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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(3): e20210932, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920490

RESUMO

The aim of present study was to evaluate chemical composition and different biological activities viz., pharmacological and antioxidant activities of essential oils. The chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry while biological activities were evaluated by standard protocols. Essential oils of Hedychium spicatum Sm. from two different ecological niches viz; Nainital (Site-I) and Himachal Pradesh (Site-II) of India revealed the qualitative and quantitative chemo-diversity. Both the oils were dominated by oxygenated terpenoids. Major marker compounds identified were eucalyptol, camphor, linalool, α-eudesmol, 10-epi-γ-eudesmol, and iso-borneol. Both the oils exhibited anti-inflammatory activity suppressing 17.60 % to 33.57 % inflammation at 100mg/kg b. wt. dose levels compared to ibuprofen-treated group (40.06 %). The sub-acute inflammation in oils-treated mice groups (50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt.) increased on day 2 but showed a gradual decrease from day 3 onwards and then recovered to normal by day 10. The antinociception percentage for doses (50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt.) ranged from 33.70-40.46 % in Site-I and 30.34-42.39 % in Site-II compared to standard drug, ibuprofen (43.08 %). The oils also showed a good antipyretic effect by suppressing Brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) induced pyrexia after oil dose injection. The oils also exhibited good antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Zingiberaceae , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Cânfora/análise , Cânfora/farmacologia , Eucaliptol/análise , Ibuprofeno , Inflamação , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Rizoma/química , Zingiberaceae/química
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806276

RESUMO

Boesenbergia rotunda (Zingiberaceae), is a high-value culinary and ethno-medicinal plant of Southeast Asia. The rhizomes of this herb have a high flavanone and chalcone content. Here we report the genome analysis of B. rotunda together with a complete genome sequence as a hybrid assembly. B. rotunda has an estimated genome size of 2.4 Gb which is assembled as 27,491 contigs with an N50 size of 12.386 Mb. The highly heterozygous genome encodes 71,072 protein-coding genes and has a 72% repeat content, with class I TEs occupying ~67% of the assembled genome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of the 18 chromosome pairs at the metaphase showed six sites of 45S rDNA and two sites of 5S rDNA. An SSR analysis identified 238,441 gSSRs and 4604 EST-SSRs with 49 SSR markers common among related species. Genome-wide methylation percentages ranged from 73% CpG, 36% CHG and 34% CHH in the leaf to 53% CpG, 18% CHG and 25% CHH in the embryogenic callus. Panduratin A biosynthetic unigenes were most highly expressed in the watery callus. B rotunda has a relatively large genome with a high heterozygosity and TE content. This assembly and data (PRJNA71294) comprise a source for further research on the functional genomics of B. rotunda, the evolution of the ginger plant family and the potential genetic selection or improvement of gingers.


Assuntos
Gengibre , Zingiberaceae , Vias Biossintéticas , DNA Ribossômico , Flavonoides , Gengibre/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Zingiberaceae/genética
3.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807408

RESUMO

The major bioactive components of Kaempferia parviflora (KP) rhizomes, 3,5,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF), 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (DMF), and 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (TMF), were chosen as the quantitative and qualitative markers for this plant material. In order to extract bioactive components (total methoxyflavones) from KP rhizomes, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was proposed as part of this study. Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and Box-Behnken design (BBD) were utilized to optimize the effects of UAE on extraction yields and total methoxyflavone contents in KP rhizomes. First, PBD was utilized to determine the effect of five independent variables on total yields and total methoxyflavone contents. The results indicated that the concentration of the extracting solvent (ethanol), the extraction time, and the ratio of solvent to solid were significant independent terms. Subsequently, BBD with three-level factorial experiments was used to optimize the crucial variables. It was discovered that the concentration of ethanol was the most influential variable on yields and total methoxyflavone contents. Optimum conditions for extraction yield were ethanol concentration (54.24% v/v), extraction time (25.25 min), and solvent-to-solid ratio (49.63 mL/g), while optimum conditions for total methoxyflavone content were ethanol concentration (95.00% v/v), extraction time (15.99 min), and solvent-to-solid ratio (50.00 mL/g). The relationship between the experimental and theoretical values was perfect, which proved that the regression models used were correct and that PBD and BBD were used to optimize the conditions in the UAE to obtain the highest yield and total methoxyflavone content in the KP rhizomes.


