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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 679, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436717

RESUMO

Fagonia indica (L.) is an important medicinal plant with multitude of therapeutic potentials. Such application has been attributed to the presence of various pharmacological important phytochemicals. However, the inadequate biosynthesis of such metabolites in intact plants has hampered scalable production. Thus, herein, we have established an in vitro based elicitation strategy to enhance such metabolites in callus culture of F. indica. Cultures were exposed to various doses of UV radiation (UV-C) and grown in different photoperiod regimes and their impact was evaluated on biomass accumulation, biosynthesis of phytochemicals along antioxidant expression. Cultures grown under photoperiod (16L/8D h) after exposure to UV-C (5.4 kJ/m2) accumulated optimal biomass (438.3 g/L FW; 16.4 g/L DW), phenolics contents (TPC: 11.8 µgGAE/mg) and flavonoids contents (TFC: 4.05 µgQE/mg). Similarly, HPLC quantification revealed that total production (6.967 µg/mg DW) of phytochemicals wherein kaempferol (1.377 µg/mg DW), apigenin (1.057 µg/mg DW), myricetin (1.022 µg/mg DW) and isorhamnetin (1.022 µg/mg DW) were recorded highly accumulated compounds in cultures at UV-C (5.4 kJ/m2) dose than other UV-C radiations and light regimes.. The antioxidants activities examined as DPPH (92.8%), FRAP (182.3 µM TEAC) and ABTS (489.1 µM TEAC) were also recorded highly expressed by cultures under photoperiod after treatment with UV-C dose 5.4 kJ/m2. Moreover, same cultures also expressed maximum % inhibition towards phospholipase A2 (sPLA2: 35.8%), lipoxygenase (15-LOX: 43.3%) and cyclooxygenases (COX-1: 55.3% and COX-2: 39.9%) with 1.0-, 1.3-, 1.3- and 2.8-fold increased levels as compared with control, respectively. Hence, findings suggest that light and UV can synergistically improve the metabolism of F. indica and could be used to produce such valuable metabolites on commercial scale.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Luz , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta , Zygophyllaceae/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/efeitos da radiação , Técnicas In Vitro , Compostos Fitoquímicos/efeitos da radiação , Células Vegetais/efeitos da radiação , Zygophyllaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zygophyllaceae/efeitos da radiação
2.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(12): 1985-1990, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397172

RESUMO

The chromatographic reinvestigation the methanol extract of Tetraena aegyptia led to the separation of a new flavonoid glycoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-[2```,3```-O-isopropylidene-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-(1```→6``)-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (1), together with two known flavonoids, isorhamnetin (2) and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (3), isolated for the first time from the plant. The new compound was evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activity by using LPS-induce RAW 264.7 cells model. Compound 1 showed significant inhibitory effect on NO release. ELISA assay showed a pronounced effect of 1 on the secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent results were obtained by qRT-PCR which revealed that compound 1 markedly reduced the mRNA expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. Together these data, we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory activity of compound 1.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Zygophyllaceae/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Flavonóis/isolamento & purificação , Flavonóis/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/isolamento & purificação , Quercetina/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
3.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 1215395, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082906

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles are among the most significant diagnostic and therapeutic agents in the field of nanomedicines. In the current study, the green chemistry approach was made to optimize a cost-effective synthesis protocol for silver nanoparticles from the aqueous extract of the important anticancer plant Fagonia indica. We investigated the anticancer potential and possible involvement of AgNPs in apoptosis. The biosynthesized AgNPs are stable (zeta potential, -16.3 mV) and spherical with a crystal size range from 10 to 60 nm. The MTT cell viability assay shows concentration-dependent inhibition of the growth of Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells (IC50, 12.35 µg/mL). In addition, the fluorescent microscopic analysis shows activation of caspases 3 and 9 by AgNPs that cause morphological changes (AO/EB assay) in the cell membrane and cause nuclear condensation (DAPI assay) that eventually lead to apoptotic cell death (Annexin V/PI assay). It was also observed that AgNPs generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that modulate oxidative stress in MCF-7 cells. This is the first study that reports the synthesis of a silver nanoparticle mediated by Fagonia indica extract and evaluation of the cellular and molecular mechanism of apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Prata/química , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Química Verde , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Zygophyllaceae/química , Zygophyllaceae/metabolismo
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17070, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051495

