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1.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922631

RESUMO

Glycerol monocaprylate (GMC) is a glycerol derivative of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and is widely used as a preservative in food processing. However, GMC and its hydrolytic acid (octylic acid) have antibacterial properties that may affect the physiology and intestinal microecology of the human body. Therefore, in this study, the effects of two different dosages of GMC (150 and 1600 mg kg-1) on glucose, lipid metabolism, inflammation, and intestinal microecology of normal diet-fed C57BL/6 mice were comprehensively investigated. The obtained results showed that the level of triglycerides (TGs) in the low-dose group down-regulated significantly, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10) significantly increased, while the pro-inflammatory cytokines monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and interleukin 1beta (IL-1ß) in the high-dose group were significantly decreased. Importantly, GMC promoted the α-diversity of gut microbiota in normal-diet-fed mice, regardless of dosages. Additionally, it was found that the low-dose treatment of GMC significantly increased the abundance of Lactobacillus, while the high-dose treatment of GMC significantly increased the abundance of SCFA-producers such as Clostridiales, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcus. Moreover, the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) was significantly increased by GMC supplementation. Thus, our research provides a novel insight into the effects of GMC on gut microbiota and physiological characteristics.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/biossíntese , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicerol/farmacologia , Inflamação/microbiologia , Metabolismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/sangue , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Hormônios/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
2.
Nat Metab ; 3(4): 456-468, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875882

RESUMO

Metabolism and mechanics are intrinsically intertwined. External forces, sensed through the cytoskeleton or distortion of the cell and organelles, induce metabolic changes in the cell. The resulting changes in metabolism, in turn, feed back to regulate every level of cell biology, including the mechanical properties of cells and tissues. Here we examine the links between metabolism and mechanics, highlighting signalling pathways involved in the regulation and response to cellular mechanosensing. We consider how forces and metabolism regulate one another through nanoscale molecular sensors, micrometre-scale cytoskeletal networks, organelles and dynamic biomolecular condensates. Understanding this cross-talk will create diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities for metabolic disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular pathologies and obesity.


Assuntos
Biologia Celular , Mecanotransdução Celular/fisiologia , Metabolismo/fisiologia , Animais , Citoesqueleto/fisiologia , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Mecânico
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921398

RESUMO

The intervertebral disc is the largest avascular organ. Autophagy is an important cell survival mechanism by self-digestion and recycling damaged components under stress, primarily nutrient deprivation. Resident cells would utilize autophagy to cope with the harsh disc environment. Our objective was to elucidate the roles of human disc cellular autophagy. In human disc cells, serum deprivation and pro-inflammatory interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) stimulation increased autophagy marker microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and decreased autophagy substrate p62/sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1), indicating enhanced autophagy. Then, RNA interference (RNAi) of autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5), essential for autophagy, showed decreases in ATG5 protein (26.8%-27.4%, p < 0.0001), which suppressed early-stage autophagy with decreased LC3-II and increased p62/SQSTM1. Cell viability was maintained by ATG5 RNAi in serum-supplemented media (95.5%, p = 0.28) but reduced in serum-free media (80.4%, p = 0.0013) with IL-1ß (69.9%, p = 0.0008). Moreover, ATG5 RNAi accelerated IL-1ß-induced changes in apoptosis and senescence. Meanwhile, ATG5 RNAi unaffected IL-1ß-induced catabolic matrix metalloproteinase release, down-regulated anabolic gene expression, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation. Lysosomotropic chloroquine supplementation presented late-stage autophagy inhibition with apoptosis and senescence induction, while catabolic enzyme production was modest. Disc-tissue analysis detected age-related changes in ATG5, LC3-II, and p62/SQSTM1. In summary, autophagy protects against human disc cellular apoptosis and senescence rather than extracellular matrix catabolism.


Assuntos
Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Disco Intervertebral/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Disco Intervertebral/patologia , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/genética , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/patologia , Masculino , Metabolismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921428

RESUMO

A hyper-specialization characterizes modern medicine with the consequence of classifying the various diseases of the body into unrelated categories. Such a broad diversification of medicine goes in the opposite direction of physics, which eagerly looks for unification. We argue that unification should also apply to medicine. In accordance with the second principle of thermodynamics, the cell must release its entropy either in the form of heat (catabolism) or biomass (anabolism). There is a decreased flow of entropy outside the body due to an age-related reduction in mitochondrial entropy yield resulting in increased release of entropy in the form of biomass. This shift toward anabolism has been known in oncology as Warburg-effect. The shift toward anabolism has been reported in most diseases. This quest for a single framework is reinforced by the fact that inflammation (also called the immune response) is involved in nearly every disease. This strongly suggests that despite their apparent disparity, there is an underlying unity in the diseases. This also offers guidelines for the repurposing of old drugs.


