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1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 445-452, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130386

RESUMO

Great ape anesthesia is reported to carry a significant risk. Therefore, techniques aiming to reduce stress and increase welfare, such as hand injection of anesthesia induction agents, have received considerable attention in zoo, laboratory, and captive wildlife environments. However, there is little evidence to support the superiority of such techniques. To investigate this issue, anesthesia records of healthy zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) between 2012 and 2017 in which the animal was either darted or hand injected were analyzed (n = 50). Sex, age, induction, muscle relaxation, and overall anesthesia quality as well as recovery ratings, heart rate, systolic, mean and diastolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, end-tidal CO2, oxygen saturation (SpO2), and body temperature were analyzed. Chimpanzees that were darted showed statistically significantly higher heart rate, SpO2, and body temperature than those that were hand injected. It was found that darted chimpanzees were also significantly more likely to have poorer perianesthetic muscle relaxation and overall anesthesia rating scores. This study provides further evidence that the use of hand injection can reduce factors associated with stress and improve the quality of chimpanzee anesthesia.


Assuntos
Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Pan troglodytes , Tiletamina/farmacologia , Zolazepam/farmacologia , Anestésicos Dissociativos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Dissociativos/farmacologia , Animais , Ansiolíticos/administração & dosagem , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Injeções Intramusculares/métodos , Masculino , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Midazolam/farmacologia , Tiletamina/administração & dosagem , Zolazepam/administração & dosagem
2.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 258(8): 883-891, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the anesthetic, analgesic, and cardiorespiratory effects of tiletamine-zolazepam-detomidine-butorphanol (TZDB), tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine-butorphanol (TZXB), and ketamine-detomidine-butorphanol (KDB) in pigs and to assess anesthetic recovery duration and quality following administration of tolazoline as a reversal agent. ANIMALS: 11 healthy 2.5-month-old castrated male Landrace mixed-breed pigs. PROCEDURES: In a randomized, blinded crossover study design, pigs received the following anesthetic combinations, IM: TZDB (tiletamine-zolazepam [3 mg/kg {1.36 mg/lb}], detomidine [0.18 mg/kg {0.08 mg/lb}], and butorphanol [0.12 mg/kg {0.05 mg/lb}]); TZXB (tiletamine-zolazepam [4 mg/kg {1.8 mg/lb}], xylazine [4 mg/kg], and butorphanol [0.2 mg/kg {0.09 mg/lb}]); and KDB (ketamine [8 mg/kg {3.63 mg/lb}], detomidine [0.18 mg/kg], and butorphanol [0.3 mg/kg {0.14 mg/lb}]). A 7-day washout period was provided between treatments. At 45 minutes of anesthesia, pigs received tolazoline (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb], IM; n = 6) treatment or control (5) treatment with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. RESULTS: All anesthetic combinations induced anesthesia. Endotracheal intubation was completed within 5 minutes after anesthetic administration in all pigs, except in 2 pigs following administration of KDB. Durations (mean ± SD) of endotracheal intubation and lateral recumbency in pigs that did not receive tolazoline were 55.3 ± 4.8 minutes, 83.8 ± 15.8 minutes, and 28.2 ± 4.5 minutes and 112.4 ± 18.7 minutes, 117.2 ± 16.7 minutes, and 79.7 ± 6.0 minutes, respectively, for the TZDB, TZXB, and KDB anesthetic treatments. Tolazoline significantly shortened the duration of anesthetic recovery for all anesthetic treatments without affecting the recovery quality. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: All 3 anesthetic combinations were suitable for providing anesthesia in pigs. Tolazoline administration shortened the duration of anesthetic recovery without affecting the quality of recovery.


Assuntos
Anestésicos , Ketamina , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Butorfanol , Estudos Cross-Over , Combinação de Medicamentos , Frequência Cardíaca , Imidazóis , Ketamina/farmacologia , Masculino , Suínos , Tiletamina/farmacologia , Xilazina/farmacologia , Zolazepam/farmacologia
3.
Animal Model Exp Med ; 4(1): 40-46, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738435