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is the second most toxic metal on Earth and is toxic to humans and other living things. In plants, Pb commonly inhibits growth when it is at a concentration in the soil of 30 mg/kg or more but several Pb tolerant plants have been reported. However, few studies have focused on plant response to Pb exposure, particularly at concentrations higher than 30 mg/kg. The assessment and evaluation of metal dose-dependent plant responses will assist in future phytoremediation studies. Therefore, this work documents the Pb concentration-dependent antioxidative response in Tetraena qataranse. Young seedlings were irrigated with 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/L Pb every 48 h for seven weeks under greenhouse conditions. A phytotoxicity test showed that at the lowest treatment concentration, Pb stimulates growth. However, at 100 mg/L (1600 mg/kg Pb in the growth medium at harvest), the metal disrupted healthy growth in T. qataranse, particularly root development. Metal accumulation in the root was higher (up to 2784 mg/kg) than that of the shoot (1141.6 mg/kg). Activity assays of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR) showed a progressive increase in enzymatic activities due to Pb treatment. Together, the results of this study suggest that T. qataranse is a Pb hyperaccumulator. Increased antioxidant enzyme activity was essential to maintaining cellular homeostasis and assisted in the arid plant's tolerance to Pb stress.


Assuntos
Chumbo/farmacocinética , Chumbo/toxicidade , Zygophyllaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Zygophyllaceae/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Bioacumulação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Humanos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Catar , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Zygophyllaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 391, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studying population genetic structure and gene flow of plant populations and their influencing factors is of particular significance in the field of conservation biology, especially important for species such as rare and endangered plants. Tetraena mongolica Maxim. (TM), belongs to Zygophyllaceae family, a rare and endangered plant with narrow distribution. However, for the last decade, due to excessive logging, urban expansion, industrial and tourism development, habitat fragmentation and loss of natural habitats have become major threats to the population of endangered plants. RESULTS: In this study, genetic diversity, population genetic structure and gene flow of TM populations were evaluated by reduced representation sequencing technology, and a total of more than 133.45 GB high-quality clean reads and 38,097 high-quality SNPs were generated. Analysis based on multiple methods, we found that the existing TM populations have moderate levels of genetic diversity, and very low genetic differentiation as well as high levels of gene flow between populations. Population structure and principal coordinates analysis showed that 8 TM populations can be divided into two groups. The Mantel test detected no significant correlation between geographical distances and genetic distance for the whole sampling. Moreover, the migration model indicated that the gene flow is more of a north to south migration pattern in history. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the present genetic structure is mainly due to habitat fragmentation caused by urban sprawl, industrial development and coal mining. Our recommendation with respect to conservation management is that, all 8 populations should be preserved as a whole population, rather than just those in the core area of TM nature reserve. In particular, the populations near the edge of TM distribution in cities and industrial areas deserve our special protection.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico , Genética Populacional , Zygophyllaceae/genética , China , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Estruturas Genéticas , Variação Genética , Filogeografia
6.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 474(1-2): 159-169, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734538

RESUMO

Plants are major source for discovery and development of anticancer drugs. Several plant-based anticancer drugs are currently in clinical use. Fagonia indica is a plant of medicinal value in the South Asian countries. Using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, several compounds were purified from the F. indica extract. We have used one of the purified compounds quinovic acid (QA) and found that QA strongly suppressed the growth and viability of human breast and lung cancer cells. QA did not inhibit growth and viability of non-tumorigenic breast cells. QA mediated its anticancer effects by inducing cell death. QA-induced cell death was associated with biochemical features of apoptosis such as activation of caspases 3 and 8 as well as PARP cleavage. QA also upregulated mRNA and protein levels of death receptor 5 (DR5). Further investigation revealed that QA did not alter DR5 gene promoter activity, but enhanced DR5 mRNA and protein stabilities. DR5 is one of the major components of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Accordingly, Apo2L/TRAIL, the DR5 ligand, potentiated the anticancer effects of QA. Our results indicate that QA mediates its anticancer effects, at least in part, by engaging DR5-depentent pathway to induce apoptosis. Based on our results, we propose that QA in combination with Apo2L/TRAIL can be further investigated as a novel therapeutic approach for breast and lung cancers.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Zygophyllaceae/química , Apoptose , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
7.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 166: 104551, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448415