Assuntos
Rizoma , Zingiberaceae , Etanol , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Solventes
4.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807505

RESUMO

Zingiber ottensii (ZO) Valeton, a local plant in Northern Thailand, has been widely used in traditional medicine. Many studies using in vitro models reveal its pharmacological activities, including the anti-inflammatory activity of ZO essential oil, extracted from ZO rhizomes. However, the scientific report to confirm its anti-inflammatory activity using animal models is still lacking. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity and explore the possible mechanisms of action of ZO essential oil in rats. The results revealed that ZO essential oil significantly reduced the ear edema formation induced by ethyl phenylpropiolate. Pre-treatment with ZO essential oil significantly reduced the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and the severity of inflammation in paw tissue. In addition, pre-treatment with ZO essential oil exhibited decreased COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α expression in paw tissue, as well as PGE2 levels in serum. On this basis, our study suggests that ZO essential oil possesses anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Its possible mechanisms of action may involve the inhibition of TNF-α expression as well as the inhibition of COX-2 and PGE2 production. These findings provide more crucial data of ZO essential oil that may lead to new natural anti-inflammatory product development in the future.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Zingiberaceae , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Carragenina/efeitos adversos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Zingiberaceae/metabolismo
5.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807553

RESUMO

The rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Hance (known as the smaller galangal) have been used as a traditional medicine for over 1000 years. Nevertheless, little research is available on the bacteriostatic activity of the herb rhizomes. In this study, we employed, for the first time, a chloroform and methanol extraction method to investigate the antibacterial activity and components of the rhizomes of A. officinarum Hance. The results showed that the growth of five species of pathogenic bacteria was significantly inhibited by the galangal methanol-phase extract (GMPE) (p < 0.05). The GMPE treatment changed the bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity, membrane fluidity and/or permeability. Comparative transcriptomic analyses revealed approximately eleven and ten significantly altered metabolic pathways in representative Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Enterobacter sakazakii pathogens, respectively (p < 0.05), demonstrating different antibacterial action modes. The GMPE was separated further using a preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (Prep-HPLC) technique, and approximately 46 and 45 different compounds in two major component fractions (Fractions 1 and 4, respectively) were identified using ultra-HPLC combined with mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) techniques. o-Methoxy cinnamaldehyde (40.12%) and p-octopamine (62.64%) were the most abundant compounds in Fractions 1 and 4, respectively. The results of this study provide data for developing natural products from galangal rhizomes against common pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Alpinia , Zingiberaceae , Alpinia/química , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Metanol/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rizoma/química
6.
J Virol Methods ; 307: 114573, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779703

RESUMO

Pseudorabies virus (PrV) is one of the most important herpesviruses which can cause severe diseases in many mammals and some avian species. In recent years, repeated outbreaks of pseudorabies worldwide indicated an urgent need for new control measures. The results described in this study demonstrated that an extract prepared from the rhizome of Kaempferia galanga L (Kge), which consisted of flavonoids (2.82%), saccharides (61.37%), phenols (1.22%) and saponins (3.10%), possessed a potent anti-PrV activity. In PK-15 cells, Kge treatment inhibited PrV-induced cell death by more than 90% at a dose of 200 µg/mL. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 55.85 µg/mL. In the PrV-infected mice treated with Kge, the survival rate was up to 60% at day 6 post-infection, while the infected mice without Kge treatment all died. The virus titers in the brains of the Kge-treated infected mice were significantly reduced. Kge treatment also alleviated the severity of the PrV-induced lesions in the heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney. Kge exhibited immune-regulating activity through the regulation of cytokines (IFN-α, IFN-ß, IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-α) in the serum of PrV-infected mice, suggesting that one possible mechanism of anti-PrV activity was through the regulation of immune function. These results suggested that Kge could be a promising drug candidate for treating PrV infections.


