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1.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(2): 310-321, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861153

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic triggered university lockdowns, forcing physiology educators to rapidly pivot laboratories into a remote delivery format. This study documents the experiences of an international group of 10 physiology educators surrounding this transition. They wrote reflective narratives, framed by guiding questions, to answer the research question: "What were the changes to physiology laboratories in response to the COVID-19 pandemic?" These narratives probed educators' attitudes toward virtual laboratories before, during, and after the transition to remote delivery. Thematic analysis of the reflections found that before COVID-19 only a few respondents had utilized virtual laboratories and most felt that virtual laboratories could not replace the in-person laboratory experience. In response to university lockdowns, most respondents transitioned from traditional labs to remote formats within a week or less. The most common remote delivery formats were commercially available online physiology laboratories, homemade videos, and sample experimental data. The main challenges associated with the rapid remote transition included workload and expertise constraints, disparities in online access and workspaces, issues with academic integrity, educator and student stress, changes in learning outcomes, and reduced engagement. However, the experience generated opportunities including exploration of unfamiliar technologies, new collaborations, and revisiting the physiology laboratory curriculum and structure. Most of the respondents reported planning on retaining some aspects of the remote laboratories postpandemic, particularly with a blended model of remote and on-campus laboratories. This study concludes with recommendations for physiology educators as to how they can successfully develop and deliver remote laboratories.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância , Docentes/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Laboratórios , Pandemias , Fisiologia/educação , Realidade Virtual , Currículo , Escolaridade , Previsões , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Relações Interpessoais , Invenções , Aprendizagem , Quarentena , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673520

RESUMO

Animal behavior is an essential element in behavioral neuroscience study. However, most behavior studies in small animals such as fruit flies (Drosophilamelanogaster) have been performed in a limited spatial chamber or by tethering the fly's body on a fixture, which restricts its natural behavior. In this paper, we developed the Transparent Omnidirectional Locomotion Compensator (TOLC) for a freely walking fruit fly without tethering, which enables its navigation in infinite space. The TOLC maintains a position of a fruit fly by compensating its motion using the transparent sphere. The TOLC is capable of maintaining the position error < 1 mm for 90.3% of the time and the heading error < 5° for 80.2% of the time. The inverted imaging system with a transparent sphere secures the space for an additional experimental apparatus. Because the proposed TOLC allows us to observe a freely walking fly without physical tethering, there is no potential injury during the experiment. Thus, the TOLC will offer a unique opportunity to investigate longitudinal studies of a wide range of behavior in an unrestricted walking Drosophila.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Drosophila melanogaster , Locomoção , Fisiologia/instrumentação , Animais , Desenho de Equipamento
4.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(1): 129-133, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661051

RESUMO

In 2020 universities had to quickly implement remote education alternatives as a result of the social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic. To keep students engaged with the university, we implemented a teaching-learning model that relates physiology contents to the COVID-19 pandemic using online educational platforms. A 1-mo web course was proposed for health sciences students from the Federal University of Pampa. It included synchronous meetings twice a week and asynchronous activities using scientific articles, case studies, and interactive online tools. The students approved the methodology developed, assessing it as dynamic and innovative. They reported that the activity helped to better understand the relations between COVID-19 and physiological systems. The web course also contributed to the identification of reliable sources of news and stimulated the sharing of scientific content with their families. We concluded that the use of online platforms contextualizing the physiology content considering current events helps students in learning human physiology and improves their abilities to apply this information to their daily life, in this specific case, regarding the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
/fisiopatologia , Educação a Distância/métodos , Pandemias , Fisiologia/educação , /fisiologia , Brasil , Comportamento do Consumidor , Currículo , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades
6.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(1): 31-33, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439784

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic forced academics to switch to online teaching whether they were prepared or not. The speed and enthusiasm with which educators embraced online teaching suggest that challenges change the perspective for the better. The teaching challenges with the current coronavirus situation mimic the poliovirus attack Dr. Arthur C. Guyton encountered. Dr. Guyton was forced to switch his career from becoming a cardiovascular surgeon to a physiology educator and a researcher. His immense contributions to the field of physiology is an example of how challenges can bring benefits. Flipped teaching has been gaining attention among educators because of its ability to engage students in learning. The COVID-19 pandemic pushed educators to adopt this instructional design based on its conduciveness to technology, as well as its blend of both asynchronous and synchronous components of online teaching. Just like Dr. Guyton's enormous impact on medical education and research in spite of the challenges he faced, we must be creative during this pandemic through innovative teaching methods, which will serve as a gift for the future of physiology education.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Educação a Distância/métodos , Educação Médica/métodos , Fisiologia/educação , Educação a Distância/tendências , Educação Médica/tendências , Humanos
7.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(1): 37-43, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464190