RESUMO

Tetraena mongolica Maxim is a species of Zygophyllaceae endemic to China. Because few insect pests affect its growth and flowering, we speculated that this plant produces defensive chemicals that are insect repellents or antifeedants. The effects of different fractions from crude stem and leaf extracts on Pieris rapae were examined. The results confirmed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction from the stems had insecticidal potential. Five compounds were isolated from the EtOAc fraction: a volatile oil [bis(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate (1)], three triterpenoids 2E-3ß-(3,4-dihydroxycinnamoyl)-erythrodiol (2), 2Z-3ß-(3,4-dihydroxycinnamoyl)-erythrodiol (3), and 2E-3ß-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate (4)], and one steroid [ß-sitosterol (5)]. Compounds 1-5 exhibited different degrees of insecticidal activity, including antifeedant and growth-inhibition effects. Compounds 1-5 inhibited the activity of carboxylesterase (CarE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to different degrees. Compound 1 had the strongest antifeedant and growth-inhibition effects, and significantly inhibited the activity of CarE and AChE. Our results indicate that compounds 1-4 are the major bioactive insecticidal constituents of Tetraena mongolica. This work should facilitate the development and application of plant-derived botanical pesticides.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Óleos Voláteis , Triterpenos , Zygophyllaceae , China
8.
Phytochemistry ; 174: 112342, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172018

RESUMO

Three undescribed lupane-type triterpenoids (1-3), three undescribed oleanane-type triterpenoids (4-6), and ten known pentacyclic triterpenoids (7-16) were isolated from the seeds of Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae). Their structures were elucidated using various spectroscopic methods (IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR). All the triterpenoids were screened for anti-proliferative activity against HeLa, HepG2, and SGC-7901 cells using the MTT method. Except compounds 1, 2, and 13, all the other triterpenoids exhibited potent cytotoxic activities against tumour cells. Compounds 3, 6, and 15 inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner, as observed by the colony formation assay. When HeLa cells were treated with different doses of compounds 3, 6, and 15, the cell nuclei changed shape to a crescent form and were condensed and fragmented, as observed by Hoechst 33258 staining. Additionally, these three triterpenoids induced the apoptosis in HeLa cells, which was detected by Western blot analysis.


Assuntos
Peganum , Triterpenos , Zygophyllaceae , Células HeLa , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais , Sementes
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(3)2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197402

RESUMO

Tetraena mongolica is a xerophytic shrub endemic to desert regions in Inner Mongolia. This species has evolved distinct survival strategies that allow it to adapt to hyper-drought and heterogeneous habitats. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) may provide a molecular basis in plants for fast adaptation to environmental change. Thus, identifying SSRs and their possible effects on gene behavior has the potential to provide valuable information for studies of adaptation. In this study, we sequenced six individual transcriptomes of T. mongolica from heterogeneous habitats, focused on SSRs located in genes, and identified 811 polymorphic SSRs. Of the identified SSRs, 172, 470, and 76 were located in 5' UTRs, CDSs, and 3' UTRs in 591 transcripts; and AG/CT, AAC/GTT, and AT/AT were the most abundant repeats in each gene region. Functional annotation showed that many of the identified polymorphic SSRs were in genes that were enriched in several GO terms and KEGG pathways, suggesting the functional significance of these genes in the environmental adaptation process. The identification of polymorphic genic SSRs in our study lays a foundation for future studies investigating the contribution of SSRs to regulation of genes in natural populations of T. mongolica and their importance for adaptive evolution of this species.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Repetições de Microssatélites , Transcriptoma , Zygophyllaceae/genética , Ecossistema , Evolução Molecular , Polimorfismo Genético
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 3049-3054, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602852

