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1.
Exp Parasitol ; 225: 108113, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992605

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis remains the leading protozoan induced cause of diarrhoea-associated mortality worldwide. Cryptosporidium hominis, the anthroponotically transmitted species within the Cryptosporidium genus, contributes significantly to the global burden of infection, accounting for the majority of clinical cases in many countries. This study applied high resolution melting analysis, a post-real-time PCR application, to the differentiation of six globally prevalent C. hominisgp60-subtypes. This novel method targeted three microsatellite, tandem repeat containing genetic markers, gp60, the genetic marker upon which current Cryptosporidium subtype nomenclature is based, MSB, and MSE, by which to differentiate between C. hominis isolates. This multi-locus approach successfully differentiated between all six C. hominisgp60-subtypes studied, some of which, such as IbA10G2, are known to exhibit global ubiquity. Thus, this method has the potential to be universally employed as a sensitive, cost effective and highly reproducible means to rapidly differentiate between C. hominisgp60-subtypes. Such a method would be of particular utility in epidemiological studies and outbreak scenarios, providing cost effective, clinically accessible alternative to DNA sequencing. The success of this preliminary study also supports further analysis of an expanded C. hominisgp60-subtype range and the potential expansion of the multi-locus panel in order to improve the discriminatory power of this approach.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium/genética , Parasitologia/métodos , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
Trends Parasitol ; 37(3): 214-225, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436314

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan agent of Chagas' disease, displays a complex population structure made up of multiple strains showing a diverse ecoepidemiological distribution. Parasite genetic variability may be associated with disease outcome, hence stressing the need to develop methods for T. cruzi typing in vivo. Serological typing methods that exploit the presence of host antibodies raised against polymorphic parasite antigens emerge as an appealing approach to address this issue. These techniques are robust, simple, cost-effective, and are not curtailed by methodological/biological limitations intrinsic to available genotyping methods. Here, we critically assess the progress towards T. cruzi serotyping and discuss the opportunity provided by high-throughput immunomics to improve this field.


Assuntos
Parasitologia/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/normas , Trypanosoma cruzi/classificação , Animais , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Humanos , Testes Sorológicos/economia , Testes Sorológicos/tendências , Especificidade da Espécie , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia
3.
Acta Trop ; 216: 105824, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422544

RESUMO

Diverse snail species serve as intermediate hosts of the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the etiological agent of human neuroangiostrongyliasis. However, levels of A. cantonensis infection prevalence and intensity vary dramatically among these host species. Factors contributing to this variation are largely unknown. Environmental factors, such as precipitation and temperature, have been correlated with overall A. cantonensis infection levels in a locale, but the influence of environment on infection in individual snail species has not been addressed. We identified levels of A. cantonensis prevalence and intensity in 16 species of snails collected from 29 sites along an environmental gradient on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The relationship between infection levels of individual species and their environment was evaluated using AIC model selection of Generalized Linear Mixed Models incorporating precipitation, temperature, and vegetation cover at each collection site. Our results indicate that different mechanisms drive parasite prevalence and intensity in the intermediate hosts. Overall, snails from rainy, cool, green sites had higher infection levels than snails from dry, hot sites with less green vegetation. Intensity increased at the same rate along the environmental gradient in all species, though at different levels, while the relation between prevalence and environmental variables depended on species. These results have implications for zoonotic transmission, as human infection is a function of infection in the intermediate hosts, ingestion of which is the main pathway of transmission. The probability of human infection is greater in locations with higher rainfall, lower temperature and more vegetation cover because of higher infection prevalence in the gastropod hosts, but this depends on the host species. Moreover, severity of neuroangiostrongyliasis symptoms is likely to be greater in locations with higher rainfall, lower temperature, and more vegetation because of the higher numbers of infectious larvae (infection intensity) in all infected snail species. This study highlights the variation of infection prevalence and intensity in individual gastropod species, the individualistic nature of interactions between host species and their environment, and the implications for human neuroangiostrongyliasis in different environments.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis/isolamento & purificação , Meio Ambiente , Gastrópodes/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/genética , Animais , DNA de Helmintos , Hawaii , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Parasitologia/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Ratos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
5.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 331-334, 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935503