Assuntos
Alpinia , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1 , Pseudorraiva , Zingiberaceae , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Mamíferos , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pseudorraiva/tratamento farmacológico , Rizoma
7.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897918

RESUMO

Zingiber zerumbet, also known as 'Lempoyang', possesses various phytomedicinal properties, such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, and antioxidant properties. Secondary metabolites possessing such properties i.e., zerumbone and α-humulene, are found dominantly in the plant rhizome. Synergistic effects of plant growth hormones and elicitors on in vitro α-humulene and zerumbone production, and biomass growth, in adventitious root culture (AdRC) of Z. zerumbet cultivated in a two-stage culture are reported. The culture was induced by supplementation of 1.0 mg/L NAA and 2.0 mg/L IBA (dark), and subsequently maintained in medium supplemented with 1 mg/L NAA and 3 mg/L BAP (16:08 light-dark cycle), yielded the production of zerumbone at 3440 ± 168 µg/g and α-humulene at 3759 ± 798 µg/g. Synergistic elicitation by 400 µM methyl jasmonate (MeJa) and 400 µM salicylic acid (SA) resulted in a 13-fold increase in zerumbone (43,000 ± 200 µg/g), while 400 µM MeJa and 600 µM SA produced a 4.3-fold increase in α-humulene (15,800 ± 5100 µg/g) compared to control.


Assuntos
Sesquiterpenos , Zingiberaceae , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Zingiberaceae/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889274

RESUMO

Kaempferia parviflora (Black ginger) is used widely in medical fields as an anti-microorganism and anti-inflammation. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-acne efficacy of black ginger extract. The results indicate that the methanol and ethanol extracts showed the highest total phenolic contents, without a significant difference, whereas the n-hexane extract showed the highest total flavonoid content. Nine flavones were detected using UPLC-QTOF-MS, and the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest amount of 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (DMF) according to HPLC. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, and Cutibacterium acnes was observed. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity against C. acnes, revealing MICs in the range of 0.015 to 0.030 mg/mL, whereas the ethyl acetate extract inhibited the growth of S. epidermidis with a MIC of 3.84 mg/mL. In addition, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest activity regarding nitric oxide inhibition (IC50 = 12.59 ± 0.35 µg/mL). The ethyl acetate extract was shown to be safe regarding cell viability at 0.1 mg/mL. The anti-acne efficacy was evaluated on volunteers. The volunteers were treated in two groups: one administered a 0.02% ethyl acetate extract gel-cream (n = 9) and one administered a placebo (n = 9) for 6 weeks. The group treated with the gel-cream containing the extract showed 36.52 and 52.20% decreases in acne severity index (ASI) after 4 and 6 weeks, respectively, and 18.19 and 18.54% decreases in erythema, respectively. The results suggest that K. parviflora could be a potent active ingredient in anti-inflammatory and anti-acne products.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar , Zingiberaceae , Acne Vulgar/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Propionibacterium acnes , Rizoma , Staphylococcus epidermidis
9.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 27(7): 206, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35866393