RESUMO

The contents of terrestrosin D and hecogenin from Tribuli Fructus were determined before and after stir-frying. The results showed that the content of terrestrosin D was decreased significantly,and the content of hecogenin was increased significantly after such processing. In order to verify the inference that terrestrosin D was converted to hecogenin by stir-frying,the quantitative variation rules of terrestrosin D and hecogenin were studied by simulated processing technology,and the simulated processing product of terrestrosin D was qualitatively characterized by ultra performance liquid chromatography/time of flight mass spectrometry( UPLC-TOF/MS) to clarify its transformation process during stir-frying. The results showed that the content of terrestrosin D was decreased significantly at first and then a platform stage appeared with the prolongation of processing time at a certain temperature. Raising the stir-frying temperature could further decrease the content of terrestrosin D and delay the time that the platform stage appeared. When the processing was simulated at higher temperatures( 220 ℃ and 240 ℃),the content of hecogenin was increased gradually with the increase of processing temperature and the prolongation of processing time. In the process of stir-frying,the deglycosylation reaction of terrestrosin D to hecogenin was not completed in one step. The deglycosylation reaction occurred first at the end of the sugar chain,and then other glycosyl units in the sugar chain were sequentially removed from the outside to the inside to finally form the hecogenin. This study provides a basis for further revealing the detoxification mechanism of stir-fried Tribuli Fructus.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Sapogeninas/análise , Zygophyllaceae/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Temperatura Alta , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
J Nat Prod ; 82(10): 2707-2712, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593459

RESUMO

Tetraena mongolica Maxim, a relict originating from the Tertiary Period, is an endemic species of Zygophyllaceae in China. Three new monoterpenoids (1-3), two new phenols (4, 5) with unusual O-sulfoglucosyl groups, a new flavonoid (6), and nine known compounds were isolated from the leaves of T. mongolica. The structures of these compounds were determined by interpretation of NMR, MS, and ECD data. Some of the isolated compounds showed protective effects on HEK 293t cells damaged by CdCl2, with IC50 values being 55.7 and 80.3 µM for compounds 7 and 8, respectively, at the time point of 48 h after treatment.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Citoproteção , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Zygophyllaceae/química , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
12.
Plant Reprod ; 32(4): 381-390, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637522

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We found a correlation between large pollens and selfing and between psilate pollen walls and cleistogamy. Flowering plants display extraordinary diversity in pollen morphology, yet the functional significance of this variation is not well understood. Zygophylloideae is a lineage characterized by high diversity of breeding systems, ranging from obligate selfing to facultative selfing and further to facultative outcrossing. This group is particularly suitable for testing hypotheses about the influence of breeding system on pollen morphology. We studied pollen morphology in 20 species of Zygophylloideae and one species of Tribuloideae as an outgroup. A phylogeny of Zygophylloideae was created based on available DNA sequences and used to trace the evolution of pollen characters. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of correlated evolution between breeding system and several pollen characters. Three types of pollen morphology were found in the studied species. Tricolporate pollen with a small apocolpium, microreticulate ornamentation and medium size was determined as the ancestral state in Zygophylloideae. The correlation analysis indicated an association between large pollens and selfing and between psilate pollen wall and cleistogamy. We hypothesize that large size of pollen in selfing species is mainly associated with the low number of produced pollen indicating a trade-off between pollen size and number. The independence from pollen vector in cleistogamous flowers accounts for the evolution of smooth pollen walls in these species.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Pólen/citologia , Zygophyllaceae/citologia , Flores , Filogenia , Reprodução , Zygophyllaceae/genética
13.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653071

