuntos
Urease , Zanthoxylum , Benzofenantridinas , Humanos , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Urease/metabolismo , Zanthoxylum/metabolismo
2.
J Food Sci ; 86(11): 4922-4931, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642944

RESUMO

Red Huajiao was the most important Zanthoxylum species in China, and its quality was highly determined the geographical region. This study was aimed to establish a determination method for the geographical origin recognition of Red Huajiao by using the electronic nose and ensemble recognition algorithm. Six origins of samples were detected by the electronic nose, and two categories of electronic nose sensors characteristic values, named as "optimized characteristic value" and "filtered characteristic value," were obtained by the principal component analysis and discrimination index method and Filter-Wrapper method. Based on the two categories of characteristic values, 22 kinds of model analysis methods, which belonged to five categories of ensemble recognition algorithms were used to recognize the geographical origin. The total recognition accuracy rate of the two categories of characteristic values were 83.9% and 85.7%, respectively. Furthermore, during 22 kinds of model analysis method, the ensemble Subspace KNN and Bagged Trees methods in Ensemble Learning algorithm exhibited the best distinguishing ability with the accuracy rate more than 90%. Therefore, the electronic nose combined with Ensemble Learning would be promising for the geographical origin determination application. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This work demonstrates that the Red Huajiao can be simply and rapidly determined by using electronic nose combined with ensemble recognition algorithm, allowing to effectively distinguish geographical origin of Red Huajiao, which can provide an important reference for the quality assessment of Huajiao.


Assuntos
Nariz Eletrônico , Zanthoxylum , Algoritmos , Geografia , Análise de Componente Principal
3.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641463

RESUMO

The fruit and pericarp of Zanthoxylum schinifolium (ZS) have been used in traditional medicine; however, few studies have characterized ZS fruit and pericarp. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the safety of ZS fruit (ZSF) and pericarp (ZSP) extracts and compared their bioactivity. To evaluate the safety of ZSF and ZSP, mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, and oxidative stress assays were performed and nontoxic concentration ranges were obtained. ZSP was found to be superior to ZSF in terms of its antimutagenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the S9 mix, the mutation inhibition rate of ZSP was close to 100% at concentrations exceeding 625 µg·plate-1 for both the TA98 and TA100 strains. ZSP exhibited efficient DPPH (IC50 = 75.6 ± 6.1 µg·mL-1) and ABTS (IC50 = 57.4 ± 6 µg·mL-1) scavenging activities. ZSP inhibited the release of cytokines, involved in IL-1ß (IC50 = 134.4 ± 7.8), IL-6 (IC50 = 262.8 ± 11.2), and TNF-α (IC50 = 223.8 ± 5.8). These results indicate that ZSP contains a higher amount of biochemicals than ZSF, or that ZSP contains unique biochemicals. In conclusion, for certain physiological activities, the use of ZSP alone may be more beneficial than the combined use of ZSF and ZSP.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Etanol/química , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Zanthoxylum/química , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(42): 12494-12504, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664500

RESUMO

Zanthoxylum ailanthoides is a traditional spice crop in Taiwan with unique smells and tastes that differ between prickly (young) and nonprickly (mature) leaves. Different volatile terpenes between prickly young and nonprickly mature leaves were identified and considered to be one of the sources of their aromas. A transcriptome database was established to explore the biosynthesis of these compounds, and candidate terpene synthase genes were identified. The functions of these synthases were investigated using recombinant protein reactions in both purification and coexpression assays. ZaTPS1, ZaTPS2, and ZaTPS3 are germacrene D synthases, with different amino acid sequences. The main products of ZaTPS4 are trans-α-bergamotene and (E)-ß-farnesene, whereas ZaTPS5 forms multiple products, and ZaTPS6 produces ß-caryophyllene. ZaTPS7 forms monoterpene (E)-ß-ocimene and sesquiterpene (E,E)-α-farnesene. Reverse transcription PCR of ZaTPS gene expression in young and mature leaves revealed that ZaTPS1 was responsible for the mellow aroma in mature leaves. The expression of ZaTPS6 suggested that it plays a role in the background aromas of both types of leaves. Our findings deepened the understanding of the volatile compounds of Z. ailanthoides and revealed the source of its unique aromas by clarifying the biosynthesis of these compounds.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases , Sesquiterpenos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Zanthoxylum , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Folclore , Odorantes , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Taiwan , Terpenos/análise
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(10)2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684165

