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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946837

RESUMO

This paper aims to measure disparities among the variables associated with Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 defined by the United Nations (UN) in the least developed countries (LDCs) of Asia. In the terms of the UN Conference on Trade and Development, LDCs are countries with profound economic and social inequalities. The indicator was constructed using a set of variables associated with SDG3: Good Health and Wellbeing. Applying Pena's DP2 distance method to the most recent data available (2018) enables regional ordering of Asia's LDCs based on the values of these variables. The index integrates socioeconomic variables that permit examination of the impact of each individual indicator to determine territorial disparities in terms of the partial indicators of SDG3. "Maternal education," "Proportion of women who make their own informed decisions regarding sexual relations, contraceptive use, and reproductive health care," and "Gender parity index in primary education" are the most important variables in explaining spatial disparities in good health and wellbeing in the LDCs of Asia.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Ásia , Economia , Feminino , Objetivos , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926092

RESUMO

Rapid urbanization in China has transformed many rural areas from agriculture-dominated to diverse systems, but studies of rural morphology are limited compared to studies of urban settlement. This paper uses a fractal dimension (FD) value to analyze the change in rural morphology in Fujian Province, a region with a long history of rural settlement and rapid recent urbanization, and to explore the factors that influenced this change. We found that the rural FD value increased from 2000 to 2012 and that rural morphology was spatially heterogeneous. FD was generally lower than in urban areas but very close to a typical urban area value in the southeast coastal region. A structural equation model was used to identify key factors influencing rural morphology, which were natural conditions, rurality and economic development, while historic administration had the smallest positive effect. With a long history and unique administrative system, the spatial morphology of Chinese rural areas has shown characteristics distinct from compact urban or scattered rural areas. The urban planning method adopted by rural planners is not suitable in rural regions, because the planning potential of rural areas with high and low FD values varies. Although rural planning currently uses a very similar approach to urban planning, it should use a local, flexible and adaptive policy based on rural morphological characteristics.


Assuntos
População Rural , Urbanização , China , Países em Desenvolvimento , Economia , Geografia , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , População Urbana
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800434

RESUMO

The massive incorporation of Spanish women into the labor market is a phenomenon that began in the second half of the 20th century, being many the obstacles that this group has had to overcome to reach the current situation, where getting a job can be an achievement that, in many cases, does not correspond to the capacity and academic training of the worker, creating a labor and economic imbalance (the cost in training is not rewarded with the work done). In this work, the Spanish labor market was analyzed through the labor force survey (EPA) from a gender perspective, demonstrating the existing inequalities at the labor level, both of employment and unemployment rates, and of jobs where the glass ceiling is evident and of economic remuneration where the salary gap continues to be important. In addition, through an ARIMA model, the evolution of the number of Spanish working women was analyzed, and how the economic crisis of 2009 and the sanitaria have affected their employment in the various crises (COVID-19). Measures to solve the problem as well as laws and active policies in favor of the creation of female jobs and a greater awareness of empowerment on the part of the female collective are proposed.


Assuntos
Economia , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Ocupações , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Desemprego
4.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918091

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the micromorphology of Mentha pulegium leaves and flowers harvested in three different Sicilian (Italy) areas with peculiar pedo-climatic conditions, and to characterize the phytochemical profile, the phytotoxic activity, and the eco-compatibility of their essential oils (EOs) for potential use as safe bioherbicides. Light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) highlighted that M. pulegium indumentum consists of non-glandular and glandular trichomes of different types. Peltate trichomes of plants from the different sites showed few significant differences in dimension and abundance, but they were characterized by a surprisingly high number of secretory cells both in leaves and flowers. Phytochemical analyses showed that oxygenated monoterpenes were the most abundant class in all the EOs investigated (92.2-97.7%), but two different chemotypes, pulegone/isomenthone and piperitone/isomenthone, were found. The complex of morphological and phytochemical data indicates that soil salinity strongly affects the expression of the toxic metabolite pulegone, rather than the EO yield. Phytotoxicity tests showed a moderate activity of EOs against the selected species as confirmed by α-amylase assay. Moreover, the low toxicity on brine shrimp provided a rationale for the possible use of investigated EOs as eco-friendly herbicides.