RESUMO

Background: Tiletamine/zolazepam is a dissociative anesthetic combination commonly used in small animals but information is limited in rats. The alpha-2 agonist, dexmedetomidine, has gained popularity in laboratory animal anesthesia. Tramadol is a weak opioid mu agonist. The aim of this study was to assess whether the tiletamine/zolazepam/dexmedetomidine (ZD) combination effectively provides a surgical anesthesia plane comparable to tiletamine/zolazepam/dexmedetomidine with tramadol (ZDT) in a minor procedure in rats. Methods: Rats were induced with ZD or ZDT. After the loss of paw withdrawal, a small incision was made on the rats' left thighs as a surgical stimulus. Rats were maintained under a surgical anesthesia plane by assessing the loss of the paw withdrawal reflex for 45 minutes, then atipamezole was administered. Monitored anesthesia parameters included: (a) physiological parameters - pulse rate (PR), respiratory rate (RR), tissue oxygen saturation (%SpO2), and body temperature; (b) duration parameters - induction time, onset and duration of surgical anesthesia plane, onset of recovery, and recovery time. Results: PR was significantly lower at 10 minutes in ZD and 5 minutes in ZDT groups. No difference was observed for RR, %SpO2, and body temperature. Likewise, there were no differences for duration parameters: induction time was less than 3 minutes; onset and duration of surgical anesthesia plane were approximately 5 and 45 minutes, respectively; onset of recovery (time to move) was 51 minutes; and recovery time was 52 minutes, respectively. Conclusion: These data suggest the ZD combination provides a surgical anesthesia plane comparable to ZDT in a rat incisional pain model.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/veterinária , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Tiletamina/farmacologia , Tramadol/farmacologia , Zolazepam/farmacologia , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Masculino , Oxigênio/análise , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferida Cirúrgica
4.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(5): 809-813, 2021 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762510

RESUMO

A 13-year-old Bornean orangutan diagnosed with life threatening Streptococcus pyogenes broncho-pneumonia was kept in a state of deep sedation for 20 days via continuous intra-venous (IV) infusion of zolazepam -tiletamine and IV haloperidol to allow consistent IV administration of ceftazidime and gatifloxacine. The use of long-term deep sedation allowed carrying out a particularly demanding treatment not generally associated with zoological patients. The treatment was ultimately successful.


Assuntos
Sedação Profunda , Pneumonia , Animais , Sedação Profunda/veterinária , Combinação de Medicamentos , Haloperidol , Pneumonia/veterinária , Pongo , Pongo pygmaeus , Tiletamina , Zolazepam
5.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 47(4): 518-527, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of intravenous vatinoxan administration on bradycardia, hypertension and level of anaesthesia induced by medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam in red deer (Cervus elaphus). STUDY DESIGN AND ANIMALS: A total of 10 healthy red deer were included in a randomised, controlled, experimental, crossover study. METHODS: Deer were administered a combination of 0.1 mg kg-1 medetomidine hydrochloride and 2.5 mg kg-1 tiletamine-zolazepam intramuscularly, followed by 0.1 mg kg-1 vatinoxan hydrochloride or equivalent volume of saline intravenously (IV) 35 minutes after anaesthetic induction. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), respiration rate (fR), end-tidal CO2 (Pe'CO2), arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), rectal temperature (RT) and level of anaesthesia were assessed before saline/vatinoxan administration (baseline) and at intervals for 25 minutes thereafter. Differences within treatments (change from baseline) and between treatments were analysed with linear mixed effect models (p < 0.05). RESULTS: Maximal (81 ± 10 beats minute-1) HR occurred 90 seconds after vatinoxan injection and remained significantly above baseline (42 ± 4 beats minute-1) for 15 minutes. MAP significantly decreased from baseline (122 ± 10 mmHg) to a minimum MAP of 83 ± 6 mmHg 60 seconds after vatinoxan and remained below baseline until end of anaesthesia. HR remained unchanged from baseline (43 ± 5 beats minute-1) with the saline treatment, whereas MAP decreased significantly (112 ± 16 mmHg) from baseline after 20 minutes. Pe'CO2, fR and SpO2 showed no significant differences between treatments, whereas RT decreased significantly 25 minutes after vatinoxan. Level of anaesthesia was not significantly influenced by vatinoxan. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Vatinoxan reversed hypertension and bradycardia induced by medetomidine without causing hypotension or affecting the level of anaesthesia in red deer. However, the effect on HR subsided 15 minutes after vatinoxan IV administration. Vatinoxan has the potential to reduce anaesthetic side effects in non-domestic ruminants immobilised with medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cervos , Medetomidina , Quinolizinas/farmacologia , Tiletamina , Zolazepam , Anestésicos Combinados/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Animais , Bradicardia/induzido quimicamente , Bradicardia/prevenção & controle , Bradicardia/veterinária , Estudos Cross-Over , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/veterinária , Masculino , Medetomidina/efeitos adversos , Tiletamina/efeitos adversos , Zolazepam/efeitos adversos
6.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(1): 80-87, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212549