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Blood vessel thrombosis causes blood circulation disorders, leading to various diseases. Currently, various antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs, such as aspirin, warfarin, heparin, and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), are used as the major drugs for the treatment of a wide range of thrombosis. However, these drugs have a side effect of possibly causing internal bleeding due to poor hemostasis when taken for a long period of time. Materials and Methods: Gastrodia elata Blume (GE) and Zanthoxylum schinifolium Siebold & Zucc (ZS) are known to exhibit hemostatic and antiplatelet effects as traditional medicines that have been used for a long time. In this study, we investigated the effect of a mixed extract of GE and ZS (MJGE09) on platelet aggregation and plasma coagulation. Results: We found that MJGE09 inhibited collagen-and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. In addition, collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation were also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner on the platelets of mice that were orally administered MJGE09 ex vivo. However, compared with aspirin, MJGE09 did not prolong the rat tail vein bleeding time in vivo and did not show a significant effect on the increase in the prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Conclusions: These results suggest that MJGE09 can be used as a potential anticoagulant with improved antithrombotic efficacy.


Assuntos
Gastrodia , Trombose , Zanthoxylum , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Agregação Plaquetária , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico
6.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 23(11): 1043-1050, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709085

RESUMO

Two new prenylated coumarins, 3'-hydroxytoddanone (1), and isotoddalolactone (2), along with four known analogues (3-6) were isolated from the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum. Their chemical structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic interpretation and HR-ESI-MS analysis. The absolute configuration of compound 2 was determined by comparing experimental ECD spectrum with that calculated by the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method. Compounds 4-6 were isolated from the Zanthoxylum genus for the first time. The two new compounds were tested for antiproliferative activities in vitro on the HL-60, K562 and THP-1 cell lines. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate cell growth inhibitory activities in vitro against human leukemic HL-60 cell lines, with IC50 values of 32.64 and 33.15 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Zanthoxylum , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Raízes de Plantas
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112719, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478976

RESUMO

Dissipation of imidacloprid (IMI) and its metabolites (urea, olefin, 5-hydroxy, guanidine, 6-chloronicotinic acid) in Chinese prickly ash (CPA) was investigated using QuEChERS combined with UPLC-MS/MS. Good linearity (r2 ≥0.9963), accuracy (recoveries of 71.8-104.3%), precision (relative standard deviations of 0.9-9.4%), and sensitivity (limit of quantification ≤0.05 mg kg-1) were obtained. After application of IMI at dosage of 467 mg a.i. L-1 for three times with interval of 7 d, the dissipation dynamics of IMI in CPA followed first-order kinetics, with half-life of 6.48-7.29 d. IMI was the main compound in CPA, followed by urea and guanidine with small amounts of olefin, 5-hydroxy, and 6-chloronicotinic acid. The terminal residues of total IMI and its metabolites at PHI of 14-21 d were 0.16-7.80 mg kg-1 in fresh CPA and 0.41-10.44 mg kg-1 in dried CPA, with the median processing factor of 3.62. Risk assessment showed the acute (RQa) and chronic dietary risk quotients (RQc) of IMI in CPA were 0.020-0.083% and 0.052-0.334%, respectively. Based on the dietary structures of different genders and ages of Chinese people, the whole dietary risk assessment indicated that RQc was less than 100% for the general population except for 2- to 7-year-old children (RQc of 109.9%), implying the long-term risks of IMI were acceptable to common consumers except for children.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Zanthoxylum , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Inseticidas/análise , Neonicotinoides/análise , Nitrocompostos/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 3951-3963, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383315

RESUMO

Alkylamides, as the representative hemp flavor and active ingredients, can reflect the quality of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. However, conjugated triene structure exists in alkylamides, which is easy to be oxidized and decomposed in air, making it difficult to quantify. In this study, a method for the quantitative determination of alkylamides by 1 H-NMR technology was developed with 85% ethanol as the best extraction solvent, CDCl3 as the best deuterium dissolution reagent, pyrazine as the internal standard, and triple peaks of hydrogen protons on the amide bond at δ 6.33 ppm as the quantitative signal peak. Meanwhile, methodological verification was carried out to prove the reliability and effectiveness of the method. On this basis, the contents of alkylamides in nine germplasms of Zanthoxylum with monthly dynamics were obtained. The results showed that the alkylamides of Hancheng stingless Z. bungeanum (HC) exhibited the highest content in August (51.92 ± 0.96 mg/g), while the lowest was FG in June (1.23 ± 0.21 mg/g). The results of 1 H-NMR corresponded to those of HPLC, and the effectiveness of this method was verified. Accumulation dynamic results show that the best harvest period of Z. bungeanum is July and August. Moreover, the quality of nine varieties of Zanthoxylum bungeanum from a common garden was evaluated by the established 1 H-NMR fingerprint and chemometric analyses. The results showed that Hancheng stingless Z. bungeanum was the best germplasm. This study provides a new strategy for the quantitative determination of alkylamides in Z. bungeanum and improves the quality evaluation system of Z. bungeanum. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results provide a new research idea for the analysis of important chemical components of Z. bungeanum. Meanwhile, the study provides a scientific basis for the quality evaluation and high-quality germplasm resources of Z. bungeanum.