Assuntos
Imunidade/fisiologia , Medicina/classificação , Metabolismo/fisiologia , Especialização/normas , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Entropia , Guias como Assunto , Humanos
5.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918804

RESUMO

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as products of intestinal bacterial metabolism, are particularly relevant in the diagnosis of intestinal dysbiosis. The most common studies of microbiome metabolites include butyric acid, propionic acid and acetic acid, which occur in varying proportions depending on diet, age, coexisting disease and other factors. During pregnancy, metabolic changes related to the protection of energy homeostasis are of fundamental importance for the developing fetus, its future metabolic fate and the mother's health. SCFAs act as signaling molecules that regulate the body's energy balance through G-protein receptors. GPR41 receptors affect metabolism through the microflora, while GPR43 receptors are recognized as a molecular link between diet, microflora, gastrointestinal tract, immunity and the inflammatory response. The possible mechanism by which the gut microflora may contribute to fat storage, as well as the occurrence of gestational insulin resistance, is blocking the expression of the fasting-induced adipose factor. SCFAs, in particular propionic acid via GPR, determine the development and metabolic programming of the fetus in pregnant women. The mechanisms regulating lipid metabolism during pregnancy are similar to those found in obese people and those with impaired microbiome and its metabolites. The implications of SCFAs and metabolic disorders during pregnancy are therefore critical to maternal health and neonatal development. In this review paper, we summarize the current knowledge about SCFAs, their potential impact and possible mechanisms of action in relation to maternal metabolism during pregnancy. Therefore, they constitute a contemporary challenge to practical nutritional therapy. Material and methods: The PubMed database were searched for "pregnancy", "lipids", "SCFA" in conjunction with "diabetes", "hypertension", and "microbiota", and searches were limited to work published for a period not exceeding 20 years in the past. Out of 2927 publication items, 2778 papers were excluded from the analysis, due to being unrelated to the main topic, conference summaries and/or articles written in a language other than English, while the remaining 126 publications were included in the analysis.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/metabolismo
6.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922358

RESUMO

Binge-eating disorder, recently accepted as a diagnostic category, is differentiated from bulimia nervosa in that the former shows the presence of binge-eating episodes and the absence of compensatory behavior. Epigenetics is a conjunct of mechanisms (like DNA methylation) that regulate gene expression, which are dependent on environmental changes. Analysis of DNA methylation in eating disorders shows that it is reduced. The present study aimed to analyze the genome-wide DNA methylation differences between individuals diagnosed with BED and BN. A total of 46 individuals were analyzed using the Infinium Methylation EPIC array. We found 11 differentially methylated sites between BED- and BN-diagnosed individuals, with genome-wide significance. Most of the associations were found in genes related to metabolic processes (ST3GAL4, PRKAG2, and FRK), which are hypomethylated genes in BED. Cg04781532, located in the body of the PRKAG2 gene (protein kinase AMP-activated non-catalytic subunit gamma 2), was hypomethylated in individuals with BED. Agonists of PRKAG2, which is the subunit of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase), are proposed to treat obesity, BED, and BN. The present study contributes important insights into the effect that BED could have on PRKAG2 activation.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Metabolismo/genética , Adolescente , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Anorexia Nervosa/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561085