RESUMO

With the rapid development of molecular biology, the isothermal amplification technique has been used for the nucleic acid detection of parasites and other pathogens due to its high efficiency and rapid and simple procedures, and has become an important tool to promote the field detection and control of parasitic diseases. Recombinase-aided isothermal amplification assay (RAA), a novel isothermal amplification technique, which is simple and easy to perform, rapid for field detection, no need for high-end equipment, and rapid field detection, may amplify the target gene fragments within 5 to 20 min under an isothermal condition (usually 37 to 42 ℃) and achieve a real-time observation of the amplification results. RAA has been successfully employed for the nucleic acid detection of a wide range of parasites and other pathogens to date, and has shown a high sensitivity and specificity. Notably, such an assay is suitable for the large-scale field detection in non-lab environments, and is therefore considered to have a potential value of application in rapid field detections.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Doenças Parasitárias , Parasitologia , Primers do DNA , Humanos , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Parasitologia/métodos , Recombinases , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 335-339, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a recombinase-aided isothermal amplification (RAA) assay for nucleic acid detection of Schistosoma mansoni. METHODS: The 121 bp highly-repeated sequence of S. mansoni was selected as the target gene fragment to be detected. The primers and fluorescent probes were designed using the Amplfix software, and a fluorescent RAA assay was established and optimized. The fluorescent RAA assay was performed to detect gradient diluent recombinant plasmids containing target gene fragment and different concentrations of S. mansoni genomic DNA to determine the sensitivity, and this assay was applied to detect the genomic DNA of S. japonicum, S. haematobium, Ancylostoma duodenale and Clonorchis sinensis to evaluate the specificity. RESULTS: A fluorescent RAA assay was successfully established, which was effective to amplify the specific gene fragments of S. mansoni within 20 min at 39 ℃. The minimum detectable limit of the fluorescent RAA assay was 10 copies/µL using recombinant plasmids as templates and 0.1 fg/µL using S. mansoni genomic DNA samples as templates. The fluorescent RAA assays were all negative for detecting the genomic DNA from S. japonicum, S. haematobium, A. duodenale and C. sinensis. CONCLUSIONS: A novel fluorescent RAA assay is successfully established, which is simple, rapid, sensitive and specific to detect genomic DNA of S. mansoni.


Assuntos
Genes de Helmintos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Parasitologia , Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistossomose mansoni , Animais , Primers do DNA , Genes de Helmintos/genética , Parasitologia/métodos , Recombinases , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Esquistossomose mansoni/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 345-349, 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a novel nucleic acid assay for detection of Giardia lamblia based on the recombinase-aided isothermal amplification (RAA) assay, and evaluate its sensitivity and specificity for detection of G. lamblia. METHODS: The specific primer sequences and florescent probes were designed and synthesized based on the G. lamblia ß-giardin gene as the target gene, and a fluorescent RAA assay was established. The recombinant plasmids at various copies (containing the ß-giardin gene target sequence) and the genomic DNA of G. lamblia at various concentrations were used as templates for the fluorescent RAA assay to assess the sensitivity, and the genomic DNA from G. lamblia, Schistosoma japonicum, Clonorchis sinensis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Ascaris lumbricoides, Salmonella and Shigella was used as templates to assess the specificity of the fluorescent RAA assay. RESULTS: A novel fluorescent RAA assay was successfully established for detection of G. lamblia, which allowed the rapid and specific amplification of the target gene fragments at 39 ℃ within 20 min. The sensitivities of the fluorescent RAA assay were 102 copies/µL and 1 pg/µL for detection of the recombinant plasmid and G. lamblia genomic DNA, respectively, and the fluorescent RAA assay was negative for detection of the genomic DNA from S. japonicum, C. sinensis, C. parvum, A. lumbricoides, Salmonella and Shigella, which showed a high specificity. CONCLUSIONS: A fluorescent RAA assay, which is simple, sensitive and specific, is successfully established for nucleic acid detection of G. lamblia.