RESUMO

Twenty-one free-ranging warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, were immobilized with a combination of medetomidine (0.07 ± 0.01 mg/kg), butorphanol (0.26 ± 0.04 mg/kg), tiletamine-zolazepam (0.69 ± 0.15 mg/kg), and ketamine (1.43 ± 0.21 mg/kg) administered intramuscularly by dart. Induction, immobilization, and recovery characteristics were evaluated using a standardized scoring system. In the immobilized warthogs, physiological variables were measured every 5 min and arterial blood gases were analyzed at 15-min intervals. At 45 min after initial drug administration, atipamezole (0.34 ± 0.050 mg/kg) and naltrexone (0.53 ± 0.079 mg/kg) were administered intravenously. Overall, induction quality after darting was scored as excellent and the mean time to safe handling was 5.9 ± 2.0 min. Based on muscle relaxation, and loss of palpebral and pedal reflexes, most subjects (17 out of 21) reached a plane of surgical anesthesia by 10 and 15 min; 20 out of 21 warthogs were in this plane for the duration of the monitoring period. In the immobilized warthogs the overall mean heart rate was 65 ± 15.3 beats per minute, mean respiratory rate was 14.7 ± 5.6 breaths per minute, and the mean rectal temperature was 37.9 ± 1.4°C during the 40 min. Arterial blood gas results showed hypoxemia (mean PaO2 62.1 ± 16.2 mmHg), hypercapnia (mean PaCO2 47.1 ± 5.1 mmHg), and acidemia (mean pH = 7.36 ± 0.04). Values for PaO2 and pH improved over the immobilization period. After antagonist administration, overall recovery quality from immobilization was scored as good, with animals standing at a mean time of 7.3 ± 4.9 min. The drug combination proved to be effective in the immobilization of free-ranging warthogs with rapid induction, good anesthesia, and limited cardiorespiratory changes. This anesthetic protocol produces effective, safe, and partially reversible immobilization in warthogs.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Imobilização/veterinária , Suínos/fisiologia , Anestesia/métodos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Butorfanol/administração & dosagem , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Parques Recreativos , África do Sul , Tiletamina/administração & dosagem , Zolazepam/administração & dosagem
7.
J Feline Med Surg ; 22(2): 100-107, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735096

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine whether a drug combination using nalbuphine with dexmedetomidine and tiletamine/zolazepam is non-inferior to one that uses butorphanol. METHODS: All healthy cats presenting solely for gonadectomy to two trap-neuter-return mobile clinic days were randomly assigned to induction with a combination of tiletamine/zolazepam 3 mg/kg, dexmedetomidine 7.5 µg/kg and either butorphanol or nalbuphine at 0.15 mg/kg. All participants were blinded to the identity of the combinations. The primary endpoint was clinician satisfaction, comprised of the mean of four satisfaction ratings on a 7-point Likert scale (highly dissatisfied through to highly satisfied) recorded for induction, maintenance of anesthesia, surgery and recovery. Exploratory endpoints included each individual score, number of injections, duration of induction, duration of recovery and need for reversal agent. To assess non-inferiority for the primary endpoint and individual scores, the difference and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the difference between the mean clinical scores for the nalbuphine and butorphanol-based combinations were calculated and compared with a prespecified non-inferiority margin of 20% (1.4 points). RESULTS: Seventy-two cats were enrolled, 36 in each group. The mean ± SD composite score for the combination with nalbuphine was 6.06 ± 0.59 (95% CI 5.86-6.25) points, while the combination with butorphanol was 6.22 ± 0.62 (95% CI 6.01-6.43). The difference between mean scores was 0.17 (-0.12 to 0.45), which did not exceed the prespecified boundary of 1.4, establishing the non-inferiority of nalbuphine. No individual clinical score for nalbuphine was inferior to butorphanol, and there were no significant differences for any secondary endpoints. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The clinical experience of the nalbuphine-based combination was non-inferior to the butorphanol-based combination. Nalbuphine is an effective substitute for butorphanol, providing another option if butorphanol is unavailable due to shortage, controlled status or cost, without requiring a change in anesthetic workflow.


Assuntos
Castração/veterinária , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central , Dexmedetomidina , Nalbufina , Tiletamina , Zolazepam , Animais , Gatos , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Nalbufina/administração & dosagem , Nalbufina/uso terapêutico , Tiletamina/administração & dosagem , Tiletamina/uso terapêutico , Zolazepam/administração & dosagem , Zolazepam/uso terapêutico
8.
J Feline Med Surg ; 22(2): 108-113, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the sedative and some physiological effects of tiletamine-zolazepam following buccal administration (BA) in cats. METHODS: Seven healthy spayed European shorthair cats (three males, four females) were studied twice in this randomized, blinded, crossover study. Each cat received two doses of tiletamine-zolazepam by BA: the low-dose (LD) group consisted of 5 mg/kg of each drug, and the high-dose (HD) group consisted of 7.5 mg/kg of each. Baseline systolic blood pressure (SAP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and a sedation score were recorded prior to administration of each treatment. The same variables plus the percentage of hemoglobin saturated with oxygen as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2) were recorded at predefined intervals for the next 2 h. RESULTS: All cats completed the study. No retching or vomiting were observed. Hypersalivation was observed in 0/7 and 3/7 for LD and HD groups, respectively (P = 0.2). There were significant changes in scores over time for posture, response to clippers and response to manual restraint for both groups, without differences between groups. RR, HR and SAP changed significantly over time. SAP and RR were significantly lower for the HD than for the LD group. No values for hemoglobin saturation <95% were observed. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: BA of tiletamine-zolazepam at the doses studied here is a simple and effective method for chemical restraint in cats, where the LD group had a lower impact on SAP and RR than the HD group.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiletamina , Zolazepam , Administração Bucal , Animais , Gatos , Sedação Consciente/métodos , Sedação Consciente/veterinária , Estudos Cross-Over , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Masculino , Tiletamina/administração & dosagem , Tiletamina/farmacologia , Zolazepam/administração & dosagem , Zolazepam/farmacologia
9.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(3): 687-690, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480546