Assuntos
Economia , Mentha pulegium/química , Animais , Artemia , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/ultraestrutura , Geografia , Itália , Mentha pulegium/anatomia & histologia , Mentha pulegium/ultraestrutura , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/economia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Sus scrofa , Testes de Toxicidade , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
5.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-04-09.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53562

RESUMO

Los impuestos selectivos sobre las bebidas azucaradas representan una política eficaz y basada en la evidencia para prevenir las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT). Junto con los impuestos selectivos sobre los productos tabacaleros y sobre las bebidas alcohólicas, constituyen una herramienta para alcanzar los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible, y la Organización Mundial de la Salud los recomienda para modificar los factores de riesgo comportamentales vinculados con la obesidad y las ENT, según se indica en el plan de acción mundial de la OMS. Se ha dicho que los impuestos sobre las bebidas azucaradas representan una ganancia triple para los gobiernos, puesto que: 1) mejoran la salud de la población, 2) generan ingresos y 3) pueden reducir a largo plazo los correspondientes costos de atención de salud y pérdidas de productividad. La tributación de las bebidas azucaradas se ha puesto en marcha en más de 73 países de todo el mundo. En la Región de las Américas, 21 Estados Miembros de la OPS aplican impuestos selectivos a nivel nacional sobre dichas bebidas y siete jurisdicciones de Estados Unidos de América las gravan con impuestos locales. Si bien el número de países que aplican impuestos selectivos nacionales sobre las bebidas azucaradas en la Región es prometedor, la mayoría de esos impuestos se podría ampliar para mejorar su incidencia en el consumo de bebidas azucaradas y en la salud. En esta publicación se presentan algunos conceptos económicos relacionados con la justificación del uso de impuestos sobre las bebidas azucaradas, así como con los costos relacionados con la obesidad; algunas consideraciones clave sobre el diseño de impuestos, incluidos los tipos, bases y tasas correspondientes; una descripción del posible ingreso tributario y su asignación a fines específicos; la evidencia sobre la medida en que se prevé que dichos impuestos incidan en los precios y la demanda de las bebidas gravadas y su sustitución por bebidas no gravadas; y la respuesta a algunas preguntas frecuentes sobre los efectos económicos de la tributación de las bebidas azucaradas.


Assuntos
Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Indústria do Açúcar , Fatores de Risco , Doença Crônica , Economia , América
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917682

RESUMO

The resilience of the healthcare industry, often considered recession-proof, is being tested by the COVID-19 induced reductions in physical mobility and restrictions on elective and non-emergent medical procedures. We assess early COVID-19 effects on the dynamics of decline and recovery in healthcare labor markets in the United States. Descriptive analyses with monthly cross-sectional data on unemployment rates, employment, labor market entry/exit, and weekly work hours among healthcare workers in each healthcare industry and occupation, using the Current Population Survey from July 2019-2020 were performed. We found that unemployment rates increased dramatically for all healthcare industries, with the strongest early impacts on dentists' offices (41.3%), outpatient centers (10.5%), physician offices (9.5%), and home health (7.8%). Lower paid workers such as technologists/technicians (10.5%) and healthcare aides (12.6%) were hit hardest and faced persistently high unemployment, while nurses (4%), physicians/surgeons (1.4%), and pharmacists (0.7%) were spared major disruptions. Unique economic vulnerabilities faced by low-income healthcare workers may need to be addressed to avoid serious disruptions from future events similar to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Setor de Assistência à Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde , Economia , Humanos , Ocupações , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Desemprego , Estados Unidos
7.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248818, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852593