RESUMO

Background: The increase in exercise levels in the last few years among professional and recreational female athletes has led to an increased scientific interest about sports health and performance in the female athlete population. The purpose of the IronFEMME Study described in this protocol article is to determine the influence of different hormonal profiles on iron metabolism in response to endurance exercise, and the main markers of muscle damage in response to resistance exercise; both in eumenorrheic, oral contraceptive (OC) users and postmenopausal well-trained women. Methods: This project is an observational controlled randomized counterbalanced study. One hundered and four (104) active and healthy women were selected to participate in the IronFEMME Study, 57 of which were eumenorrheic, 31 OC users and 16 postmenopausal. The project consisted of two sections carried out at the same time: iron metabolism (study I) and muscle damage (study II). For the study I, the exercise protocol consisted of an interval running test (eight bouts of 3 min at 85% of the maximal aerobic speed), whereas the study II protocol was an eccentric-based resistance exercise protocol (10 sets of 10 repetitions of plate-loaded barbell parallel back squats at 60% of their one repetition maximum (1RM) with 2 min of recovery between sets). In both studies, eumenorrheic participants were evaluated at three specific moments of the menstrual cycle: early-follicular phase, late-follicular phase and mid-luteal phase; OC users performed the trial at two moments: withdrawal phase and active pill phase. Lastly, postmenopausal women were only tested once, since their hormonal status does not fluctuate. The three-step method was used to verify the menstrual cycle phase: calendar counting, blood test confirmation, and urine-based ovulation kits. Blood samples were obtained to measure sex hormones, iron metabolism parameters, and muscle damage related markers. Discussion: IronFEMME Study has been designed to increase the knowledge regarding the influence of sex hormones on some aspects of the exercise-related female physiology. Iron metabolism and exercise-induced muscle damage will be studied considering the different reproductive status present throughout well-trained females' lifespan.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Fase Luteal/fisiologia , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Adulto , Creatina Quinase , Feminino , Fase Folicular/fisiologia , Hepcidinas , Humanos , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Ferro , Metabolismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 92, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fruit abscission depends on cell separation that occurs within specialized cell layers that constitute an abscission zone (AZ). To determine the mechanisms of fleshy fruit abscission of the monocot oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) compared with other abscission systems, we performed multi-scale comparative transcriptome analyses on fruit targeting the developing primary AZ and adjacent tissues. RESULTS: Combining between-tissue developmental comparisons with exogenous ethylene treatments, and naturally occurring abscission in the field, RNAseq analysis revealed a robust core set of 168 genes with differentially regulated expression, spatially associated with the ripe fruit AZ, and temporally restricted to the abscission timing. The expression of a set of candidate genes was validated by qRT-PCR in the fruit AZ of a natural oil palm variant with blocked fruit abscission, which provides evidence for their functions during abscission. Our results substantiate the conservation of gene function between dicot dry fruit dehiscence and monocot fleshy fruit abscission. The study also revealed major metabolic transitions occur in the AZ during abscission, including key senescence marker genes and transcriptional regulators, in addition to genes involved in nutrient recycling and reallocation, alternative routes for energy supply and adaptation to oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides the first reference transcriptome of a monocot fleshy fruit abscission zone and provides insight into the mechanisms underlying abscission by identifying key genes with functional roles and processes, including metabolic transitions, cell wall modifications, signalling, stress adaptations and transcriptional regulation, that occur during ripe fruit abscission of the monocot oil palm. The transcriptome data comprises an original reference and resource useful towards understanding the evolutionary basis of this fundamental plant process.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/genética , Arecaceae/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metabolismo/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo
9.
Nat Genet ; 53(2): 156-165, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462485

RESUMO

To study the effect of host genetics on gut microbiome composition, the MiBioGen consortium curated and analyzed genome-wide genotypes and 16S fecal microbiome data from 18,340 individuals (24 cohorts). Microbial composition showed high variability across cohorts: only 9 of 410 genera were detected in more than 95% of samples. A genome-wide association study of host genetic variation regarding microbial taxa identified 31 loci affecting the microbiome at a genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) threshold. One locus, the lactase (LCT) gene locus, reached study-wide significance (genome-wide association study signal: P = 1.28 × 10-20), and it showed an age-dependent association with Bifidobacterium abundance. Other associations were suggestive (1.95 × 10-10 < P < 5 × 10-8) but enriched for taxa showing high heritability and for genes expressed in the intestine and brain. A phenome-wide association study and Mendelian randomization identified enrichment of microbiome trait loci in the metabolic, nutrition and environment domains and suggested the microbiome might have causal effects in ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adolescente , Adulto , Bifidobacterium/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactase/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metabolismo/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S
10.
Metabolism ; 116: 154705, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422545