RESUMO

Measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP) and tear production are key components of ophthalmic examination. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were anesthetized using either tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ; 2 mg/kg) combined with medetomidine (TZM; 0.02 mg/kg), or, TZ alone (6mg/kg). Tear production was lower (P = 0.03) with TZM (5.63 ± 6.22 mm/min; n = 16) than with TZ (11.13 ± 4.63 mm/min; n = 8). Mean IOP, measured using rebound tonometry in an upright body position (n = 8) was 18.74 ± 3.01 mm Hg, with no differences between right and left eyes. However, positioning chimpanzees in left lateral recumbency (n = 27) resulted in higher IOP in the dependent (left) eye (24.77 ± 4.49 mm Hg) compared to the nondependent (right) eye (22.27 ± 4.65 mm Hg) of the same animal (P < 0.0001). These data indicate medetomidine anesthesia markedly lowers tear production in chimpanzees, and that body position should be taken into consideration when performing rebound tonometry.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Combinados/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Lágrimas/fisiologia , Tiletamina/administração & dosagem , Zolazepam/administração & dosagem , Anestesia/veterinária , Animais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Pressão Intraocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Lágrimas/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(5): 581-585, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833293

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To identify tiletamine, zolazepam and their metabolites in samples from drug facilitated sexual assault by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF-MS). Methods Urine samples of victims were collected, and detected by GC-QTOF-MS after liquid-liquid extraction and concentration. The molecular formula of fragments ions was identified by determination of accurate mass numbers, to detect related substances. Results Tiletamine, zolazepam, three metabolites of tiletamine and two metabolites of zolazepam were identified in urine samples from actual cases. Conclusion GC-QTOF-MS provides abundant and accurate information of fragment ions mass numbers, which can be used for qualitative identification of tiletamine, zolazepam and their metabolites in drug facilitated sexual assault.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Toxicologia Forense/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Delitos Sexuais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tiletamina/análise , Zolazepam/análise , Humanos , Tiletamina/sangue , Zolazepam/sangue
11.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 254(12): 1421-1426, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149881

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To compare characteristics of recovery from isoflurane anesthesia in healthy nonpremedicated dogs after anesthetic induction by IV administration of tiletamine-zolazepam with those observed after induction by IV administration of alfaxalone, ketamine-diazepam, or propofol. DESIGN Prospective, randomized crossover study. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult hounds. PROCEDURES Each dog underwent the 4 treatments in random order with a ≥ 7-day washout period between anesthetic episodes. Anesthesia was induced by IV administration of the assigned induction drug or combination (each to effect in 25% increments of calculated dose) and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen for 60 minutes. Cardiorespiratory variables and end-tidal isoflurane concentration (ETISO) were measured just before isoflurane administration was discontinued. Dogs were observed and video recorded during recovery. Recovery characteristics were retrospectively scored from recordings by 3 raters. Interrater and intrarater reliability of scoring was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient calculation. Linear and mixed ANOVAs were used to compare extubation times, recovery scores, and body temperature among treatments. RESULTS Most cardiorespiratory variables, body temperature, ETISO, and time to extubation did not differ between tiletamine-zolazepam and other induction treatments. Recovery scores were lower (indicating better recovery characteristics) with propofol or alfaxalone than with tiletamine-zolazepam but did not differ between tiletamine-zolazepam and ketamine-diazepam treatments. Anesthetic episode number and ETISO had no effect on extubation time or recovery score. Intrarater and interrater correlations for recovery scores were excellent. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Recovery of healthy dogs from anesthesia with isoflurane after induction with tiletamine-zolazepam was uncomplicated and had characteristics comparable to those observed following induction with ketamine-diazepam. However, recovery characteristics were improved when anesthesia was induced with propofol or alfaxalone.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Cães/fisiologia , Isoflurano , Ketamina , Propofol , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Diazepam , Frequência Cardíaca , Pregnanodionas , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tiletamina , Zolazepam
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(4): 271-277, Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | ID: biblio-1002810