RESUMO

The implementation of large-scale containment measures by governments to contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus has resulted in large impacts to the global economy. Here, we derive a new high-frequency indicator of economic activity using empirical vessel tracking data, and use it to estimate the global maritime trade losses during the first eight months of the pandemic. We go on to use this high-frequency dataset to infer the effect of individual non-pharmaceutical interventions on maritime exports, which we use as a proxy of economic activity. Our results show widespread port-level trade losses, with the largest absolute losses found for ports in China, the Middle-East and Western Europe, associated with the collapse of specific supply-chains (e.g. oil, vehicle manufacturing). In total, we estimate that global maritime trade reduced by -7.0% to -9.6% during the first eight months of 2020, which is equal to around 206-286 million tonnes in volume losses and up to 225-412 billion USD in value losses. We find large sectoral and geographical disparities in impacts. Manufacturing sectors are hit hardest, with losses up to 11.8%, whilst some small islands developing states and low-income economies suffered the largest relative trade losses. Moreover, we find a clear negative impact of COVID-19 related school and public transport closures on country-wide exports. Overall, we show how real-time indicators of economic activity can inform policy-makers about the impacts of individual policies on the economy, and can support economic recovery efforts by allocating funds to the hardest hit economies and sectors.


Assuntos
/economia , Comércio/economia , Quarentena/economia , /epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Economia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Governo , Humanos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , Navios/economia
8.
Soc Sci Med ; 276: 113832, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784552

RESUMO

Population ageing and labor out-migration are increasingly challenging normative intergenerational support systems and familial welfare in parts of Asia. Extant studies look at how migration affects the material wellbeing of sending-households, but less is known about how migration shapes the emotional health of non-migrants as origin and destination conditions evolve. This study examines how labor migration among adult children shape the emotional health of elderly parents in Indonesia, and how observed implications are modified by alternative care arrangements and different migrant destinations. Using panel data from 2101 respondents age 50+ in the 2007 and 2014 Indonesia Family Life Survey, and individual-level fixed effects regressions, this study finds that offspring's migration is associated with increased parental depression, net of covariates. Depressive outcomes are abated if resulting care deficits are offset by co-residence or daily interactions with adult children, or if children move to economically lucrative international destinations; however, having a child in Malaysia - a destination characterized by high informal labor employment - increased parental depression. These findings draw attention to the non-economic implications of migration and the distress experienced specifically by parents who lack intergenerational support and who have concerns about child's wellbeing at destination.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Migrantes , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia , Criança , Economia , Humanos , Indonésia , Malásia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Dinâmica Populacional
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(3): 1001-1012, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729354

RESUMO

The American response to the pandemic involves a prominent volume of federal resources, especially for developing and acquiring products for internal use, such as diagnostics or vaccines. Investment mechanisms and historical aspects justify this expenditure. Thus, the social construction of nationalism in American society hinders access to health technologies. The review of such aspects shows how the United States (U.S.) secured a large number of potential products, ensuring excessive local production. This unilateral foreign policy has influenced other countries or regional blocs and undermined global cooperation and solidarity, affecting the collective health of several nations.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias , /diagnóstico , /estatística & dados numéricos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Países em Desenvolvimento , Difusão de Inovações , Economia , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Sistemas Políticos , Alocação de Recursos/economia , Alocação de Recursos/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Dept. of Health and Human Services/economia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673245

RESUMO

With the economic development of various countries and the deepening of population aging, health plays an increasingly important role in the macro-economy. How to meet the growing health needs as well as promote the economy has captured the attention of the world. Therefore, whether health investment can promote economic growth is an important theoretical and practical issue. An extended Mankiw-Romer-Weil model (MRW) with human health capital and population aging is employed to examine the impact on economic growth from population aging and health investment. On the basis of the theoretical model, this paper uses the LSDV and TSLS methods to carry out an empirical study based on cross-country panel data during the period 2000-2016. The empirical results show that health investment plays a significant role in promoting economic growth, and there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between population aging and economic growth. The impacts on economic growth from health investment and population aging can weaken each other. In addition, this paper also finds that health investment structure and the proportion of government health investment to total government spending can affect economic growth.