RESUMO

In the wake of COVID-19, the postgraduate activities in physiology were shifted from live (face-to-face teaching) to virtual mode. This transition posed a challenge to postgraduate students and faculty moderators, especially for participant-centric group discussion, wherein face-to-face interaction contributes significantly to active learner engagement. To bridge the gap between live group discussion (GD) and virtual GD in the conventional format (VGD), we implemented an innovative yet feasible multistep approach of conducting structured virtual group discussion (sVGD). It involved priming of students during the preparatory phase and incorporation of the Tuckman model of group dynamics, which consists of sequential substages of forming, storming, norming, and performing into the virtual format. Unsupervised synchronous and asynchronous, as well as supervised synchronous interactions within and in between the minigroups in a structured way, led to active engagement of students with one another and the moderator, despite the constraints imposed by the virtual format. After establishing the feasibility of the approach during the first GD (sVGD-1), sVGD-2 was conducted, further refining the approach, and feedback was obtained from the postgraduate students. Pre-GD feedback revealed that the live session was preferred over virtual for the conduct of GD, whereas both live GD and sVGD were perceived to be more effective than VGD in the post-GD feedback. Such pedagogical innovations may also help to address the challenges posed in traditional teaching across the undergraduate and postgraduate courses in medical education and beyond during such unforeseeable circumstances.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância/organização & administração , Educação de Pós-Graduação/organização & administração , Pandemias , Fisiologia/educação , Estudantes/psicologia , Realidade Virtual , Educação a Distância/métodos , Educação de Pós-Graduação/métodos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Estudos de Viabilidade , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Índia , Internet , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia
9.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 43, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-clerkship medical curriculums consist of a series of organ system-based courses and lectures but often lack an integration between organ systems. Such integration could be beneficial for clerkship years and students' future career. Hence, we aimed to share our process of organising an integrative teaching approach in a large class of pre-clerkship medical students and to reflect the students' perspective toward the teaching process in this observational study. In addition, we tested effectiveness of this integrative approach compared with the traditional teaching (lecture). METHODS: We organised a two-dimensional (2D)-integrative teaching for 309 students in selected topics of cardiovascular physiology of the medical curriculum of the Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand. The first dimension of integration is the incorporation of physiology of other organ systems into the cardiovascular physiology class. The second is the integration of multiple teaching methods and strategies, including small group discussion, student presentation, wrap-up, quiz, and question-and-answer sessions. Unless opting out, students evaluated this integrative teaching by filling in a questionnaire. The summative scores were also used to determine their comprehensive understandings of the content. RESULTS: The course evaluation showed that most students (81.9-91.2%) had positive attitudes toward all organised sessions, i.e. this teaching method helps promote their basic and applied physiology knowledge, critical thinking, information searching, presentation, and teamwork skills. In general, students at all performance levels attained higher scores in the summative exam for the 2D-integrative-class-relevant questions (74.4±16.1%) than for the lecture-pertinent questions (65.2±13.6%). CONCLUSIONS: In a large class size of pre-clerkship students, 2D-integrative teaching strategies with careful planning and preparation can be successfully implemented, based on positive attitudes and relatively high summative scores of students in this study. Hence, this comprehensive teaching could be incorporated in current medical curriculums, particularly for the complex learning topics.


Assuntos
Fisiologia , Estudantes de Medicina , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Currículo , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Fisiologia/educação , Ensino , Tailândia
10.
Physiol Rev ; 101(1): 177-211, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525760

RESUMO

Given the large amount of genome-wide data that have been collected during the last decades, a good understanding of how and why cells change during development, homeostasis, and disease might be expected. Unfortunately, the opposite is true; triggers that cause cellular state changes remain elusive, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Although genes with the potential to influence cell states are known, the historic dependency on methods that manipulate gene expression outside the endogenous chromatin context has prevented us from understanding how cells organize, interpret, and protect cellular programs. Fortunately, recent methodological innovations are now providing options to answer these outstanding questions, by allowing to target and manipulate individual genomic and epigenomic loci. In particular, three experimental approaches are now feasible due to DNA targeting tools, namely, activation and/or repression of master transcription factors in their endogenous chromatin context; targeting transcription factors to endogenous, alternative, or inaccessible sites; and finally, functional manipulation of the chromatin context. In this article, we discuss the molecular basis of DNA targeting tools and review the potential of these new technologies before we summarize how these have already been used for the manipulation of cellular states and hypothesize about future applications.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Celulares/fisiologia , Epigênese Genética , Edição de Genes , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Fisiologia/métodos , Animais , Epigenômica , Humanos , Transcrição Genética
12.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 72(6): 690-698, 2020 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349825

RESUMO

Rapid advancement of physiology education has occurred since the twentieth century due to the emergence of new pedagogies and collaborative effort of physiologists worldwide. Physiological organizations and institutions contribute to the teaching of physiology through international congresses, education symposia, teaching workshops, exchange programs, and journal publications. The Internet and information technologies play a crucial role in the promotion and improvement of computer-based physiology education across different countries. Interactive teaching practices and problem-based learning have also become globally applied strategies to enhance students' motivation and facilitate learning effectiveness. In this article, we review the global development and implementation of pedagogical approaches to the teaching of physiology, as well as the emerging trends and practices for physiology education in the future.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Fisiologia , Humanos , Motivação
14.
Am J Cardiol ; 133: 162-165, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172590