RESUMO

Dissociative anesthesia results in stressful and long recovery periods in monkeys and use of injectable anesthetics in medical research has to be refined. Propofol has promoted more pleasure wake up from anesthesia. The objectives of this study were to investigate the use of intravenous anesthetic propofol, establishing the required infusion rate to maintain surgical anesthetic level and comparing it to tiletamine-zolazepam anesthesia in Sapajus apella. Eight healthy capuchin monkeys, premedicated with midazolam and meperidine, were anesthetized with propofol (PRO) or tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) during 60 minutes. Propofol was infused continually and rate was titrated to effect and tiletamine-zolazepam was given at 5mg/kg IV bolus initially and repeated at 2.5mg/kg IV bolus as required. Cardiopulmonary parameters, arterial blood gases, cortisol, lactate and quality and times to recovery were determined. Recovery quality was superior in PRO. Ventral recumbency (PRO = 43.0±21.4 vs TZ = 219.3±139.7 min) and normal ambulation (PRO = 93±27.1 vs TZ = 493.7±47.8 min) were faster in PRO (p<0.05). Cardiopulmonary effects did not have marked differences between groups. Median for induction doses of propofol was 5.9mg/kg, varying from 4.7 to 6.7mg/kg, Mean infusion rate was 0.37±0.11mg/kg/min, varying during the one-hour period. In TZ, two animals required three and five extra doses. Compared to tiletamine-zolazepam, minor post-anesthetic adverse events should be expected with propofol anesthesia due to the faster and superior anesthetic recovery. (AU)


A anestesia dissociativa em primatas resulta em recuperação anestésica lenta e estressante, e, portanto, o uso de anestesia injetável em pesquisas médicas precisa ser refinado. Por outro lado, o propofol promove recuperação mais suave. Os objetivos desse estudo foram investigar o uso do anestésico intravenoso propofol, estabelecer a taxa de infusão contínua necessária para manter anestesia cirúrgica, e comparar tal técnica com a dissociativa tiletamina-zolazepam em Sapajus apella. Oito macacos-prego saudáveis foram pré-medicados com midazolam e meperidina, e posteriormente anestesiados com propofol (PRO) ou tiletamina-zolazepam (TZ) durante 60 minutos. O propofol foi administrado em infusão contínua, e a taxa foi titulada ao efeito, já a tiletamina-zolazepam foi administrada em 5mg/kg IV como bolus inicial, e repiques de 2,5mg/kg IV conforme necessário. Os parâmetros cardiopulmonares, hemogasometria arterial, cortisol, e lactato, além da qualidade e duração da recuperação anestésica foram determinados. A qualidade da recuperação anestésica foi superior em PRO. O tempo para atingir decúbito ventral (PRO = 43,0±21,4 vs TZ = 219,3±139,7 min) e ambulação normal (PRO = 93±27,1 vs TZ = 493,7±47,8 min) foram mais rápidos em PRO (p<0,05). As variáveis cardiopulmonares não diferiram entre os grupos. A mediana para dose de indução com propofol foi de 5,9mg/kg, variando de 4,7 a 6,7mg/kg. A taxa de infusão contínua média de propofol foi de 0,37±0,11mg/kg/min, variando ao longo dos 60 minutos. Em TZ, dois animais necessitaram de três e cinco repiques. Comparado à tiletamina-zolazepam, menos efeitos adversos pós-anestésicos devem ser esperados com o propofol, devido à recuperação mais suave e rápida.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Cebus/cirurgia , Anestesia Intravenosa/métodos , Anestesia Intravenosa/veterinária , Tiletamina/administração & dosagem , Zolazepam/administração & dosagem , Propofol/administração & dosagem
13.
J Med Primatol ; 48(3): 154-160, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tiletamine-zolazepam is a widely used as an alternative chemical immobilization method in non-human primates, with a safe application pathway and necessary relaxation. In order to determine the electrocardiographic parameters of Sapajus libidinosus after intramuscular tiletamine-zolazepam administration at the dose of 5 mg/kg, nine animals were submitted to anesthesia. METHODS: The interpretation of the electrocardiogram determined: heart rate in bpm and heart rhythm, P wave, P-R interval, R wave, QRS complex, T wave, Q-T interval, corrected QT interval and electrical axis. The mean HR was 206 ± 32 bpm. RESULTS: The majority of the monkeys showed normal sinus rhythm, but one animal showed sinus tachycardia. The most commonly observed electrical axis was between +30° and +90°. Two animals presented bigger alterations in the tracing such as low amplitude QRS and T wave bigger than 1/4 of the R wave. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of tiletamine-zolazepam was safe and efficacious, with minimal cardiovascular effects.


Assuntos
Cebinae , Eletrocardiografia/veterinária , Imobilização/veterinária , Anestésicos , Animais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Tiletamina , Zolazepam
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(3): 214-220, Mar. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | ID: biblio-1002798