RESUMO

Fatty acids (FAs) are basic components in plants. The pharmacological significance of FAs has attracted attentions of nutritionists and pharmaceutists. Sensitive and accurate detection of FAs is of great importance. In the present study, a pre-column derivatization and online mass spectrometry-based qualitative and quantitative analysis of FAs was developed. Nineteen main FAs were derivatized by 2-(7-methyl-1H-pyrazolo-[3,4-b]quinoline-1-yl)ethyl-4-methyl benzenesulfonate (NMP) and separated on reversed-phase Hypersil BDS C8 column with gradient elution. All FAs showed excellent linear responses with correlation coefficients more than 0.9996. The method obtained LOQs between 0.93 ng/mL and 5.64 ng/mL. FA derivatives were identified by both retention time and protonated molecular ion corresponding to m/z [M + H]+. A comparative study based on FA contents in peel and pulp, seeds and leaves of Nitraria tangutourum Bobr (NTB) from different geographical origins was performed with the established method. Results indicated that NTB were rich in FAs, and the types and contents of FAs varied among tissues. On the other hand, the same tissue of NTB from different geographical areas differed in the content, but not in type, of FAs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Folhas de Planta/química , Sementes/química , Zygophyllaceae/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Zygophyllaceae/metabolismo
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 242: 112038, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247238

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fagonia olivieri (Zygophyllaceae) is used in Pakistan for management of diabetes and for treatment of stress related disorders of liver and kidneys. The objective of present study was to evaluate antidiabetic activity of F. olivieri using streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rat model. METHODS: Powder of the whole plant of F. olivieri was extracted with methanol (FOME) and the residue was fractionated with n-hexane (FOHE), chloroform (FOCE), ethyl acetate (FOCE), n-butanol (FOBE) and the remaining soluble aqueous fraction (FOAE). The extract/fractions were evaluated for in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase and for the antidiabetic studies in Sprague-Dawley rats. FOAE was evaluated in 21 day chronic multiple dose study. Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg) and FOAE were used at a concentration of 200 mg/kg (164.8 µg of catechin) and 400 mg/kg (329.6 µg of catechin) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Various serum parameters, blood cell parameters and oxidative stress induced parameters of the liver and kidneys were investigated. RESULTS: Results showed that aqueous fraction of F. olivieri (FOAE) potentially inhibited activity of pancreatic α-amylase, intestinal maltase and sucrase. Administration of FOAE (200 mg/kg; 400 mg/kg) to diabetic rats for 21 days increased body weight, hemoglobin and its indices, RBCs, platelets, lymphocytes and neutrophils against diabetic group. In serum level of glucose, transaminases, ALP, LDH, total bilirubin, creatinine and lipids decreased while insulin, total protein and albumin increased in contrast to diabetic group. Further, level of cytokines; TGF-ß1, TNF-α and IL-6 in serum and altered level of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione and lipid peroxides of liver and kidney tissues restored towards control animals. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that FOAE inhibited activity of digestive enzymes and exhibited antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antihyperglycemic activity in STZ-nicotinamide prompted diabetic rats and suggested that FOAE might be used as a therapeutic agent for the management of type-2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Zygophyllaceae , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citocinas/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5658, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948781

RESUMO

Heavy metals constitute some of the most significant environmental contaminants today. The abundance of naturally growing Tetraena qataranse around Ras Laffan oil and gas facilities in the state of Qatar reflects its toxitolerant character. This study examined the desert plant's tolerance to Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb relative to soil concentration. Analysis by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) showed that the plant biomass accumulates higher Cd, Cr, Cu and Ni concentration than the soil, particularly in the root. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of all metals in the root and shoot indicates the plant's capacity to accumulate these metals. Cd had a translocation factor (TF) greater than one; however, it is less than one for all other metals, suggesting that the plant remediate Cd by phytoextraction, where it accumulates in the shoot and Cr, Cu and Ni through phytostabilization, concentrating the metals in the root. Metals phytostabilization restrict transport, shield animals from toxic species ingestion, and consequently prevent transmission across the food chain. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis further corroborates ICP-OES quantitative data. Our results suggest that T. qataranse is tolerant of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni. Potentially, these metals can accumulate at higher concentration than shown here; hence, T. qataranse is a suitable candidate for toxic metals phytostabilization.


