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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13641, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948615

RESUMO

Mycoses are a global problem that affects humans and animals. In the present study, the entomopathogenic soil fungus Conidiobolus coronatus (Entomophthorales), infecting in tropics also humans, sheep and horses, was cultivated with the addition of insect cuticular compounds (CCs) previously detected in the cuticle of C. coronatus-resistant fly species (C10-C30 fatty alcohols, butyl oleate, butyl stearate, glycerol oleate, squalene, tocopherol acetate). Our findings indicate that CCs have diversified and complex effects on the growth and sporulation of C. coronatus and its ability to infect the larvae of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera). The CCs affected protein content and cuticle-degrading enzymes (CDEs) activity in the conidia. Some CCs inhibited fungal growth (0.1% C10), decreased sporulation (C12, C16, C24, C28, C30, butyl stearate, squalene), virulence (C12, C14, butyl oleate, butyl stearate) and protein content (C18). They also reduced conidial CDE activity: elastase (C24, butyl oleate, butyl stearate, squalene, tocopherol acetate), chitobiosidase (C12, C14, C20) and lipase (C12, C18, C26, squalene, tocopherol acetate). Several CCs enhanced sporulation (C14, C18, C22, C26, C30), virulence (C18, C26, squalene), conidial protein content (C16, C24, C30, squalene) and CDE activity: elastase (C10, C16, C18), NAGase (C16, C20), chitobiosidase (C16) and lipase (C10, C14, C16, C20, butyl oleate). Our findings indicate that C. coronatus colonies grown on media supplemented with CCs employ various compensation strategies: colonies grown with C16 alcohol demonstrated reduced sporulation but greater conidial protein accumulation and increased elastase, NAGase, chitobiosidase and lipase activity, thus preserving high virulence. Also, colonies supplemented with C18 alcohol demonstrated high virulence and enhanced sporulation and elastase activity but slightly decreased conidial protein content. CCs that inhibit the activity of lipases and proteases show promise in the fight against conidiobolomycosis.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Zigomicose , Acetilglucosaminidase/metabolismo , Animais , Conidiobolus , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Cavalos , Humanos , Insetos/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/farmacologia , Elastase Pancreática/metabolismo , Ovinos , Esporos Fúngicos/metabolismo , Esqualeno/metabolismo , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo
2.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 427, 2022 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35854289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis is an unusual fungal infection caused by Basidiobolus ranarum, an environmental saprophyte found worldwide. Typically, basidiobolomycosis presents as a subcutaneous infection or soft tissue tumor-like lesion, and rarely involves the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis is most common in young infants. It has no definitive clinical presentation, and almost all cases are misdiagnosed during the initial presentation. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 4-year-old Saudi boy who presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Ultrasonography revealed a target sign. Based on the ultrasonography findings, surgery was performed, which revealed the presence of intussusception. Eventually, the patient was diagnosed with intussusception secondary to intra-abdominal basidiobolomycosis based on the histological findings. The patient was readmitted and intravenous voriconazole therapy was initiated. One week after the second admission, the patient developed abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, inability to hold down food, and constipation. Computed tomography of the abdomen was suggestive of small bowel obstruction, which was managed conservatively. The patient responded well and was subsequently discharged with a prescription of oral voriconazole. CONCLUSIONS: This case reveals that gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis can cause intussusception. This report will inform clinicians of the importance of considering gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis in the differential diagnosis of chronic abdominal pain in children, even in the absence of fever or a clinically obvious abdominal mass, especially in countries such as Saudi Arabia, where cases have been reported.


Assuntos
Intussuscepção , Dor Abdominal , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Intussuscepção/diagnóstico por imagem , Intussuscepção/etiologia , Masculino , Náusea/tratamento farmacológico , Vômito , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico , Zigomicose
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329103

RESUMO

This is a case report of Basidiobolomycosis in a 65-year-old male patient from Jizan presenting with colonic perforation and concomitant liver involvement from February 2021 to July 2021. To control the infection, the patient underwent colonic resection and segmental liver resection, as well as three antifungal drugs. The treatment was successful, and the condition was completely resolved.