RESUMO

Adolf Fick was a German physiologist, born in Kassel in 1829, who studied medicine at the University of Marburg and graduated in 1851. He worked first in Zurich and then in Wurzburg. Most of his studies were based on physics and mathematics, and deep analysis, and only later were proven by experiments. Fick's name in physics is associated to the laws of diffusion of solutions, and in medicine to the principle of cardiac output calculation. In 1855, he proposed Fick's laws on gas diffusion. In 1870, he devised Fick's principle, which allows the measurement of cardiac output and calculations of intracardiac shunts from the arteriovenous oxygen difference. The method was later generalized to the Fick principle, according to which the flow of an indicator taken up or released by an organ corresponds to the difference between the indicator flows in the inflow and outflow tracts. Fick invented several devices most of them aimed to improve precision in his physiologic experiments. In 1868, he invented the plethysmograph, for recording the speed of blood in the human artery. In 1888, the tonometer for measuring from outside the hydrostatic pressure inside the eyeball. After 3 decades as Professor in Wurzburg, he retired. Fick died at Blankenberge, Belgium in 1901 age 71 years old.


Assuntos
Débito Cardíaco , Cardiologia/história , Doenças Cardiovasculares/história , Fisiologia/história , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Alemanha , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Matemática/história
16.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 44(4): 679-683, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079561

RESUMO

As a result of the installation of the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 19) pandemic, online education has become an important teaching alternative, and new challenges about how to teach were found. Here we report our experience in offering an online course to review Human Physiology. We proposed synchronous and asynchronous activities using different online tools to address topics considered key to understanding the different systems of human physiology. The students considered important the use of this type of methodology, which uses different online tools to help understand the Human Physiology contents. The students highlighted the use of the Lt platform, Zoom, Mentimeter, and YouTube as the preferred online tools to use in physiology learning.


Assuntos
Instrução por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação a Distância , Internet , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Fisiologia/educação , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Estudantes/psicologia , Compreensão , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Currículo , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 44(4): 706-708, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079564

RESUMO

Understanding and interpretation of acid-base disorders is an important clinical skill that is applicable to the majority of physicians. Although this topic is taught early in medical school, acid-base disturbances have been described as challenging by postgraduate trainees. We describe the use of Twitter, an online microblogging platform, to augment education in acid-base disturbances by using polls in which the user is shown laboratory values and then asked to select the most likely etiology of the disorder. The answer and a brief explanation are then shared in a subsequent tweet. Both polling questions and answers are shared from the account for the online, mobile-optimized, nephrology teaching tool NephSIM (https://www.nephsim.com/). An anonymous survey was administered to assess attitudes toward these polls. Using Twitter as an approach to enhance teaching of acid-base disturbances was both feasible and an engaging way to teach a challenging topic for trainees and physicians. Moreover, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has demonstrated the importance of incorporating virtual learning opportunities in all levels of medical education.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/etiologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Instrução por Computador , Educação a Distância , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Fisiologia/educação , Mídias Sociais , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/diagnóstico , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/fisiopatologia , Compreensão , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Currículo , Escolaridade , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena
18.
Lancet ; 396(10257): 1058, 2020 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038954
19.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 44(4): 579-586, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955344

RESUMO

Online and distance education may be dismissed by educators who argue that these methods are not equivalent to traditional face-to-face education due to the lack of laboratory classes. However, smartphone-assisted experimentation is an innovative and powerful didactic tool that helps educators in the teaching process of physiology, particularly in situations with a lack of financial support for purchasing laboratory equipment, or lack of support for homework and assignments, distance learning courses, and emergency remote education, such as during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we present the concept of the mobile learning laboratory (MobLeLab), which is a collection of smartphone applications that allow scientific data collection, such as physiological variables, for educational purposes. The three types of MobLeLabs (simulators, built-in, and plug-in) are presented, as well as ideas on how to use smartphone sensors to collect physiological data. Additionally, we elaborate on the principles of the protocols for physiology education with MobLeLabs and discuss their importance to fostering scientific method reasoning by students.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância/métodos , Aplicativos Móveis , Fisiologia/educação , Smartphone , Ensino , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral
20.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 44(4): 516-519, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880483

RESUMO

This paper describes the process involved in conducting an online spirometry practical through Zoom. The teacher demonstrated the practical from the medical school, and the students observed the procedure from the comfort of their own homes. Students were able to analyze the graphs captured in the teacher's laptop by remotely controlling the teacher's laptop. This method may be useful for places where face-to-face classes are suspended due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Instrução por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação a Distância , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Pulmão/fisiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Fisiologia/educação , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Espirometria , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Faculdades de Medicina , Capacidade Vital
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