Assuntos
Zygophyllaceae/química , Zygophyllaceae/metabolismo , Bioacumulação/fisiologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cromo/análise , Cromo/metabolismo , Cobre/análise , Cobre/metabolismo , Magnoliopsida/genética , Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Níquel/análise , Níquel/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/química , Plantas , Catar , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zygophyllaceae/genética
16.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 190: 163-171, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482427

RESUMO

Fagonia indica is one of the commercially vital medicinal plant species. It is well-known for biosynthesis of anticancer phenolics and flavonoids metabolites. The plant has been exploited for in vitro studies and production of vital phytochemicals, however, the synergistic effects of melatonin and lights remains to be investigated. In current study, we have evaluated the synergistic effects of melatonin and different light emitting diodes (LEDs) in callus cultures of F. indica. Both, light and melatonin play vital role in physiological and biochemical processes of plant cell. The highest Fresh weight (FW: 320 g/L) and Dry weight (DW: 20 g/L) was recorded in cultures under white LEDs. Optimum total phenolics content (11.3 µg GAE/mg), total flavonoids content (4.02 µg QAE/mg) and Free radical scavenging activity (97%) was found in cultures grown under white LED and melatonin. Furthermore, cultures maintained under white light were also found with highest levels of phenolic and flavonoids production (total phenolic production; 226.9 µg GAE/mg, Total flavonoid production; 81 µg QAE/mg) than other LED-grown cultures. However, the antioxidant enzymes; Superoxide dismutase (SOD: 0.53 nM/min/mg FW) and Peroxidase (POD:1.18 nM/min/mg FW) were found optimum in cultures grown under blue LED. The HPLC data showed that enhanced total production of metabolites was recorded in cultures under white LED (6.765 µg/mg DW) than other lights and control. The findings of this study comprehend the role of melatonin and influence of light quality on biomass accumulation and production of phytochemicals in callus cultures of F. indica.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Luz , Melatonina/farmacologia , Zygophyllaceae/citologia , Biomassa , Células Cultivadas , Flavonoides/análise , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos
17.
Molecules ; 23(12)2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551590

RESUMO

Bulnesia sarmientoi (BS) has long been used as an analgesic, wound-healing and anti-inflammatory medicinal plant. The aqueous extract of its bark has been demonstrated to have anti-cancer activity. This study investigated the anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effects of BS supercritical fluid extract (BSE) on the A549 and H661 lung cancer cell lines. The cytotoxicity on cancer cells was assessed by an MTT assay. After 72 h treatment of A549 and H661 cells, the IC50 values were 18.1 and 24.7 µg/mL, respectively. The cytotoxicity on MRC-5 normal cells was relatively lower (IC50 = 61.1 µg/mL). BSE arrested lung cancer cells at the S and G2/M growth phase. Necrosis of A549 and H661 cells was detected by flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Moreover, the cytotoxic effect of BSE on cancer cells was significantly reverted by Nec-1 pretreatment, and BSE induced TNF-α and RIP-1 expression in the absence of caspase-8 activity. These evidences further support that BSE exhibited necroptotic effects on lung cancer cells. By wound healing and Boyden chamber assays, the inhibitory effects of BSE on the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells were elucidated. Furthermore, the chemical composition of BSE was examined by gas chromatography-mass analysis where ten constituents of BSE were identified. α-Guaiene, (-)-guaiol and ß-caryophyllene are responsible for most of the cytotoxic activity of BSE against these two cancer cell lines. Since BSE possesses significant cytotoxicity and anti-metastatic activity on A549 and H661 cells, it may serve as a potential target for the treatment of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Zygophyllaceae/química , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Humanos , Necrose , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
BMC Evol Biol ; 18(1): 166, 2018 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drylands cover nearly 41% of Earth's land surface and face a high risk of degradation worldwide. However, the actual timeframe during which dryland floras rose on a global scale remains unknown. Zygophyllaceae, an important characteristic component of dryland floras worldwide, offers an ideal model group to investigate the diversification of dryland floras. Here, we used an integration of the phylogenetic, molecular dating, biogeographic, and diversification methods to investigate the timing and patterns of lineage accumulation for Zygophyllaceae overall and regionally. We then incorporated the data from other dominant components of dryland floras in different continents to investigate the historical construction of dryland floras on a global scale. RESULTS: We provide the most comprehensive phylogenetic tree for Zygophyllaceae so far based on four plastid and nuclear markers. Detailed analyses indicate that Zygophyllaceae colonized Africa, Asia, Australia, and the New World at different periods, sometimes multiple times, but Zygophyllaceae lineages in the four regions all experienced a rapid accumulation beginning at the mid-late Miocene (~ 15-10 Ma). Other eleven essential elements of dryland floras become differentiated at the same time. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the rise of global dryland floras is near-synchronous and began at the mid-late Miocene, possibly resulting from the mid-Miocene global cooling and regional orogenetic and climate changes. The mid-late Miocene is an essential period for the assembly and evolution of global dryland floras.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Internacionalidade , Zygophyllaceae/classificação , África , Ásia , Austrália , Geografia , Filogenia , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Proc Biol Sci ; 285(1890)2018 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381380