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality and recovery from anesthesia promoted by the tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) combination administered intravenously (IV) continuously in bitches pre-medicated with acepromazine. Eight cross-bred, clinically healthy bitches weighing 13.7 ±1.9kg on average were used in this study. After a food fast of 12 h and a water fast of four hours, the animals were treated with acepromazine (0.1mg/kg, intramuscular) and, after 15 minutes, anesthesia was induced with a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (2mg/kg, IV) immediately followed by continuous IV infusion thereof at a dose of 2mg/kg/h for 60 min. The following parameters were measured in all animals immediately before administration of acepromazine (M15), immediately before anesthetic induction (M0), and at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min after initiation of continuous infusion (M5, M10, M20, M30, M40, M50, and M60): electrocardiography (ECG), heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), respiratory rate (RR), body temperature (BT), and arterial hemogasometry, with the last performed only at experimental times M15, M0, M30, and M60. A subcutaneous electrical stimulator was used to evaluate the degree of analgesia. Myorelaxation and quality of anesthetic recovery were also assessed, classifying these parameters as excellent, good, and poor. Anesthetic recovery time was recorded in minutes. HR increased significantly at time M10 in relation to that at M-15, and at times M5, M10, M40, and M50 in relation to that at M0. MAP decreased significantly at M20 and M30 compared with the baseline. BT decreased significantly at M50 compared with that at M0, but no hypothermia was observed. RR showed significant reduction at M5, M10, and M20 in relation to that at M-15, and at M5 and M10 in relation to that at M0, and bradypnoea was observed during the first 20 min after anesthetic induction. Significant decreases in the PR interval at times M10, M40, and M50 were observed in relation to that at M15. Amplitude of the R wave showed significant decrease at M20 compared with that at M-15. In the other ECG parameters, no significant difference was observed between the times evaluated. Hemogasometric parameters and analgesia did not show significant alterations. Myorelaxation and quality of anesthetic recovery were considered excellent. Recovery time was 15.1±7.7 min for positioning of sternal decubitus and 45.5±23.1 minutes for return of ambulation. Continuous IV administration of TZ combination does not produce satisfactory analgesia and does not cause severe cardiorespiratory and hemogasometric effects in bitches pre-medicated with acepromazine.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade e a recuperação da anestesia promovida pela associação tiletamina-zolazepam, administrada por via intravenosa (IV) contínua, em cadelas pré-medicadas com acepromazina. Foram utilizadas oito cadelas, sem raças definidas, clinicamente sadias, pesando em média 13,7±1,9kg. Após jejum alimentar de 12 horas e hídrico de quatro horas, os animais foram medicados com acepromazina (0,1mg/kg, via intramuscular) e, após 15 minutos, a anestesia foi induzida com a associação tiletamina-zolazepam (2mg/kg, IV) seguida imediatamente pela infusão IV contínua da mesma, na dose de 2mg/kg/h, durante 60 minutos. Os parâmetros que foram mensurados em todos os animais, imediatamente antes da administração da acepromazina (M-15), imediatamente antes da indução anestésica (M0) e, aos 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 minutos após o início da infusão contínua (M5, M10, M20, M30, M40, M50 e M60) foram os seguintes: eletrocardiografia (ECG), frequência cardíaca (FC), pressão arterial média (PAM), frequência respiratória (f), temperatura corpórea (TC) e hemogasometria arterial, esta sendo realizada apenas nos momentos M-15, M0, M30 e M60. Para avaliação do grau de analgesia foi empregado um estimulador elétrico subcutâneo. Também se avaliou o miorrelaxamento e a qualidade da recuperação anestésica, classificando estes parâmetros em: excelente, bom e ruim. O tempo de recuperação anestésica foi registrado em minutos. A FC aumentou significativamente no momento M10 em relação ao M-15, e nos momentos M5, M10, M40 e M50 em relação ao M0. A PAM diminuiu significativamente em M20 e M30 em comparação ao valor basal. A TC diminuiu significativamente em M50 em comparação ao M0, mas não foi observada hipotermia. A f apresentou uma redução significativa nos momentos M5, M10 e M20 em relação ao M-15, e em M5 e M10 em relação ao M0, sendo observado bradipneia durante os primeiros 20 minutos após a indução anestésica. Foram observadas diminuições significativas do intervalo PR nos momentos M10, M40 e M50, em relação ao M-15. A amplitude da onda R apresentou diminuição significativa em M20 em comparação ao M-15. Nos demais parâmetros da ECG não houve diferença significativa entre os momentos avaliados. Os parâmetros hemogasométricos e a analgesia não apresentaram alterações significativas. O miorrelaxamento e a qualidade da recuperação anestésica foram considerados excelentes. O período de recuperação foi de 15,1±7,7 minutos para posicionamento do decúbito esternal e 45,5±23,1 minutos para retorno da deambulação. A administração intravenosa contínua de tiletamina-zolazepam não produz analgesia satisfatória e não causa efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e hemogasométricos severos, em cadelas pré-tratadas com acepromazina.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Cães , Tiletamina/farmacologia , Zolazepam/farmacologia , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Adjuvantes Anestésicos , Anestesia Intravenosa/veterinária , Acepromazina/farmacologia
15.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(1): 33-44, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605029