Assuntos
Análise de Dados , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Envelhecimento , Países em Desenvolvimento , Economia , Governo , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , Crescimento Demográfico
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 651051, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777889

RESUMO

This paper analyses the effects of the Chinese Economic Policy Uncertainty (CEPU) index on the daily returns of Bitcoin for the period from December 31, 2019 to May 20, 2020. Utilizing the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and the Generalized Quantile Regression (GQR) estimation techniques, the paper illustrates that the current CEPU has a positive impact on the returns of Bitcoin. However, the positive impact is statistically significant only at the higher quantiles of the current CEPU. It is concluded that Bitcoin can be used in hedging against policy uncertainties in China since significant rises in uncertainty leads to a higher return in Bitcoin. JEL Codes: G32; G15; C22.


Assuntos
/economia , Comércio/economia , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Economia , /epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Econômicos , Análise de Regressão
14.
Soc Sci Med ; 275: 113774, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711676

RESUMO

This study examines whether economic hardship during the COVID-19 pandemic is deleteriously associated with psychological distress and self-rated health. A social causation perspective suggests that exposure to economic hardship will harm well-being, but a social selection perspective suggests that the appearance of health effects of hardship during the pandemic are attributable to the increased risk of exposure to hardship associated with poor well-being at the start of the pandemic. We also propose a third perspective, economic selection, which suggests that economic hardship prior to the pandemic negatively affects health and increases risk of exposure to hardship during the pandemic; consequently, an association between health and economic hardship during the pandemic may be spurious, and entirely due to pre-existing levels of hardship. To test these competing perspectives, we use a longitudinal study based in Canada that began in late March of 2020 and followed respondents monthly in April, May, and June. Baseline psychological distress and self-rated health, as well as economic hardship prior to the pandemic, independently predict the accumulation of monthly periods of hardship from April to June. The accumulation of periods of hardship from April to June is deleteriously associated with psychological distress and self-rated health in June. Controls for prior economic hardship and baseline health weaken the association between accumulation of periods of hardship and psychological distress, while also eliminating the association between accumulation of hardship and self-rated health. These findings favor a social causation perspective for psychological distress and a social selection perspective for self-rated health, with less evidence found in support of economic selection. This study took place during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, though, and associations with self-rated health may have become more evident as hardship further wore on individual well-being over a longer period of time.


Assuntos
Economia , Pandemias , Condições Sociais , Estresse Psicológico , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
15.
Patient ; 14(3): 359-371, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: All countries experienced social and economic disruption and threats to health security from the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, but the responses in terms of control measures varied considerably. While control measures, such as quarantine, lockdown and social distancing, reduce infections and infection-related deaths, they have severe negative economic and social consequences. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the acceptability of different infectious disease control measures, and examine how respondents trade off between economic and health outcomes. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment was developed, with attributes covering: control restrictions, duration of restrictions, tracking, number of infections and of deaths, unemployment, government expenditure and additional personal tax. A representative sample of Australians (n = 1046) completed the survey, which included eight choice tasks. Data were analysed using mixed logit regression to identify heterogeneity and latent class models to examine heterogeneity. RESULTS: In general, respondents had strong preferences for policies that avoided high infection-related deaths, although lower unemployment and government expenditure were also considered important. Respondents preferred a shorter duration for restrictions, but their preferences did not vary significantly for the differing levels of control measures. In terms of tracking, respondents preferred mobile phone tracking or bracelets when compared to no tracking. Significant differences in preferences was identified, with two distinct classes: Class 1 (57%) preferred the economy to remain open with some control measures, whereas Class 2 (43%), had stronger preferences for policies that reduced avoidable deaths. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the Australian population is willing to relinquish some freedom, in the short term, and trade off the negative social and economic impacts of the pandemic, to avoid the negative health consequences.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Telefone Celular , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Economia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Políticas , Quarentena/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(3): 1001-1012, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153847

RESUMO

Resumo A resposta americana à pandemia envolve um proeminente volume de recursos federais, em especial destinados ao desenvolvimento e aquisição de produtos no uso interno, como diagnósticos ou vacinas. As justificativas para esse desembolso se baseiam em mecanismos de investimentos e aspectos históricos. Assim, a construção social do nacionalismo na formação na sociedade americana prejudica o acesso a tecnologias em saúde. A revisão desses aspectos demonstra como os Estados Unidos (EUA) garantiram compra de grande quantitativo de produtos em potencial, inclusive assegurando excessiva produção local. Essa política externa unilateral tem influenciado outros países ou blocos regionais e prejudicado a cooperação e a solidariedade global com impacto na saúde coletiva de diversas nações.