RESUMO

The integrated contributions of climate and macroevolutionary processes to global patterns of species diversity are still controversial in spite of a long history of studies. The niche conservatism hypothesis and the net diversification rate hypothesis have gained wide attention in recent literature. Many studies have tested these two hypotheses for woody species in humid forests; however, the determinants of species diversity patterns for arid-adapted plants remain largely ignored. Here, using a molecular phylogeny and the global distributions of Zygophyllaceae, a typical arid-adapted plant family, we assessed the effects of contemporary climate and net diversification rates on species diversity patterns in drylands. We found the variables representing water availability to be the best predictors for Zygophyllaceae diversity. Specifically, Zygophyllaceae species diversity significantly decreased with the increase in water availability, probably owing to phylogenetic conservatism of water-related niches. The net diversification rates of Zygophyllaceae accelerated sharply in the recent 10 Myr, coinciding roughly with the period of global aridification. The species diversity of Zygophyllaceae significantly increased with the increase in mean net diversification rates per geographical unit, especially in the Old World, supporting the net diversification rate hypothesis. Our study provides a case exploring climatic and evolutionary mechanisms of dryland species diversity patterns, and suggests that the conservatism in water-related niches and elevated net diversification rates in drylands may have jointly determined the global patterns of dryland species diversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Clima , Ecossistema , Zygophyllaceae/classificação , Zygophyllaceae/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Filogenia , Dispersão Vegetal
20.
J Immunol Res ; 2018: 7967135, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057922

RESUMO

Fagonia indica is a traditionally used phytomedicine to cure hepatic ailments. However, efficient validation of its hepatoprotective effect and molecular mechanisms involved are not yet well established. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Fagonia indica and to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the reversal of hepatic injury. The liver injury mouse model was established by thioacetamide followed by oral administration of plant extract. Serum biochemical and histological analyses were performed to assess the level of hepatic injury. Expression analysis of proinflammatory, hepatic, and immune regulatory genes was performed with RT-PCR. Results of serological and histological analyses described the restoration of normal liver function and architecture in mice treated with plant extract. In addition, altered expression of proinflammatory (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-ß) and hepatic (krt-18 and albumin) markers further strengthens the liver injury reversal effects of Fagonia indica. Furthermore, a significant expression regulation of innate immunity components such as toll-like receptors 4 and 9 and MyD-88 was observed suggesting an immune regulatory role of the plant in curing liver injury. In conclusion, the current study not only proposes Fagonia indica, a strong hepatoprotective candidate, but also recommends an immune regulatory toll-like receptor pathway as an important therapeutic target in liver diseases.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Queratina-18/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Transdução de Sinais , Tioacetamida , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo , Zygophyllaceae/imunologia
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