Assuntos
Entomophthorales , Perfuração Intestinal , Zigomicose , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Perfuração Intestinal/cirurgia , Masculino , Zigomicose/diagnóstico , Zigomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Zigomicose/cirurgia
5.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 39(1): 149-150, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935187

RESUMO

Conidiobolomycosis caused by Conidiobolus species is an uncommon infection restricted to tropical and subtropical regions, usually affecting immunocompetent individuals. More than half of pediatric cases of conidiobolomycosis across the globe are from India. We report a case of subcutaneous conidiobolomycosis in an adolescent with development delay who responded to combined therapy with itraconazole and saturated solution of potassium iodide.


Assuntos
Conidiobolus , Zigomicose , Adolescente , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Humanos , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Zigomicose/diagnóstico , Zigomicose/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Repert. med. cir ; 31(Suplemento): 67-73, 2022. ilus., tab.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1380896

RESUMO

Introducción: la mucormicosis es una infección micótica poco frecuente, también conocida como zigomicosis o phycomycosis, de baja prevalencia, pero con alta mortalidad, por lo regular ocasionada por estados de inmunosupresión como los que ocurren después de infecciones por COVID-19, teniendo esta asociación patológica una alta tasa de mortalidad y secuelas en la salud de los que la padecen. Presentación de los casos: son dos casos de mucormicosis rinocerebral asociados con COVID-19 y se describen el manejo y los desenlaces.


Introduction:mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection, also known as zygomycosis or phycomycosis. It features low prevalence and high mortality rate. It usually affects patients with altered immunity precipitated by COVID-19 infection. This co-infection is associated with high mortality rate and sequelae in affected patients. Case report: we present two cases of rhino-cerebral mucormycosis co-infection in COVID-19 patients, the provided treatment, and outcomes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19 , Mucormicose , Zigomicose
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 522-523, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091002
10.
Mycoses ; 64(8): 882-889, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conidiobolomycosis is a rare tropical rhinofacial fungal infection which has not been well characterised. The available evidence in its management is sparse due to lack of clinical studies and the limited data on antifungal susceptibility patterns. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical manifestations, antifungal treatment and outcomes of patients with conidiobolomycosis and to determine antifungal susceptibility profiles of the isolates. PATIENTS/METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data of all patients with a diagnosis of conidiobolomycosis confirmed by histopathology and culture at a tertiary care hospital from 2012 to 2019 was done. RESULTS: There were 22 patients, 21 males and one female, with a mean age of 37.1 years. Most common presenting symptom was nasal obstruction, found in 20 (90.90%) patients. Patients who presented within 12 months had a better cure rate (85%) compared to those who presented late (67%). Among the 19 patients who had a follow-up, good outcome was seen in 15 of the 17 (88.24%) patients who were on itraconazole or potassium iodide containing regimen. Of the six patients who received additional trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole), 67% showed good outcome with two patients showing complete cure and two patients still on treatment with significant improvement. High minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were noted for azoles and amphotericin B, whereas co-trimoxazole showed lowest MIC ranges. CONCLUSION: Itraconazole and potassium iodide are reasonable first-line options for the treatment of conidiobolomycosis. Good clinical response to KI and comparatively lower MIC of co-trimoxazole are promising. Further studies are required for developing clinical breakpoints that can predict therapeutic outcomes.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Conidiobolus/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Raras/microbiologia , Zigomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Zigomicose/microbiologia , Adulto , Gerenciamento Clínico , Face/microbiologia , Face/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Nasais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Nasais/microbiologia , Doenças Raras/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 39(4): 558-560, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892974