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Boesenbergia rotunda is a famous culinary/medicinal herb native to Southeast Asia region and it is traditionally used in the treatment of several diseases. This study investigated the anti-diabetic properties of Boesenbergia rotunda polyphenol extract (BRE) in high fructose/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHOD: The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH and ABST colorimetric assays, while the Folin-Ciocalteu method was used for the total phenolic content of BRE. For diabetes induction, a combination of high fructose solution and streptozotocin was administered to the rats and diabetic rats were orally administrated with BRE (100 and 400 mg/kg) for 5 weeks. The fasting blood glucose, body weight gain, food and water consumption were determined during the treatment period. RESULTS: BRE showed excellent in vitro DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity with high phenolic content. BRE significantly lowered fasting blood glucose level, HbA1c, lipid profile, hepatorenal biochemical parameters and ameliorated the IPGTT in diabetic rats. Additionally, BRE reversed body weight loss, attenuated food and water intake, serum insulin level, pancreatic ß-cell function and pancreatic cell morphology. Furthermore, fructose 1,6 biphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase, malondialdehyde (MDA) and proinflammatory cytokines levels were also ameliorated in the BRE-treated diabetic rats, while pancreatic antioxidant enzymes activities (GSH, SOD and CAT) were significantly increased in the treated rats. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the results showed that BRE effectively displayed antidiabetic effects and has possible value for antidiabetic oral medication.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Zingiberaceae , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Frutose , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Ratos , Estreptozocina/efeitos adversos , Zingiberaceae/metabolismo
10.
Gene ; 839: 146732, 2022 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840006

RESUMO

Zingiberaceae is the vital clue and key node in the decreased process of fertile stamens in Zingiberales, helping to understand the evolution of the ginger families. This study focuses on Alpinia hainanensis to investigate the function of B- and C-class MADS-box genes in floral development. The introns size of two B-class genes AhPI and AhAP3, and one C-class gene AhAG are quite variable. By contrast, the positions of the corresponding introns are conserved, resulting in a similar exon size in homologs. The typical region 70 bp-CCAATCA element was not found in the second intron of AhAG compared to AG homologs. The subcellular localization showed that AhAP3 was in both intranuclear and extranuclear. The heterodimer was formed between APETALA3 and PISTILLATA but not between the B- and C-class proteins using Y2H and BiFC. The 35S::AhAG heterologous transformed Arabidopsis had curly and smaller rosette leaves with early flowering. Floral organs had no homeotic conversion, albeit sepals and petals reduced in size. Siliques development was affected and displayed wrinkled and shorter. By contrast, 35S::AhAP3 and 35S::AhPI did not show any modified phenotype in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. We first proposed the model for Alpinia flower development. MADS-box transcription factor binding at particular genomic locations and interaction with partners may be crucial for the development of the floral organ.


Assuntos
Alpinia , Arabidopsis , Zingiberaceae , Alpinia/genética , Alpinia/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Zingiberaceae/genética , Zingiberaceae/metabolismo
11.
J Nat Prod ; 85(7): 1691-1696, 2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790346

RESUMO

The labdane diterpene hedychenone, isolated from Hedychium spicatum, is an example of a furan-containing natural product. Herein, a new and efficient method for the synthesis of 19 new thio analogues of hedychenone is reported. The present methodology exhibits a broad substrate scope with good to excellent yields without metal or base under mild reaction conditions. The natural compound 1 and four semisynthetic derivatives (3a, 3b, 3i, and 3j) exhibited strong α-glucosidase inhibition activity with IC50 values of 15.93 ± 0.29, 9.70 ± 0.33, 11.82 ± 0.06, 12.23 ± 0.33, and 12.15 ± 0.14 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 3e (6.0 ± 0.04 mm; zone of inhibition) displayed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. This study increases the chemical diversity of bioactive hedychenone derivatives and provides a direction for the development of antidiabetic agents.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Zingiberaceae , Diterpenos/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Enxofre , Zingiberaceae/química
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 903459, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720414

RESUMO

Daikenchuto (DKT) is one of the most widely used Japanese herbal formulae for various gastrointestinal disorders. It consists of Zanthoxylum Fructus (Japanese pepper), Zingiberis Siccatum Rhizoma (processed ginger), Ginseng radix, and maltose powder. However, the use of DKT in clinical settings is still controversial due to the limited molecular evidence and largely unknown therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory actions of DKT in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model in mice. We observed that DKT remarkably attenuated the severity of experimental colitis while maintaining the members of the symbiotic microbiota such as family Lactobacillaceae and increasing levels of propionate, an immunomodulatory microbial metabolite, in the colon. DKT also protected colonic epithelial integrity by upregulating the fucosyltransferase gene Fut2 and the antimicrobial peptide gene Reg3g. More remarkably, DKT restored the reduced colonic group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s), mainly RORγthigh-ILC3s, in DSS-induced colitis. We further demonstrated that ILC3-deficient mice showed increased mortality during experimental colitis, suggesting that ILC3s play a protective function on colonic inflammation. These findings demonstrate that DKT possesses anti-inflammatory activity, partly via ILC3 function, to maintain the colonic microenvironment. Our study also provides insights into the molecular basis of herbal medicine effects, promotes more profound mechanistic studies towards herbal formulae and contributes to future drug development.