Assuntos
Amidas , Análise de Alimentos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Zanthoxylum , Amidas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Prótons , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Zanthoxylum/química
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(13): 3349-3355, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396754

RESUMO

In order to reveal the distribution and population characteristics of endophytic fungi from Zanthoxylum nitidum and the antibacterial potential,this study performed molecular identification and analyzed the genetic diversity and antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi from Z. nitidum in Guangxi. Through culture and molecular identification,35 strains,belonging to 15 genera,12 families,10 orders,4 classes,and 2 phyla,were isolated from various tissues of Z. nitidum,of which Colletotrichum and Fusarium were the dominant genera,respectively accounting for 20% of total strains. The diversity of endophytic fungi was significantly different among roots,stems,and leaves,as manifested by the significantly higher Shannon index( H') in stems( 1. 678) than in roots( 0. 882 1) and leaves( 0. 515 4). The antimicrobial activity analysis showed that 14. 28% of endophytic fungi inhibited at least one indicator pathogen. Among them,Fusarium sp. ZN-34 and Fusarium sp. ZN-26 separately demonstrated the strongest inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In general,Fusarium sp. ZN-26 and Phialemoniopsis plurioloculosa ZN-35 were advantageous in suppressing the two bacteria owing to the broad spectrum and strong efficacy. In summary,Z. nitidum in Guangxi boasts rich endophytic fungi with the majority showing strong antibacterial activity,which can be used as candidates for the extraction and separation of basic antibacterial substances and the development of natural antibacterial agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Colletotrichum , Zanthoxylum , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , China , Endófitos/genética , Fungos/genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
10.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104912, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446188

RESUMO

Intracellular effects exerted by phytochemicals eliciting insect growth-retarding responses during vector control intervention remain largely underexplored. We studied the effects of Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. (Rutaceae) (ZCE) root derivatives against malaria (Anopheles gambiae) and arbovirus vector (Aedes aegypti) larvae to decipher possible molecular targets. We report dose-dependent biphasic effects on larval response, with transient exposure to ZCE and its bioactive fraction (ZCFr.5) inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, inducing larval lethality and growth retardation at sublethal doses. Half-maximal lethal concentrations (LC50) for ZCE against An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti larvae after 24-h exposure were 9.00 ppm and 12.26 ppm, respectively. The active fraction ZCFr.5 exerted LC50 of 1.58 ppm and 3.21 ppm for An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti larvae, respectively. Inhibition of AChE was potentially linked to larval toxicity afforded by 2-tridecanone, palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid), linoleic acid ((Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid), sesamin, ß-caryophyllene among other compounds identified in the bioactive fraction. In addition, the phenotypic larval retardation induced by ZCE root constituents was exerted through transcriptional modulation of ecdysteroidogenic CYP450 genes. Collectively, these findings provide an explorative avenue for developing potential mosquito control agents from Z. chalybeum root constituents.


Assuntos
Aedes , Culex , Inseticidas , Zanthoxylum , Animais , Transtornos do Crescimento , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores , Extratos Vegetais
11.
Chin J Integr Med ; 27(10): 752-759, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319505