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To compare effects of tiletamine-zolazepam, alfaxalone, ketamine-diazepam, and propofol for anesthetic induction on cardiorespiratory and acid-base variables before and during isoflurane-maintained anesthesia in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 6 dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane and instrumented. After dogs recovered from anesthesia, baseline values for cardiorespiratory variables and cardiac output were determined, and arterial and mixed-venous blood samples were obtained. Tiletamine-zolazepam (5 mg/kg), alfaxalone (4 mg/kg), propofol (6 mg/kg), or ketamine-diazepam (7 and 0.3 mg/kg) was administered IV in 25% increments to enable intubation. After induction (M0) and at 10, 20, 40, and 60 minutes of a light anesthetic plane maintained with isoflurane, measurements and sample collections were repeated. Cardiorespiratory and acid-base variables were compared with a repeated-measures ANOVA and post hoc t test and between time points with a pairwise Tukey test. RESULTS Mean ± SD intubation doses were 3.8 ± 0.8 mg/kg for tiletamine-zolazepam, 2.8 ± 0.3 mg/kg for alfaxalone, 6.1 ± 0.9 mg/kg and 0.26 ± 0.04 mg/kg for ketamine-diazepam, and 5.4 ± 1.1 mg/kg for propofol. Anesthetic depth was similar among regimens. At M0, heart rate increased by 94.9%, 74.7%, and 54.3% for tiletamine-zolazepam, ketamine-diazepam, and alfaxalone, respectively. Tiletamine-zolazepam caused higher oxygen delivery than propofol. Postinduction apnea occurred in 3 dogs when receiving alfaxalone. Acid-base variables remained within reference limits. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In healthy dogs in which a light plane of anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane, cardiovascular and metabolic effects after induction with tiletamine-zolazepam were comparable to those after induction with alfaxalone and ketamine-diazepam.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Cães/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Animais , Débito Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Diazepam/administração & dosagem , Diazepam/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Infusões Intravenosas/veterinária , Isoflurano/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/farmacologia , Masculino , Pregnanodionas/administração & dosagem , Pregnanodionas/farmacologia , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Propofol/farmacologia , Valores de Referência , Tiletamina/administração & dosagem , Tiletamina/farmacologia , Zolazepam/administração & dosagem , Zolazepam/farmacologia
16.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(1): 48-52, 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429427

RESUMO

Forty rescued common palm civets were anesthetized. Twenty animals received intramuscular injections of alfaxalone 5 mg/kg and medetomidine 0.05 mg/kg (A-M group), whereas twenty animals received 5 mg/kg of tiletamine and zolazepam (T-Z group). The A-M group was reversed with atipamazole 0.25 mg/kg. There were no significant differences in the time from anesthetic injection to induction and intubation between the A-M and T-Z groups. The time from the injection of reversal in the A-M group and the time from cessation of isoflurane in the T-Z group to extubation, first response to recovery and ambulation were longer (P<0.05) in the T-Z group. The T-Z group recorded lower (P<0.05) rectal temperatures compared to the A-M group. This study showed that both drug combinations can be used effectively for the immobilization of civets. The A-M combination provided better anesthetic depth, but with higher incidence of bradycardia and hypoxemia. The recovery time was reduced significantly as atipamezole was used as a reversal agent in the A-M combination.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Combinados , Anestésicos , Medetomidina , Pregnanodionas , Tiletamina , Viverridae , Zolazepam , Anestésicos Combinados/farmacologia , Animais , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Masculino , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Skin Res Technol ; 25(1): 40-46, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When laboratory animals are used one needs to anesthetize them before recording. However, the influence of anesthesia on animal blood flow oscillations has not been studied. The effects of two ways of anesthesia, zoletil-xylazine, and zoletil-nitrous oxide mixtures, on mouse skin perfusion using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) technique were studied. METHODS: BALB/c mice were used. LDF probe was placed on the ventral surface of the left hind paw. Spectral analysis of LDF signals was performed with continuous adaptive wavelet transform to identify and describe peripheral blood flow oscillations in mouse skin. RESULTS: Low-frequency oscillation interval boundaries (myogenic, neurogenic, and endothelial) for mice were shown to coincide with the boundaries determined for human and rats, that demonstrate their independence from the body size. Zoletil-xylazine anesthesia significantly decreased neurogenic and endothelial oscillation amplitudes by 29% and 50% respectively and increased the amplitude of cardiac oscillations by 23% compared to zoletyl-nitrous oxide anesthesia. There were no significant changes of the amplitudes of myogenic and respiratory oscillations with zoletil-nitrous oxide anesthesia compared to the zoletil-xylazine mixture. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the different influence of anesthesia modes on the amplitudes of skin blood flow oscillations is associated with sympathetic activity suppressed by zoletil-xylazine anesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ácido Nitroso/administração & dosagem , Ácido Nitroso/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Tiletamina/administração & dosagem , Tiletamina/farmacologia , Xilazina/administração & dosagem , Xilazina/farmacologia , Zolazepam/administração & dosagem , Zolazepam/farmacologia
18.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0199339, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339670