Assuntos
DNA de Protozoário , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Parasitologia , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/diagnóstico , Giardíase/parasitologia , Parasitologia/métodos , Recombinases , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 350-354, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a recombinase-aided isothermal amplification (RAA) assay for the nucleic acid detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. METHODS: The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1) gene sequence of A. cantonensis was used as the detection target sequence, and the specific primers and probes were designed and synthesized, followed by screening of the primers and probes with the highest specificity, to establish the basic and fluorescent RAA assay for nucleic acid detection of A. cantonensis. The sensitivity of the fluorescent RAA assay was evaluated by using the target gene fragment sequence-contained recombinant plasmids at various copy numbers and the genomic DNA from A. cantonensis as the template DNA samples, and the specificity of the fluorescent RAA assay was evaluated by using the genomic DNA from A. cantonensis, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, Clonorchis sinensis, Echinococcus granulosus and Ancylostoma duodenale, as well as Pomacea canaliculata and Biomphalaria straminea snail tissues as the template DNA samples. RESULTS: A fluorescent RAA assay was successfully established for nucleic acid detection of A. cantonensis, which achieved real-time amplification of the specific DNA fragment of A. cantonensis within 20 min at 37 ℃. By using the target gene fragment sequence-contained recombinant plasmids at various copy numbers and the genomic DNA from A. cantonensis as the DNA templates, the lowest detection limits of the fluorescent RAA assay were 10 copies/µL of recombinant plasmids and 100 pg/µL of genomic DNA, respectively. The fluorescent RAA assay was negative for detection of the genomic DNA from A. cantonensis, S. mansoni, A. lumbricoides, C. sinensis, E. granulosus, A. duodenale, and P. canaliculata and B. straminea snail tissues. CONCLUSIONS: A simple, rapid fluorescent RAA assay has been successfully established, which has a high sensitivity and specificity for the nucleic acid detection of A. cantonensis.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Clonorchis sinensis , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/genética , Animais , Primers do DNA , Parasitologia/métodos , Recombinases , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico
9.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(10): 850-863, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891493

RESUMO

The first experimental crosses carried out with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum played a key role in determining the genetic loci responsible for drug resistance, virulence, invasion, growth rate, and transmission. These crosses relied on splenectomized chimpanzees to complete the liver stage of the parasite's life cycle and the subsequent transition to asexual blood stage culture followed by cloning of recombinant progeny in vitro. Crosses can now be routinely carried out using human-liver-chimeric mice infused with human erythrocytes to generate hundreds of unique recombinant progeny for genetic linkage mapping, bulk segregant analysis, and high-throughput 'omics readouts. The high number of recombinant progeny should allow for unprecedented power and efficiency in the execution of a systems genetics approach to study P. falciparum biology.


Assuntos
Cruzamentos Genéticos , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Parasitologia/métodos , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Parasitologia/tendências
11.
J Vis Exp ; (162)2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865535

RESUMO

Edhazardia aedis is a microsporidian parasite of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, a disease vector that transmits multiple arboviruses which cause millions of disease cases each year. E. aedis causes mortality and reduced reproductive fitness in the mosquito vector and has been explored for its potential as a biocontrol agent. The protocol we present for culturing E. aedis is based on its natural infection cycle, which involves both horizontal and vertical transmission at different life stages of the mosquito host. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are exposed to spores in the larval stage. These infected larvae then mature into adults and transmit the parasite vertically to their offspring. Infected offspring are then used as a source of spores for future horizontal transmission. Culturing E. aedis can be challenging to the uninitiated given the complexities of the parasite's life cycle, and this protocol provides detailed guidance and visual aids for clarification.


Assuntos
Aedes/parasitologia , Microsporídios , Parasitologia/métodos , Animais , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Larva/parasitologia , Mosquitos Vetores
12.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e000420, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609238

RESUMO

Angiostrongylus vasorum is a pulmonary artery parasite of domestic and wild canid. On molluscs, intermediate host, first stage larvae (L1) are found after the first day of infection, in the 8th L2 and in the 30 th L3. It was evaluated L1, L2 and L3 recovered by Baermann technique from Achatina fulica infected with 1000 L1. Fifty larvae/stage were incubated with antibodies anti-ß-tubulin, anti-α-tubulin, anti- α-actin, anti-ß-actin and anti-collagen, and then with Alexa 633. Fifty larvae/stage were observed with picrosirius red and Oil Red O. It was also observed in the anterior region of L1 the beginning of the chitinous stems development, in the initial portion of the intestine and genital primordium. In L2 anterior region, the papillae, chitinous canes juxtaposed to the mouth and intestines bigger than L1. The L3 musculature is well defined, next to the chitinous stems, there are two round distally arranged from each other. It was observed the whole extension of the intestine genital primordium and intense cellularity in the L3 distal portion. With the picrosirius red the L1, L2 and L3 musculature could be observed, as the nerve ganglia on L3. Oil Red O revealed that L1, L2 and L3 store energy on lipid droplets.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Gastrópodes , Parasitologia , Angiostrongylus/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Gastrópodes/parasitologia , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Parasitologia/métodos
13.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(9): 745-760, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703742

RESUMO

Gene editing in trypanosomatids has long been proven difficult. The development of CRISPR-Cas9 has improved this issue, opening the way to a better understanding of biological processes and drug-resistance mechanisms, and screening of drug targets. Different strategies have now been developed: either PCR- or plasmid-based, differing mainly in the nature of the donor DNA and the single guide RNA transcription. Here we review the main genetic tools available for Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi, and Trypanosoma brucei for gene tagging, single-base editing, and deletion of nonessential and essential genes. We discuss the main advantages and challenges of different strategies and how to choose 'the right cut' depending on the importance of untranslated regions. These considerations allow selection of the most accurate gene editing approach for a given functional analysis.