RESUMO

Conidiobolomycosis is a neglected tropical fungal infection involving the head and neck region. Here we report the first case of atypical conidiobolomycosis presenting with dysphagia and significant weight loss from Odisha, India. It was diagnosed by histopathology and fungal culture and was suscessfully treated with saturated solution of potassium iodide.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Zigomicose , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Conidiobolus , Transtornos de Deglutição/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Humanos , Índia , Zigomicose/diagnóstico , Zigomicose/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Mycoses ; 64(6): 668-677, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are sparse data on the role of flexible bronchoscopy (FB) in diagnosing invasive mould infections (IMIs). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the safety and usefulness of FB in IMI. We evaluate the factors associated with a successful diagnosis of IMI using FB. Further, we compare subjects of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) with pulmonary mucormycosis (PM). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features, imaging data, bronchoscopy, microbiology and pathology details of subjects who underwent FB for suspected IMI. We categorised FB as diagnostic if it contributed to the diagnosis of IMI. We performed a multivariate analysis to identify the factors associated with a diagnostic bronchoscopy. RESULTS: Of the 3521 FB performed over 18 months, 132 (3.7%) were done for suspected IMIs. We included 107 subjects for the final analysis. The risk factors for IMI included renal transplantation (29.0%), diabetes (27.1%), haematological malignancy (10.3%) and others. We found bronchoscopic abnormalities in 33 (30.8%) subjects, and these were more frequent in those with confirmed PM (67%) than IPA (27%). IMI was confirmed in 79 (14 proven, 48 probable and 17 possible) subjects. FB was diagnostic in 71%. We experienced major complications in three cases (2.7%), including one death. On multivariate analysis, the visualisation of endobronchial abnormalities during FB (OR [95%, CI], 8.5 [1.4-50.4]) was the only factor associated with a diagnostic FB after adjusting for age and various risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Flexible bronchoscopy is a useful and safe procedure in diagnosing IMIs. The presence of endobronchial abnormalities predicts a successful diagnostic yield on FB.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Broncoscopia/efeitos adversos , Broncoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Mucormicose/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Zigomicose/diagnóstico
13.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(2): 71-72, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527819

RESUMO

Fungi in the class of zygomycetes usually produce serious infections in diabetics and immunocompromised hosts. Cutaneous zygomycosis is a less common form, with an unpredictable extent of anatomical involvement and clinical course1.¹ Here, we report a case of primary cutaneous zygomycosis caused by saksaenea vasiformis as posttraumatic complications in a diabetic female. Zygomycosis was suspected and specimens from the surgical debridement were examined by microbiological and histopathological studies for conforming the clinical diagnosis. Rapid diagnosis, liposomal amphotericin B, and proper debridement of affected tissue are necessary to avoid a fatal outcome.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses , Diabetes Mellitus , Zigomicose , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Fungos , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Zigomicose/diagnóstico
15.
Mycoses ; 64(5): 569-572, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The body of evidence on cutaneous mucormycosis is largely derived from case reports or single-centre databases. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to describe incidence, predisposing factors and inpatient outcomes of cutaneous mucormycosis in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective study using the National Inpatient Sample 2016-17 data. Fifty-six discharges had a diagnosis of cutaneous mucormycosis on the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision. Descriptive analysis was performed for the demographics, predisposing factors, length of stay (LOS), cost and inpatient mortality. The NIS represents 20% of all discharges in the United States, which allowed us to estimate the national incidence of cutaneous mucormycosis. RESULTS: An estimated total of 280 admissions occurred between 2016 and 2017, indicating 3.9 cases per million admissions across the United States. The estimated incidence rate was 0.43 cases per million people per year. Median age was 49.5 (19-59) years, 44.6% were female, and 54.9% were Caucasian. We identified haematologic malignancies (48.2%) and solid organ transplantations (10.7%), often accompanied by skin/soft tissue or post-procedural infections, were the most common predisposing conditions. Median LOS was 15 (6-31) days, median total charges were 187,030 (65,962-446,265) USD, and in-hospital mortality rate was 16.1%. CONCLUSIONS: In current clinical practice, physicians may encounter cutaneous mucormycosis most commonly in severely immunocompromised hosts with haematologic malignancies or transplantations, accompanied by skin/soft tissue or post-procedural infections. A high index of suspicion and prompt tissue sampling in at-risk groups is important to improve the outcomes.