Assuntos
Colite , Zanthoxylum , Zingiberaceae , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Japão , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Panax , Extratos Vegetais
13.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684405

RESUMO

Essential oils of plants have been used widely in cosmetic preparations. Being both perfuming and active ingredients, the functions of essential oils mean they are high-value ingredients. In this study, the leaf of Etlingera elatior (Jack) or Torch ginger was used. The essential oils (EO) were prepared by conventional hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD). The volatile compounds of EOs were analyzed by gas chromatography spectroscopy (GC-MS). The antioxidant activities by means of DPPH radical scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were determined. The inhibition of tyrosinase activity was investigated. The cytotoxicity was performed against human fibroblast cell lines (NIH/3T3) and melanoma cell lines (A375 and B16F10). The decreasing melanin content was measured in melanoma cell lines. The resulting essential oils were detected for 41 compounds from HD extraction dominants by terpenes, namely sesquiterpenes (48.499%) and monoterpenes (19.419%), while 26 compounds were detected from MAHD with the fatty alcohols as the major group. The higher antioxidant activities were found in HD EO (IC50 of 16.25 ± 0.09 mg/mL from DPPH assay and 0.91 ± 0.01 mg TEAC/g extract from FRAP assay). The survival of normal fibroblast cell lines remained at 90% at 500 µg/mL HD EO, where the EO possessed the half-maximal toxicity dose (TD50) of 214.85 ± 4.647 and 241.128 ± 2.134 µg/mL on B16F10 and A375 cell lines, respectively. This could suggest that the EO is highly selective against the melanoma cell lines. The melanin content was decreased at the half-maximum efficacy (IC50) at 252.12 ± 3.02 and 253.56 ± 3.65 in the A375 and B1610 cell lines, respectively, which were approximately 2.8-fold lower than kojic acid, the standard compound. The results of this study evidence the use of Etlingera elatior (Jack) leaf as a source of essential oil as an active agent in cosmetics.


Assuntos
Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Óleos Voláteis , Zingiberaceae , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Melaninas , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Células NIH 3T3 , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Zingiberaceae/química
14.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35566177

RESUMO

Plant of the genus Zingiber (Zingiberaceae) have primarily distributed in subtropical and tropical Asia, South America and Africa. The species of this genus have been widely used as food and in folk with a long history for treating various diseases. Reports related to the phytochemistry and phytochemistry of Zingiber species are numerous, but articles on the summary of the genus Zingiber remain scarce. This review aims at presenting comprehensive information about the genus Zingiber and providing a reference for the future application by systematically reviewing the literature from 1981 to 2020. Currently, a total of 447 phytochemical constituents have been isolated and identified from this genus, in which volatile oils, diarylheptanoids, gingerols, flavonoids and terpenoids are the major components. Gingerols, which are the main functional components, are the spicy and aromatic ingredients in the Zingiber species. Extracts and single compounds from Zingiber plants have been discovered to possess numerous biological functions, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, larvicidal, antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities. This review provides new insights into the ethnomedicine, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Zingiber and brings to the forefront key findings on the functional components of this genus in food and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional , Zingiberaceae , Etnofarmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Zingiberaceae/química
15.
Phytochemistry ; 200: 113225, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537529