Assuntos
DNA de Protozoário/genética , Edição de Genes , Trypanosomatina/genética , Parasitologia/tendências , RNA de Protozoário/genética
14.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(4): 455-460, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149034

RESUMO

Resumen Se evaluaron retrospectivamente los resultados obtenidos de estudios parasitológicos en muestras de heces y escobillados anales remitidos al Laboratorio de Parasitología y Gastroenterología del Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo del trabajo fue conocer la prevalencia de los parásitos intestinales observados en las muestras remitidas a este hospital y su distribución en rangos etarios. En el período comprendido entre mayo de 2018 y abril de 2019 se analizó un total de 4713 muestras pertenecientes a 3311 pacientes, que arrojó un resultado total de 29% de positivos (1371/4713). De los exámenes coproparasitológicos el 30% fueron positivos (1193/4025) y se hallaron huevos de Enterobius vermicularis en el 26% (178/688) de los escobillados anales. En las muestras seriadas de heces se obtuvo un 37% de positividad mientras que en muestras únicas un 21%. En la totalidad de muestras fecales, los enteroparásitos más prevalentes fueron Blastocystis spp. en un 14% (579/4025), Giardia duodenalis 11% (456/4025) y Dientamoeba fragilis 7% (291/4025). Los resultados demostraron diferencias significativas con mayor prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en pacientes en edad escolar comprendidos entre los 6 y 10 años, en relación a los de edad preescolar. En las muestras fecales analizadas se evidenció un predominio de parasitismo de protozoos sobre helmintos, por lo que se debería considerar reforzar el diagnóstico de laboratorio de esas especies mediante técnicas, como coloraciones, que posibiliten su hallazgo y confirmación.


Abstract The results obtained of the coproparasitological studies and anal swab submitted to the laboratory of the Parasitology Section of the Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" of the Buenos Aires City, Argentina, were retrospectively evaluated The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites found on the submitted samples and to evaluate their frequency according to the age of the patients. Within the period between May 2018 and April 2019, a total of 4713 samples corresponding to 3311 patients were analyzed and intestinal parasites were present in 29% (1371/4713). In 30% of coproparasitological studies parasite estructures were found (1193/4025) and 26% of anal swab samples were positive for the presence of Enterobius vermicularis eggs (178/688). In serial fecal samples, 37% positive results were obtained, while in single samples, 21%. The most prevalent enteroparasites calculated from the total fecal samples were: Blastocystis spp. with 14% (579/4025), followed by Giardia duodenalis 11% (456/4025) and Dientamoeba fragilis 7% (291/4025). The incidence of intestinal parasites was higher in the group of patients between 6 and 10 years, and the existence of significant differences between proportions of parasitized patients in preschool and school infants, was observed. In the faecal samples analyzed, a greater prevalence of parasitism caused by protozoa than by helminths was evidenced, for which reason it should be considered, reinforcing the laboratory diagnosis using techniques such as stains that allow its finding and confirmation.


Resumo Os resultados obtidos de estudos parasitológicos em amostras fecais e esfregaços anais enviados ao Laboratório de Parasitologia e Gastroenterologia do Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" da Cidade de Buenos Aires, Argentina, foram avaliados retrospectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a prevalência dos parasitas intestinais observados nas amostras enviadas a este hospital e sua distribuição por faixas etárias. Durante o período compreendido entre maio de 2018 a abril de 2019 foram analisadas 4713 amostras, correspondentes a 3311 pacientes, o que deu um resultado total de 29% de positivos (1371/4713). 30% dos exames coproparasitológicos foram positivos (1193/4025) e foram encontrados ovos de Enterobius vermicularis em 26% (178/688) dos esfregaços anais. Nas amostras seriadas fecais foram obtidos 37% de resultados positivos, enquanto que em amostras únicas, 21%. Os enteroparasitas mais prevalentes na totalidade das amostras fecais foram Blastocystis spp. em 14% (579/4025), Giardia duodenalis 11% (456/4025) e Dientamoeba fragilis 7% (291/4025). Os resultados demonstraram diferenças significativas com maior prevalência de parasitas intestinais em pacientes em idade escolar da faixa etária entre 6 e 10 anos, em relação aos da pré-escola. Nas amostras fecais analisadas, evidenciou-se um predomínio de parasitismo por protozoários por sobre helmintos, pelo qual deve ser considerado o reforço do diagnóstico laboratorial dessas espécies por meio de técnicas, como colorações que permitam a sua localização e confirmação.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Parasitos/parasitologia , Pediatria , Prevalência , Doenças Parasitárias , Parasitologia , Incidência , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Fezes , Gastroenterologia , Hospitais , Laboratórios
15.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190535, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491097