Assuntos
Causalidade , Incidência , Mucormicose/epidemiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Leucemia/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Mucor/isolamento & purificação , Mucor/patogenicidade , Mucormicose/etiologia , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pele/patologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zigomicose/epidemiologia
16.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(4): 365-367, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464011

RESUMO

A neonate of 29 weeks' gestation who received probiotics developed clinical signs suggesting surgical necrotizing enterocolitis. A specimen of resected ileum revealed fungal forms within the bowel wall. Rhizopus oryzae was detected via DNA sequencing from probiotic powder and tissue specimens from the infant. To our knowledge, this is the first report linking gastrointestinal zygomycosis to the administration of contaminated probiotics.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/diagnóstico , Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Zigomicose/diagnóstico , Zigomicose/etiologia , Evolução Fatal , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/microbiologia , Masculino , Rhizopus oryzae/genética , Rhizopus oryzae/patogenicidade
17.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 100(5_suppl): 835S-841S, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204618

RESUMO

Conidiobolomycosis is an uncommon, chronic, localized subcutaneous mycosis primarily affecting rhinofacial region. It is reported mainly from tropical and subtropical countries. The condition is underreported due to the lack of clinical suspicion and usually mismanaged. This rare mycosis is due to the genus Conidiobolus within the order Entomophthorales of class Zygomycetes. Here we present 3 cases of rhinofacial conidiobolomycosis in otherwise healthy adults from different parts of Sri Lanka over 1-year period. All patients had disfiguring subcutaneous lesions in the rhinofacial area. The diagnoses were based on isolation of Conidiobolus coronatus in clinical specimens.


Assuntos
Conidiobolus/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Dermatoses Faciais/diagnóstico , Zigomicose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Dermatomicoses/patologia , Dermatoses Faciais/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatoses Faciais/microbiologia , Dermatoses Faciais/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Nariz/microbiologia , Nariz/patologia , Zigomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Zigomicose/microbiologia , Zigomicose/patologia
18.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(3)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734302

RESUMO

Basidiobolomycosis is a fungal infection caused mainly by Basidiobolus ranarum, a filamentous fungus of the order Entomophthorales and the family Basidiobolaceae. This infection typically involves the skin and soft tissue; however, visceral organ involvement has also been reported. Here, we report a case of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis in a young child who presented with acute bloody diarrhea which was initially misdiagnosed as intussusception.


Assuntos
Entomophthorales , Gastroenteropatias , Zigomicose , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/etiologia , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Doenças Raras/tratamento farmacológico , Zigomicose/diagnóstico , Zigomicose/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986644

RESUMO

Man in his 80s. In March 20XX, the level of consciousness decreased at the admission facility, and he was transported as an emergency case. He was diagnosed as aspiration pneumonia, septic shock due to cholecystitis, and DIC, and was hospitalized for medical treatment. During the course of hospitalization, aspiration pneumonia continued to improve and worsen, but in January 20XX+3, a fever of 38.7°C occurred, and Mucor circinelloides was detected in the blood culture collected at this time. In sputum 7 days before the blood culture was submitted, an image of suspicious zygomycosis was confirmed by Gram stain, so the patient was diagnosed with Mucor disease and started administration of amphotericin B. After that, the condition was temporarily stable, but due to recurrence of aspiration pneumonia and renal damage, he died 19 days after the start of amphotericin B administration. It is difficult to detect Mucor spp. in blood culture, however in this case, it was detected by the blood culture device; Versa TREK (Thermo Fisher Scientific K.K. Tokyo, Japan).


Assuntos
Mucor , Zigomicose , Anfotericina B , Humanos , Japão , Masculino
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