RESUMO

Marginaols G-M, a series of undescribed isopimarane diterpenoids, together with four known analogs were isolated from the rhizomes of Kaempferia marginata. The structures of these isolated compounds were characterized using high-resolution mass spectrometry and extensive 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. In addition, the absolute configurations of marginaol G and H were determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis and comparison with the literature values. When compared to the standard drug dexamethasone (IC50 4.7 µM), marginaol G, H, and 6ß-acetoxysandaracopimaradien-1α,9α-diol had an intriguing anti-inflammatory effect on NO inhibition in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, with IC50 values ranging from 4.5 to 7.3 µM and being less cytotoxic to the cells. The anti-inflammatory action of these isopimarane diterpenoids from K. marginata supports the use of Thai traditional medicine for inflammation treatment.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Zingiberaceae , Abietanos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Diterpenos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Rizoma/química , Zingiberaceae/química
16.
Phytother Res ; 36(8): 3080-3101, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35623903

RESUMO

This umbrella review is to recapitulate and grade the available evidence of associations between consumption of Zingiberaceae plants/curcumin (Cur) and multiple health-related outcomes. This study included 161 meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials in 76 articles with 67 unique health outcomes. Data on heterogeneity and publication bias are considered to assess the quality of evidence. Based on the different impact of Zingiberaceae plants/Cur on human health, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. Zingiberaceae plants/Cur can mainly improve metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and some chronic inflammatory diseases, likewise, obviously relief the pain of osteoarthritis and related diseases. Ginger supplements have been shown to improve vomiting during pregnancy and to relieve nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy and surgery. The surgery is any type of surgery, including laparoscopic surgery, gynecological surgery and mixed surgery. Beneficial associations were found with Cur intervention in gastrointestinal, neurological and oral diseases. Zingiberaceae plants/Cur are generally safe and favorable for multiple health outcomes in humans. High-quality research is further needed to prove the observed associations.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Zingiberaceae , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Vômito
17.
Phytochemistry ; 199: 113181, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367464

RESUMO

Five undescribed compounds, including three diterpenoids namely, saraburol, saraburanes A and B, and two p-methoxycinnamic acid monoterpene diol esters, named E/Z-saraburinic esters, together with ten known oxygenated isopimarane diterpenoids, were isolated from the whole plant of Kaempferia saraburiensis Picheans. Among these compounds, saraburol possesses an unusual 6/9/6 tricyclic ring system bearing a 1,3-dioxonane-4-one scaffold, which is rarely found in natural products. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including HRESIMS, FTIR, 1D and 2D-NMR, and by comparison with published data, and their absolute configurations were determined by comparison of experimental with calculated ECD spectra and hydrolysis reaction. Using gauge-independent atomic orbital (GIAO) NMR shift calculations coupled with DP4+ probability analyses, biogenetic considerations, and optical rotation allowed for the complete characterization of saraburol. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for saraburol and saraburane A was proposed. The cytotoxicity result indicated that E-saraburinic ester exhibited the most potent activity with an IC50 value of 12.0 µM against MOLT-3 cells with a selectivity index of 12.5. Saraburane B exhibited the most potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria strain Staphylococcus epidermidis with MIC (MBC) value of 25 (50) µg/mL.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Zingiberaceae , Diterpenos/química , Ésteres/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Rizoma/química , Zingiberaceae/química
18.
Phytochemistry ; 199: 113204, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421433

RESUMO

The dried fruit of Amomum villosum (Amomi Fructus) is an important spices and traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, the EtOH extract of Amomi Fructus was revealed with hypoglycemic effects on db/db mice by increasing plasma insulin levels. After extracted with EtOAc, the EtOAc fraction showed increased activity in stimulating glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion compared with the EtOH extract. In order to clarify the antidiabetic constituents, four undescribed norlignans, amovillosumins A‒D, were isolated from the EtOAc fraction, and the subsequent chiral resolution yielded three pairs of enantiomers. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, IR, UV and [α]D) and ECD calculations. Amovillosumins A and B significantly stimulated GLP-1 secretion by 375.1% and 222.7% at 25.0 µM, and 166.9% and 62.7% at 12.5 µM, representing a new type of GLP-1 secretagogues.