RESUMO

The preservation of body proteins is essential to guarantee their functions in organisms. Therefore, the utilization of amino acids as energy substrates is regulated by a precise fine-tuned mechanism. Recent evidence suggests that the transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) are involved in this regulatory mechanism. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine how these transcription factors interact to regulate the expression of amino acid catabolism genes. In vivo studies using PPARα-knockout mice (Pparα-null) fed different amounts of dietary protein showed that in the absence of PPARα, there was a significant increase in HNF4α abundance in the liver, which corresponded with an increase in amino acid catabolizing enzyme (AACE) expression and the generation of increased amounts of postprandial urea. Moreover, this effect was proportional to the increase in dietary protein consumed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that HNF4α can bind to the promoter of AACE serine dehydratase (SDS), an effect that was potentiated by dietary protein in the Pparα-null mice. The mechanistic studies revealed that the presence of retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα) is essential to repress HNF4α activity in the presence of PPARα, and this interaction accelerates HNF4α degradation via the proteasome pathway. These results showed that PPARα can downregulate liver amino acid catabolism in the presence of RXRα by inhibiting HNF4α activity.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , PPAR alfa/fisiologia , Receptor X Retinoide alfa/fisiologia , Animais , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Células HEK293 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolismo/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , PPAR alfa/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteólise , Receptor X Retinoide alfa/genética
12.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 54-64, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414548

RESUMO

In cross-platform analyses of 174 metabolites, we identify 499 associations (P < 4.9 × 10-10) characterized by pleiotropy, allelic heterogeneity, large and nonlinear effects and enrichment for nonsynonymous variation. We identify a signal at GLP2R (p.Asp470Asn) shared among higher citrulline levels, body mass index, fasting glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and type 2 diabetes, with ß-arrestin signaling as the underlying mechanism. Genetically higher serine levels are shown to reduce the likelihood (by 95%) and predict development of macular telangiectasia type 2, a rare degenerative retinal disease. Integration of genomic and small molecule data across platforms enables the discovery of regulators of human metabolism and translation into clinical insights.


Assuntos
Saúde , Metabolismo/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Oftalmopatias/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Loci Gênicos , Pleiotropia Genética , Genoma Humano , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 2/genética , Glicina/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Metaboloma/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Telangiectasia Retiniana/genética , Tamanho da Amostra , Serina/metabolismo
13.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 31(1): 010201, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380884

RESUMO

Introduction: The number of research papers and journals each year is increasing and millions of dollars are spent. Despite this there is evidence to suggest that many publications do not impact clinical practice. We used citation analysis to measure the influence of metabolism publications from 2003-2013. Those papers with lower citation rates are likely to be of the least value and high rates of such publications may be a marker of research waste. Materials and methods: We analysed 67 journals with 81,954 articles related to metabolism indexed on the Scopus station database from 2003-2013. We identified those articles with less than 5 citations within 5 years from publication date as poorly cited. Journals were ranked by the percentage of articles that were poorly cited or uncited. Results: Over the 10-year period, the number of total articles increased by 127%. We found that 24% of articles were poorly cited within 5 years of publication. Journals in the bottom 25% and top 25% of rankings by citation rates accounted for a similar proportion of poorly cited articles. Most of the open access journals were ranked in the top 25% for citation rates. Conclusions: Our analysis contradicts concerns over increasing amounts of publications with little impact. The proportion of poorly cited articles are low, with little change in the trend over 10 years. The top and bottom ranked journals produced similar proportions of poorly cited articles. These findings suggest the necessity of pursuing further research to study waste in metabolism research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Metabolismo , Bibliometria , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(2)2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372146

RESUMO

Branched esters of palmitic acid and hydroxy stearic acid are antiinflammatory and antidiabetic lipokines that belong to a family of fatty acid (FA) esters of hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) called FAHFAs. FAHFAs themselves belong to oligomeric FA esters, known as estolides. Glycerol-bound FAHFAs in triacylglycerols (TAGs), named TAG estolides, serve as metabolite reservoir of FAHFAs mobilized by lipases upon demand. Here, we characterized the involvement of two major metabolic lipases, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), in TAG estolide and FAHFA degradation. We synthesized a library of 20 TAG estolide isomers with FAHFAs varying in branching position, chain length, saturation grade, and position on the glycerol backbone and developed an in silico mass spectra library of all predicted catabolic intermediates. We found that ATGL alone or coactivated by comparative gene identification-58 efficiently liberated FAHFAs from TAG estolides with a preference for more compact substrates where the estolide branching point is located near the glycerol ester bond. ATGL was further involved in transesterification and remodeling reactions leading to the formation of TAG estolides with alternative acyl compositions. HSL represented a much more potent estolide bond hydrolase for both TAG estolides and free FAHFAs. FAHFA and TAG estolide accumulation in white adipose tissue of mice lacking HSL argued for a functional role of HSL in estolide catabolism in vivo. Our data show that ATGL and HSL participate in the metabolism of estolides and TAG estolides in distinct manners and are likely to affect the lipokine function of FAHFAs.