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of Zanthoxylum piperitum extracet (ZPE) on apoptosis and analyze anticancer substances in ZPE, changes in proteins related to apoptosis, and pathological changes in tumors in mouse. METHODS: Fifteen 4-week-old female BALB/c nu/nu mice were divided into 3 groups depending on ZPE dose, with 5 in each group. AGS gastric carcinoma cells (1 × 106 cells/200 µL) were subcutaneously injected into the flank of each mouse. One week after the injection of AGS cells, ZPE was administered to the skin tissue [10 or 50 mg/(kg·d)] in the low- and high-dose groups, respectively for 20 days. Control animals were injected with vehicle only. After 3 weeks, the tumor was extracted and carried out for immunohistochemistry, the tendency of apoptosis and p53 in the body was checked using TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. For 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, annexin V dead cell staining, cell cycle arrest and Western blotting, AGS gastric carcinoma cells were incubated with various concentrations of ZPE for 24 h. Cell survival rates were analyzed by MTT assays. Apoptosis was analyzed using annexin V dead cell staining and cell cycle arrest and measured using Muse cell analyzer. RESULTS: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that ZPE contained organic sulfur compounds such as alliin and S-allylcysteine. MTT assay results revealed that ZPE (10-85 µ g/mL) could effectively inhibit the growth of AGS gastric cancer cells at higher concentrations (P<0.05, P<0.01). The annexin V & dead cell staining assay and cell cycle arrest assay confirmed a dose-dependent increase in the apoptosis rate and G1 phase in ZPE (10-70 µ g/mL) groups. ZPE decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (p-Akt, p-MDM2, Bcl-2), while increased pro-apoptotic proteins (cleaved PARP, p53, pro-Caspase 3, Bax). TUNEL assays revealed an increase in cell apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry staining confirmed the involvement of p53. CONCLUSION: ZPE decreases AGS cell proliferation and induces apoptosis by inhibiting Akt and MDM2 expression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Zanthoxylum , Animais , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Zanthoxylum/metabolismo
12.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209371

RESUMO

Zanthoxylum species (Syn. Fagara species) of the Rutaceae family are widely used in many countries as food and in trado-medicinal practice due to their wide geographical distribution and medicinal properties. Peer reviewed journal articles and ethnobotanical records that reported the traditional knowledge, phytoconstituents, biological activities and toxicological profiles of Z. species with a focus on metabolic and neuronal health were reviewed. It was observed that many of the plant species are used as food ingredients and in treating inflammation, pain, hypertension and brain diseases. Over 500 compounds have been isolated from Z. species, and the biological activities of both the plant extracts and their phytoconstituents, including their mechanisms of action, are discussed. The phytochemicals responsible for the biological activities of some of the species are yet to be identified. Similarly, biological activities of some isolated compounds remain unknown. Taken together, the Z. species extracts and compounds possess promising biological activities and should be further explored as potential sources of new nutraceuticals and drugs.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Zanthoxylum/química , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Zanthoxylum/classificação
13.
Fitoterapia ; 153: 104990, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246746

RESUMO

Three novel lignans (1, 5 and 6) and two novel quinic acids (16 and 17) along with 15 known phenylpropanoids were obtained from the ethanol extract of Zanthoxylum nitidum var. tomentosum (Rutaceae). Their structures were confirmed by comprehensive spectroscopic data (NMR and HRESIMS), and the absolute configurations of all novel compounds were elucidated based on electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopic data. The production of nitric oxide (NO) in BV-2 microglial cells induced through lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to evaluate in vitro anti-neuroinflammatory activity of compounds 1-20. Compound 2, 3, 7 and 16 showed excellent inhibition of LPS-induced NO production. The structure-activity relationships of the isolates were investigated. In addition, the mechanism of action of 2 was elucidated by RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis, which indicated that it reduced neuroinflammatory mainly through NLRP3/caspase1 signaling pathways in LPS-induced BV2 microglial cells.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Zanthoxylum/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , China , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Ann Bot ; 128(4): 497-510, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Zanthoxylum is the only pantropical genus within Rutaceae, with a few species native to temperate eastern Asia and North America. Efforts using Sanger sequencing failed to resolve the backbone phylogeny of Zanthoxylum. In this study, we employed target-enrichment high-throughput sequencing to improve resolution. Gene trees were examined for concordance and sectional classifications of Zanthoxylum were evaluated. Off-target reads were investigated to identify putative single-copy markers for bait refinement, and low-copy markers for evidence of putative hybridization events. METHODS: A custom bait set targeting 354 genes, with a median of 321 bp, was designed for Zanthoxylum and applied to 44 Zanthoxylum species and one Tetradium species as the outgroup. Illumina reads were processed via the HybPhyloMaker pipeline. Phylogenetic inferences were conducted using coalescent and maximum likelihood methods based on concatenated datasets. Concordance was assessed using quartet sampling. Additional phylogenetic analyses were performed on putative single and low-copy genes extracted from off-target reads. KEY RESULTS: Four major clades are supported within Zanthoxylum: the African clade, the Z. asiaticum clade, the Asian-Pacific-Australian clade and the American-eastern Asian clade. While overall support has improved, regions of conflict are similar to those previously observed. Gene tree discordances indicate a hybridization event in the ancestor of the Hawaiian lineage, and incomplete lineage sorting in the American backbone. Off-target putative single-copy genes largely confirm on-target results, and putative low-copy genes provide additional evidence for hybridization in the Hawaiian lineage. Only two of the five sections of Zanthoxylum are resolved as monophyletic. CONCLUSIONS: Target enrichment is suitable for assessing phylogenetic relationships in Zanthoxylum. Our phylogenetic analyses reveal that current sectional classifications need revision. Quartet tree concordance indicates several instances of reticulate evolution. Off-target reads are proven useful to identify additional phylogenetically informative regions for bait refinement or gene tree based approaches.