Assuntos
Amomum , Zingiberaceae , Amomum/química , Animais , Frutas/química , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/análise , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Secretagogos/análise
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(4): e0010341, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468134

RESUMO

Hyperreactive onchocerciasis (HO) is characterized by a severe skin inflammation with elevated Th17-Th2 combined responses. We previously demonstrated the anthelminthic activity of Aframomum melegueta (AM), Xylopia aethiopica (XA) and Khaya senegalensis (KS) used by traditional healers to treat helminthiasis in the endemic area of Togo. However, their effect on severe onchocerciasis is poorly investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-Th17 and anti-Th2 effects of hydro-ethanolic extracts of AM, XA and KS during HO. Onchocerca volvulus-infected individuals were recruited in the Central region of Togo in 2018. Isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from both generalized onchocerciasis (GEO) and HO forms were activated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies in the presence or absence of the hydro-ethanolic extracts of AM, XA and KS as well as their delipidated, deproteinized and deglycosylated fractions. After 72 hours, cytokines were assayed from cell culture supernatants. Then, flow cytometry was used to investigate the effects of the extracts on cell activation, proliferation, intracellular cytokines and T cells transcription factors. The production of both Th17 and Th2 cytokines IL-17A and IL-5 were significantly inhibited upon T-cell receptor (TCR) activation in the presence of the hydro-ethanolic extracts of AM, XA and KS in HO individuals' PBMCs in vitro. AM and XA inhibited CD4+RORC2+IL-17A+ and CD4+GATA3+IL-4+ cell populations induction. This inhibition was not Th1 nor Treg-dependent since both IFN-γ and IL-10 were also inhibited by the extracts. AM and XA did not interfere with T cell activation and proliferation for their inhibitory pathways. Lipid and protein compounds from AM and XA were associated with the inhibition of IL-17A. This study showed that in addition to their anthelminthic effects, hydro-ethanolic extracts of Aframomum melegueta, Xylopia aethiopica and Khaya senegalensis could downregulate both Th17 and Th2 responses and prevent the severe skin disorder observed.


Assuntos
Meliaceae , Oncocercose , Xylopia , Zingiberaceae , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células Th1 , Células Th17
20.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266044, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377896

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, warranting the urgent need for a new treatment option. Plant-derived nanovesicles containing bioactive compounds represent new therapeutic avenues due to their unique characteristics as natural nanocarriers for bioactive molecules with therapeutic effects. Recent evidence has revealed potential anticancer activity of bioactive compounds from Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. (fingerroot). However, the effect and the underlying mechanisms of fingerroot-derived nanovesicles (FDNVs) against colorectal cancer are still unknown. We isolated the nanovesicles from fingerroot and demonstrated their anticancer activity against two colorectal cancer cell lines, HT-29 and HCT116. The IC50 values were 63.9 ± 2.4, 57.8 ± 4.1, 47.8 ± 7.6 µg/ml for HT-29 cells and 57.7 ± 6.6, 47.2 ± 5.2, 34 ± 2.9 µg/ml for HCT116 cells at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Interestingly, FDNVs were not toxic to a normal colon epithelial cell line, CCD 841 CoN. FDNVs exhibited selective uptake by the colorectal cancer cell lines but not the normal colon epithelial cell line. Moreover, dose- and time-dependent FDNV-induced apoptosis was only observed in the colorectal cancer cell lines. In addition, reactive oxygen species levels were substantially increased in colorectal cancer cells, but total glutathione decreased after treatment with FDNVs. Our results show that FDNVs exhibited selective anticancer activity in colorectal cancer cell lines via the disruption of intracellular redox homeostasis and induction of apoptosis, suggesting the utility of FDNVs as a novel intervention for colorectal cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Zingiberaceae , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Células HCT116 , Células HT29 , Humanos
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