Assuntos
Lipase/metabolismo , Esterol Esterase/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Ésteres/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lipólise/fisiologia , Metabolismo/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Ácido Palmítico/metabolismo , Ácidos Esteáricos/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
15.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200806

RESUMO

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are important biological markers and regulators of cardiac function. The natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA), also known as NPR1 or guanylyl cyclase A, binds ANP and BNP to initiate transmembrane signal transduction by elevating the intracellular levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate. However, the effects and mechanisms downstream of NPRA are largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in the global pattern of mRNA and circular RNA (circRNA) expression in NPRA­/­ and NPRA+/+ myocardium. Differentially expressed mRNA molecules were characterised using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis and were found to be primarily related to metabolic processes. Moreover, circRNA expression was also examined, and a possible competing endogenous RNA network consisting of circRNA, microRNA (miRNA), and mRNA molecules was constructed. The results of this study indicated that NPRA may play a role in cardiac metabolism, which could be mediated by circRNA through endogenous competition mechanisms. These findings may provide insight into future characterisation of various ceRNA network pathways.


Assuntos
Metabolismo/genética , Miocárdio/metabolismo , RNA Circular/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores do Fator Natriurético Atrial/genética , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Biologia Computacional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Software
16.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(2): 195-202, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa | ID: biblio-1146040

RESUMO

Los derivados de juglona, como 2-(4-hidroxifenil) amino-1,4-naftoquinona (Q7), son conocidos agentes antitumorales. Ellos generan especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS), que podrían producir un desbalance de ROS y un metabolismo anormal de lípidos. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto del ascorbato sobre el metabolismo de lípidos y carbohidratos en condición de estrés oxidativo inducido por Q7. A ratas Wistar macho, se les administró oralmente Q7 (10 mg/Kg) y/o ascorbato (500 mg/Kg) durante 20 días. Las ratas tratadas con Q7 mostraron un aumento de los triglicéridos en suero, del colesterol VLDL y de los niveles de peróxidación lipídica. Cuando el tratamiento con Q7 fue seguido de la administración de ascorbato (500 mg/Kg), observamos una disminución de los triglicéridos en suero, del colesterol VLDL y de la peroxidación lipídica. La administración oral de ascorbato redujo el aumento de lípidos inducido por Q7 y la glicemia postprandial. Esto podría estar asociado con la actividad redox del ascorbato, que reduce el estrés oxidativo inducido por Q7. Concluimos que el ascorbato modula el aumento del metabolismo de lípidos y carbohidratos inducido por Q7.


Juglone derivatives like 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) amino-1,4-naphthoquinone (Q7) are used as antitumor agents, and act through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Such may lead to abnormal lipid metabolism and ROS dysregulation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ascorbate on the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates following Q7-induced oxidative stress. Male Wistar rats were administered Q7 (10 mg/Kg) and/or ascorbate (500 mg/Kg) orally for 20 days. Rats treated with Q7 showed an increase in serum triglycerides, VLDL cholesterol and lipid peroxidation levels. When Q7 treatment was followed up by ascorbate (500 mg/Kg) administration, we observed a reduction in serum triglycerides, VLDL cholesterol and lipid peroxidation. The oral administration of ascorbate reduced the Q7-induced increases in lipids, and postprandial glycemia. This could be associated with the redox activity of ascorbate that reduced the oxidative stress induced by Q7. We thus conclude that ascorbate modulates the Q7-induced increase of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ácido Ascórbico , Lipídeos , Metabolismo , Carboidratos , Estresse Oxidativo
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22322, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339843

RESUMO

Late developmental stages of the marine copepods in the genus Calanus can spend extended periods in a dormant stage (diapause) that is preceded by the accumulation of large lipid stores. We assessed how lipid metabolism during development from the C4 stage to adult is altered in response to predation risk and varying food availability, to ultimately understand more of the metabolic processes during development in Calanus copepods. We used RNA sequencing to assess if perceived predation risk in combination with varied food availability affects expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism and diapause preparation in C. finmarchicus. The lipid metabolism response to predation risk differed depending on food availability, time and life stage. Predation risk caused upregulation of lipid catabolism with high food, and downregulation with low food. Under low food conditions, predation risk disrupted lipid accumulation. The copepods showed no clear signs of diapause preparation, supporting earlier observations of the importance of multiple environmental cues in inducing diapause in C. finmarchicus. This study demonstrates that lipid metabolism is a sensitive endpoint for the interacting environmental effects of predation pressure and food availability. As diapause may be controlled by lipid accumulation, our findings may contribute towards understanding processes that can ultimately influence diapause timing.