RESUMO

Since the early 20th century, the detection of intestinal parasites has improved with the development of several techniques for parasitic structures recovery and identification, which differ in sensitivity, specificity, practicality, cost, and infrastructure demand. This study aims to review, in chronological order, the stool examination techniques and discuss their advantages, limitations, and perspectives, and to provide professionals and specialists in this field with data that lays a foundation for critical analysis on the use of such procedures. The concentration procedures that constitute the main techniques applied in routine research and in parasitological kits are a) spontaneous sedimentation; b) centrifugation-sedimentation with formalin-ethyl acetate; and c) flotation with zinc sulfate solution. While selecting a technique, one should consider the purpose of its application and the technical-operational, biological, and physicochemical factors inherent in the procedures used in stool processing, which may restrict its use. These intrinsic limitations may have undergone procedural changes driven by scientific and technological development and by development of alternative methods, which now contribute to the improvement of diagnostic accuracy.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Parasitologia/história , Manejo de Espécimes/história , Animais , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Parasitologia/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
16.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(3): 299-313, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540816

RESUMO

The diagnosis of parasitic and fungal infections, historically based on the detection of these pathogens using direct diagnosis (macro/microscopic examination, culture) or serological methods, has considerably evolved in the last decades, especially with the development of molecular approaches and mass spectrometry. These techniques, as well as most analyses of parasitic and fungal serology, are mostly the preserve of Hospital University Centers Parasitology-Mycology laboratories. In 2016, the French association of medical parasitology and mycology teachers and hospital practitioners (Anofel) has provided a Catalogue of rare analyses, regularly updated and freely accessible on the Anofel website (https://anofel.net/). This tool, which hinges on 4 parts (parasitology, parasitic serology, mycology, and fungal serology), aims to provide information on all available analyses, and a list of hospital laboratories able to undertake them. It is complementary to the other reference works that were developed by our association, including the Guide of analyses and methods in parasitology and mycology, published in 2018, and the eANOFEL pictures and videos database, freely accessible online (http://www.eanofel.fr). In this article, we draw-up a state-of-the-art of the most specialized techniques available in the parasitology-mycology laboratories and presented in the Catalogue of rare analyses of the Anofel collegium, and their interest for the diagnosis of these infections.


Assuntos
Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos , Micologia/métodos , Micoses/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Parasitologia/métodos , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/tendências , Humanos , Laboratórios Hospitalares/normas , Laboratórios Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Micologia/tendências , Micoses/microbiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Parasitologia/tendências
17.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 41(2): 249-262, jun./dez. 2020. Tab, Ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224452

RESUMO

O conhecimento sobre microbiologia e parasitologia é considerado abstrato, pois muitos agentes causadores de doenças não são vistos a olho nu, o que distancia os alunos da realidade. Assim, nossos objetivos foram promover ações educativas por meio de ferramentas didáticas lúdicas que possibilitassem a complementação do aprendizado dos alunos frente aos diferentes grupos de microorganismos e parasitos e das ações de profilaxia relacionadas aos mesmos, e avaliar se ao final eles tinham condições de discriminar os grupos e relacionar com as doenças e as formas de profilaxia. Para tanto, foram feitas entrevistas junto aos professores para levantamento das possíveis atividades a serem desenvolvidas. A ação foi definida e então dividida em três momentos (aula expositiva, jogo didático e mostra científica) realizados entre agosto e novembro de 2018, atingindo aproximadamente 350 alunos, de oitavos e nonos anos, de três escolas públicas da zona urbana e rural da cidade de Uberlândia-MG. Para avaliar o impacto da ação foi feita uma análise comparativa de questionários aplicados antes (pré-intervenção) e após a ação (pós-intervenção). O percentual das respostas corretas nos questionários pós-intervenção aumentou em duas escolas (p>0,005). Quanto à análise por questões, as menores porcentagens de acertos foram observadas em perguntas relacionadas à distinção entre doenças bacterianas e virais, o reconhecimento dos sintomas e a associação das formas de transmissão com a profilaxia. Assim, este estudo reforça a importância da educação em saúde para que os alunos se mobilizem frente ao combate das doenças.(AU)