Assuntos
Rutaceae , Zanthoxylum , Austrália , Hibridização Genética , Filogenia , Zanthoxylum/genética
15.
Food Chem ; 365: 130483, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237576

RESUMO

Andaliman is a highly perishable Indonesian spice that could be preserved by drying. As the drying influence on andaliman volatiles and aroma profile has not been reported, this study aimed to determine the impact of five drying processes on them and the critical volatiles correlated with favorable aroma attributes. Limonene, geranial, α-pinene, sabinene, ß-myrcene, (E)-2-hexenal tended to decrease while geranyl acetate, citronellal, neral tended to increase upon drying. Limonene, andaliman major volatiles, was lost considerably from 28093 µg/g solids (fresh) to 19299-21857 µg/g solids (dried). Drying significantly altered citrus, orange peel, green, warm, and lime leaf aroma. Citronellal, limonene, (Z)-ß-ocimene, (E)-ß-ocimene, ß-citronellol, sabinene, and geranial, played substantial roles in andaliman sensory acceptability due to significant correlation to the favorable aroma attributes (citrus, orange peel, acidic). Oven drying was proposed as the ideal drying method because of its short duration, low water activity, superior overall liking, and high volatile content.


Assuntos
Citrus , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Zanthoxylum , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limoneno , Odorantes/análise
16.
Food Chem ; 363: 130286, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120040

RESUMO

The molecular basis of the pungency of sanshool dietary components from the Zanthoxylum species has been firstly addressed by constructing the statistically significant and highly predictive quantitative structure-pungency relationship models along with the pharmacophore models. The important pungent structural characters in the isobutylamide moiety and linear carbon chains were elucidated in this study that maintained the suitable spatial packing and electrostatic interactions with their receptors. Our results also revealed that the amide moiety, N-isobutyl moiety with suitable bulky and restricted electronegative substituents, and the relatively long straight carbon chains with suitable (conjugated) CC bonds or heteroatoms at regular intervals were essential for the high pungency. The pungency of 42 new sanshools was predicted, compared with the rough experimental data, and ultimately classified into weak, medium and strong types. Most of these sanshools were found to have good oral bioavailability and acceptable pharmacokinetic properties.


Assuntos
Zanthoxylum , Amidas , Dieta , Eletricidade Estática
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(22): 6360-6378, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043342

RESUMO

Stem canker of Zanthoxylum bungeanum is a devastating disease that seriously affects the plantation and industrial development of Z. bungeanum due to a lack of effective control measures. The objective of this study was to screen out resistant Z. bungeanum varieties and further explore their resistance mechanisms against stem canker. Results showed that the most resistant and susceptible varieties were, respectively, Doujiao (DJ) and Fengxian Dahongpao (FD). Combining transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses, we found that the genes and metabolites associated with the phenylpropanoid metabolism, especially flavonoid biosynthesis, were highly significantly enriched in DJ following pathogen infection compared with that in FD, which indicated that the flavonoid metabolism may positively dominate the resistance of Z. bungeanum. This finding was further confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, through which higher expression levels of core genes involved in flavonoid metabolism in resistant variety were observed. Moreover, by analyzing the differences in the flavonoid content in the stems of resistant and susceptible varieties and the antifungal activities of flavonoids extracted from Z. bungeanum stems, the conclusion that flavonoid metabolism positively regulates the resistance of Z. bungeanum was further supported. Our results not only aid in better understanding the resistance mechanisms of Z. bungeanum against stem canker but also promote the breeding and utilization of resistant varieties.