Assuntos
Copépodes/genética , Diapausa/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Animais , Copépodes/fisiologia , Diapausa/fisiologia , Metabolismo/genética , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Análise de Sequência de RNA
18.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243600, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Based on the epidemiologic findings of Covid-19 incidence; illness and mortality seem to be associated with metabolic risk factors. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the association of metabolic risk factors and risk of Covid-19. METHODS: This study was designed according to PRISMA guidelines. Two independent researchers searched for the relevant studies using PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scopus. The search terms developed focusing on two main roots of "Covid-19" and "metabolic risk factors". All relevant observational, analytical studies, review articles, and a meta-analysis on the adult population were included in this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis was performed using the random effect model for pooling proportions to address heterogeneity among studies. Data were analyzed using STATA package version 11.2, (StataCorp, USA). RESULTS: Through a comprehensive systematic search in the targeted databases we found 1124 papers, after running the proses of refining, 13 studies were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of obesity in Covid-19 patients was 29% (95% CI: 14-47%). For Diabetes and Hypertension, these were 22% (95% CI: 12% 33%) and 32% (95% CI: 12% 56%), respectively. There was significant heterogeneity in the estimates of the three pooled prevalence without any significant small-study effects. Such warning points, to some extent, guide physicians and clinicians to better understand the importance of controlling co-morbid risk factors in prioritizing resource allocation and interventions. CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis showed that hypertension is more prevalent than obesity and diabetes in patients with Covid-19 disease. The prevalence of co-morbid metabolic risk factors must be adopted for better management and priority settings of public health vaccination and other required interventions. The results may help to improve services delivery in COVID-19 patients, while helping to develop better policies for prevention and response to COVID-19 and its critical outcomes.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Metabolismo , /metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/patologia , Hipertensão/virologia , Fatores de Risco
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5808, 2020 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199701

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle promotes metabolic balance by regulating glucose uptake and the stimulation of multiple interorgan crosstalk. We show here that the catalytic activity of Vav2, a Rho GTPase activator, modulates the signaling output of the IGF1- and insulin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in that tissue. Consistent with this, mice bearing a Vav2 protein with decreased catalytic activity exhibit reduced muscle mass, lack of proper insulin responsiveness and, at much later times, a metabolic syndrome-like condition. Conversely, mice expressing a catalytically hyperactive Vav2 develop muscle hypertrophy and increased insulin responsiveness. Of note, while hypoactive Vav2 predisposes to, hyperactive Vav2 protects against high fat diet-induced metabolic imbalance. These data unveil a regulatory layer affecting the signaling output of insulin family factors in muscle.


Assuntos
Biocatálise , Homeostase , Metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-vav/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Adipócitos Brancos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos Brancos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Animais , Biocatálise/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Tamanho Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Genótipo , Glucose/farmacologia , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Células Musculares/citologia , Células Musculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
20.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1931): 20201410, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043862

RESUMO

Joint friction has never previously been considered in the computation of mechanical and metabolic energy balance of human and animal (loco)motion, which heretofore included just muscle work to move the body centre of mass (external work) and body segments with respect to it. This happened mainly because, having been previously measured ex vivo, friction was considered to be almost negligible. Present evidences of in vivo damping of limb oscillations, motion captured and processed by a suited mathematical model, show that: (a) the time course is exponential, suggesting a viscous friction operated by the all biological tissues involved; (b) during the swing phase, upper limbs report a friction close to one-sixth of the lower limbs; (c) when lower limbs are loaded, in an upside-down body posture allowing to investigate the hip joint subjected to compressive forces as during the stance phase, friction is much higher and load dependent; and (d) the friction of the four limbs during locomotion leads to an additional internal work that is a remarkable fraction of the mechanical external work. These unprecedented results redefine the partitioning of the energy balance of locomotion, the internal work components, muscle and transmission efficiency, and potentially readjust the mechanical paradigm of the different gaits.


Assuntos
Extremidades , Articulações , Locomoção , Animais , Fricção , Humanos , Metabolismo , Estresse Mecânico
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