RESUMO

Laboratory animals are commonly anesthetized to prevent pain and distress and to provide safe handling. Anesthesia procedures are well-developed for common laboratory mammals, but not as well established in reptiles. We assessed the performance of intramuscularly injected tiletamine (dissociative anesthetic) and zolazepam (benzodiazepine sedative) in fixed combination (2 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg) in comparison to 2 mg/kg of midazolam (benzodiazepine sedative) in ball pythons (Python regius). We measured heart and respiratory rates and quantified induction parameters (i.e., time to loss of righting reflex, time to loss of withdrawal reflex) and recovery parameters (i.e., time to regain righting reflex, withdrawal reflex, normal behavior). Mild decreases in heart and respiratory rates (median decrease of <10 beats per minute and <5 breaths per minute) were observed for most time points among all three anesthetic dose groups. No statistically significant difference between the median time to loss of righting reflex was observed among animals of any group (p = 0.783). However, the withdrawal reflex was lost in all snakes receiving 3mg/kg of tiletamine+zolazepam but not in all animals of the other two groups (p = 0.0004). In addition, the time for animals to regain the righting reflex and resume normal behavior was longer in the drug combination dose groups compared to the midazolam group (p = 0.0055). Our results indicate that midazolam is an adequate sedative for ball pythons but does not suffice to achieve reliable immobilization or anesthesia, whereas tiletamine+zolazepam achieves short-term anesthesia in a dose-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Boidae , Imobilização/veterinária , Midazolam/farmacologia , Tiletamina/farmacologia , Zolazepam/farmacologia , Anestésicos Dissociativos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Dissociativos/farmacologia , Animais , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Imobilização/métodos , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiletamina/administração & dosagem , Zolazepam/administração & dosagem
19.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 45(6): 794-801, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the cardiopulmonary characteristics of two different anaesthetic protocols (tiletamine/zolazepam ± medetomidine) and their suitability for the immobilization of healthy chimpanzees undergoing cardiac assessment. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, clinical, longitudinal study. ANIMALS: Six chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) aged 4-16 years weighing 19.5-78.5 kg were anaesthetized on two occasions. METHODS: Anaesthesia was induced with tiletamine/zolazepam (TZ) (3-4 mg kg-1) or tiletamine/zolazepam (2 mg kg-1) and medetomidine (0.02 mg kg-1) (TZM) via blow dart [intramuscular (IM)] and maintained with intermittent boluses of ketamine (IV) or zolazepam/tiletamine (IM) as required. The overall quality of the anaesthesia was quantified based on scores given for: quality of induction, degree of muscle relaxation and ease of intubation. The time to achieve a light plane of anaesthesia, number of supplemental boluses needed and recovery characteristics were also recorded. Chimpanzees were continuously monitored and heart rate (HR), pulse rate (PR), respiratory rate (fR) oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (SpO2), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), rectal temperature, mucous membrane colour and capillary refill time recorded. During the first procedure (TZ) animals underwent a 12-channel electrocardiogram (ECG), haematology, biochemistry and cardiac biomarker assessment to rule out the presence of pre-existing cardiovascular disease. A detailed echocardiographic examination was carried out by the same blinded observer during both procedures. Data were compared using Student's paired t-test or Wilcoxon rank tests as appropriate. RESULTS: There was a significant difference for the area under the curves between anaesthetic protocols for HR, SAP, MAP and fR. No significant differences in the echocardiographic measurements were evident. Quality of anaesthesia was significantly better with TZM and no additional boluses were required. The TZ protocol required multiple supplemental boluses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Both combinations are suitable for immobilization and cardiovascular evaluation of healthy chimpanzees. Further work is required to evaluate the effect of medetomidine in cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Anestésicos/farmacologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiletamina/farmacologia , Zolazepam/farmacologia , Anestésicos Combinados/farmacologia , Animais , Protocolos Clínicos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pan troglodytes , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200833, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024923

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to compare the cardiorespiratory effects of the two combinations (medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam (MTZ) or dexmedetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam (DTZ)) used for Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) immobilization. A retrospective analysis was carried out, reviewing the anesthetic records of captive bears. Sixty-six records were reviewed. The bears were immobilized, and general anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane vaporized in 100% oxygen. The mean sedation time and score were evaluated. The cardiorespiratory parameters were recorded every 10 minutes from intubation until extubation. Mean sedation time was 26.1 ± 14.5 minutes for the MTZ group and 25.6 ± 19.4 minutes for the DTZ group. The heart rate and the respiratory rate were higher in the bears immobilized with DTZ (66 ± 19 beats/min; 13 ± 5.2 breaths/min) as compared with the bears immobilized with MTZ (57 ± 14.5 beats/min; 10 ± 4.7 breaths/min) whereas the mean arterial pressure did not differ significantly between the groups. The body temperature was in the normal range throughout the procedures in all bears (MTZ 36.3 ± 0.9°C; DTZ 37 ± 1°C). In conclusion, the two protocols used in this study have been proven to be safe and reliable for the immobilization of Asiatic black bears, and the DTZ combination seemed to be associated with less cardiorespiratory depression than the MTZ one.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/métodos , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Tiletamina/farmacologia , Zolazepam/farmacologia , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Ursidae
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