Abstract The American response to the pandemic involves a prominent volume of federal resources, especially for developing and acquiring products for internal use, such as diagnostics or vaccines. Investment mechanisms and historical aspects justify this expenditure. Thus, the social construction of nationalism in American society hinders access to health technologies. The review of such aspects shows how the United States (U.S.) secured a large number of potential products, ensuring excessive local production. This unilateral foreign policy has influenced other countries or regional blocs and undermined global cooperation and solidarity, affecting the collective health of several nations.


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde Global , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Cooperação Internacional , Sistemas Políticos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Dept. of Health and Human Services/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Alocação de Recursos/economia , Alocação de Recursos/métodos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Difusão de Inovações , Economia , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
17.
Ambio ; 50(4): 794-811, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606247

RESUMO

Like the rest of the world, African countries are reeling from the health, economic and social effects of COVID-19. The continent's governments have responded by imposing rigorous lockdowns to limit the spread of the virus. The various lockdown measures are undermining food security, because stay at home orders have among others, threatened food production for a continent that relies heavily on agriculture as the bedrock of the economy. This article draws on quantitative data collected by the GeoPoll, and, from these data, assesses the effect of concern about the local spread and economic impact of COVID-19 on food worries. Qualitative data comprising 12 countries south of the Sahara reveal that lockdowns have created anxiety over food security as a health, economic and human rights/well-being issue. By applying a probit model, we find that concern about the local spread of COVID-19 and economic impact of the virus increases the probability of food worries. Governments have responded with various efforts to support the neediest. By evaluating the various policies rolled out we advocate for a feminist economics approach that necessitates greater use of data analytics to predict the likely impacts of intended regulatory relief responses during the recovery process and post-COVID-19.


Assuntos
África , Ansiedade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Países em Desenvolvimento , Economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Políticas
19.
Contraception ; 103(6): 380-385, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand how the COVID-19 pandemic affected women of reproductive age, specifically their economic conditions, desire for pregnancy, and access to contraceptive services during the pandemic. STUDY DESIGNS: A total of 554 women respondents age 18 to 49 and reside in the United States were recruited using social media between May 16, 2020 and June 16, 2020. Logistic regression models assessed predictors of reporting pandemic-related changes in economic conditions, desire for pregnancy, and contraceptive access. RESULTS: Compared to White/Caucasian respondents, Hispanics/Latinx and Black/African Americans have 4 times the odds of experiencing inability to afford food, transportation, and/or housing (p < 0.01) during the pandemic; Hispanics/Latinx have twice the odds of experiencing food insecurity (p < 0.05). Inability to afford food, transportation, and/or housing was associated with drop in desire to be pregnant (p < 0.01). Despite the 25% of participants who reported a drop in desire for pregnancy, 1 in 6 reported difficulty accessing contraceptives, particularly those who experienced reduced income (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, the pandemic unevenly affected people from different socioeconomic groups. Many simultaneously experienced reduced income, difficulties in accessing contraception, and a greater desire to avoid a pregnancy. This combination of factors increases the chance that people will experience unintended pregnancies. IMPLICATIONS: The pandemic caused economic hardship and an increased desire to postpone or prevent pregnancy at the same time that it created new barriers to contraceptive services. This pattern may lead to a potential net effect of an increase in unintended pregnancy, particularly among people who had difficulty affording food, transportation, and/or housing during the pandemic.


Assuntos
/economia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Intenção , Pobreza , Gravidez não Planejada , Gravidez/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepcionais/provisão & distribução , Economia , Grupos Étnicos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/economia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pobreza/economia , Pobreza/etnologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Gravidez/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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