Assuntos
Zanthoxylum , Flavonoides , Metaboloma , Melhoramento Vegetal , Transcriptoma , Zanthoxylum/genética
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(20): 5583-5598, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977724

RESUMO

The phenols and alkylamides in 26 varieties of Zanthoxylum pericarps (ZP) were comparatively identified, and the contribution of these key components to the inhibition of in vitro α-glucosidase (α-Glu) was confirmed using principal component analysis (PCA) and ingredient recombination models. Additionally, spectrophotometric assays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and molecular docking (MD) were employed to characterize the interactions among key components in ZP when exposed to α-Glu. Four phenols and hydroxy-α-sanshool (α-SOH), which were recognized as main ingredients, presented an antagonistic effect in the inhibition of α-Glu. 1H NMR demonstrated chemical shifts of certain hydrogens in the B phenolic ring and tetraenyl group, indicating a possible p-π conjugation between phenols and α-SOH. In addition, using MD analysis, the phenol-binding sites were observed to be negatively affected when α-SOH initially interacted with α-Glu. The combined results of the NMR and MD clarified the structural mechanism behind phenol/α-SOH antagonistic behavior in α-Glu inhibition.


Assuntos
Fenóis , Zanthoxylum , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , alfa-Glucosidases
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 178, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apomixis is a form of asexual reproduction that produces offspring without the need for combining male and female gametes, and the offspring have the same genetic makeup as the mother. Therefore, apomixis technology has great application potential in plant breeding. To identify the apomixis types and critical period, embryonic development at different flower development stages of Zanthoxylum bungeanum was observed by cytology. RESULTS: The results show that the S3 stage is the critical period of apomixis, during which the nucellar cells develop into an adventitious primordial embryo. Cytological observations showed that the type of apomixis in Z. bungeanum is sporophytic apomixis. Furthermore, miRNA sequencing, miRNA-target gene interaction, dual luciferase reporter assay, and RT-qPCR verification were used to reveal the dynamic regulation of miRNA-target pairs in Z. bungeanum apomixis. The miRNA sequencing identified 96 mature miRNAs, of which 40 were known and 56 were novel. Additionally, 29 differentially expressed miRNAs were screened according to the miRNAs expression levels at the different developmental stages. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analyses showed that the target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were mainly enriched in plant hormone signal transduction, RNA biosynthetic process, and response to hormone pathways. CONCLUSIONS: During the critical period of apomictic embryonic development, miR172c significantly reduces the expression levels of TOE3 and APETALA 2 (AP2) genes, thereby upregulating the expression of the AGAMOUS gene. A molecular regulation model of miRNA-target pairs was constructed based on their interactions and expression patterns to further understand the role of miRNA-target pairs in apomixis. Our data suggest that miR172c may regulates AGAMOUS expression by inhibiting TOE3 in the critical period of apomixis.


Assuntos
Apomixia/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Sementes/embriologia , Zanthoxylum/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Zanthoxylum/embriologia , Zanthoxylum/genética
20.
Food Funct ; 12(8): 3740-3753, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900301

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can easily induce insulin resistance (IR) in skeletal muscle, causing protein metabolism disorder and inflammation. The present study aimed to investigate whether Zanthoxylum alkylamides (ZA) could ameliorate T2DM through regulating protein metabolism disorder by using a rat model of T2DM. The predominant bioactive constituents found in ZA were hydroxyl-α-sanshool, hydroxyl-ß-sanshool and hydroxyl-γ-sanshool. The results showed that ZA improved a series of biochemical indices associated with protein metabolism and inflammation in T2DM rats. Our mechanistic finding indicated that ZA promoted protein anabolism in T2DM rats by up-regulating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. ZA also promoted glucose transportation in skeletal muscle to ameliorate skeletal muscle IR and energy metabolism through regulating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Moreover, ZA inhibited protein degradation and improved protein catabolism disorder in T2DM rats by down-regulating the PI3K/Akt/forkhead box O (FoxO) signaling pathway, and ZA further ameliorated inflammation to inhibit protein catabolism via regulating the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)/nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway in the skeletal muscle of T2DM rats. Collectively, the ameliorating effect of ZA on protein metabolism disorder in T2DM rats was the common result of regulating multiple signaling pathways. ZA decreased skeletal muscle IR to promote protein anabolism and inhibit protein catabolism for improving protein metabolism disorder, thus ultimately ameliorating T2DM. In sum, our findings demonstrated that ZA treatment could effectively ameliorate T2DM through improving protein metabolism, providing a new treatment target for T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/administração & dosagem , Zanthoxylum , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
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