The knowledge about microbiology and parasitology is considered abstract since causative agents of diseases cannot be seen with the naked eye, leading to students' detachment from reality. Therefore, this work aimed to promote educational actions through playful tools that could complement students' learning regarding the different groups of microorganisms and parasites and the prophylactic measures related to them. Furthermore, at the end of the actions it was evaluated if the students were able to discriminate the groups of microorganisms and relate them to the diseases they cause and the different forms of prophylaxis. To this end, interviews were conducted with teachers to survey the possible activities that could be used. The action was defined and then divided into three moments (expository class, didactic game and scientific show) held between August and November 2018, reaching approximately 350 students, from the eighth and ninth years, from three public schools in the urban and rural area of the city oftUberlândia-MG. To assess the impact of the action, a comparative analysis of questionnaires was applied before (pre-intervention) and after the action (post-intervention). The percentage of correct answers in the questionnaires post-intervention increased in two schools (p>0,005). Regarding the analysis by questions, the lowest percentages of correct answers were observed in questions related to the distinction between bacterial and viral diseases, the recognition of the symptoms and the association of transmission ways with prophylaxis. Thus, this study reinforces the importance of health education for students to mobilize in the fight against diseases.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Parasitologia , Educação em Saúde , Doença , Prevenção de Doenças , Microbiologia , Aprendizagem
18.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 88(1): 8-15, ene.- jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128533

RESUMO

Antecedentes: Este artículo conmemora el 90 aniversario de la Revista Médica Hondureña. Objetivo: Registrar artículos sobre parasitosis, comentar algunas investigaciones y documentar hallazgos. Metodología: Se consultó la revista en la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud de Honduras (www.bvs.hn), separando artículos en parasitología de 1930 a 2019.Los trabajos libres presentados en Congresos Médicos Nacionales en temas de parasitología se identificaron de suplementos 2003-2019. Resultados: Se identificaron 234 publicaciones en parasitología en 12 temas, resaltando 73 artículos sobre malaria, 24 de insectos/arácnidos, 23 en tratamiento, 14 en teniasis y cisticercosis, 12 sobre Enfermedad de Chagas y leishmaniasis, respectivamente, y otros en menor número. Se reconoció la falta de investigación parasitológica. De 624 trabajos libres, 90 (14%) ocuparon temas parasitológicos, 40 en malaria y 17 en Enfermedad de Chagas. Casi ningún trabajo libre se completa a publicación. Discusión: Urgen publicaciones de investigaciones solidas en parasitología desarrolladas cuidadosamente, que fortalezcan el sector salud y provean productos adecuados con metas a reducir desigualdades. La Asociación Hondureña de Parasitología (AHPA), fundada el 23 de junio 2000, promueve el desarrollo de la parasitología en Honduras a través de la investigación científica y actividades de educación continua...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Publicação Periódica , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Parasitologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Científica e Desenvolvimento Tecnológico
19.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(2): 211-212, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418393

RESUMO

Camacho & Reinhard stated in the December 2019 issue of the KJP (57: 621-625) that we confused a pollen grain with an Enterobius egg found in the grave of a female adolescent residing in ancient Tehran 7,000 years ago. We want here to clarify and answer to the outlined points in their article.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Ephedra , Medicina Tradicional , Óvulo , Parasitos , Parasitologia , Pólen , Adolescente , Animais , Feminino , Humanos
20.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(7): 1881-1888, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448961

RESUMO

Due to defects and drawbacks of most conventional diagnostic methods including serology for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis as a dangerous opportunistic infection in immunocompromised individuals, the accurate, rapid, and sensitive detection of infection in such patients is essential. In this study, the TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR and, a relatively new nucleic acid amplification method, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique was compared based on the repetitive elements (RE) sequence to detect Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) DNA in blood samples of immunocompromised individuals. During this study, 119 blood samples from immunocompromised cancer patients with renal failure, undergoing dialysis were studied. After DNA extraction from blood samples using the salt extraction method, the molecular techniques of TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR and LAMP were used to investigate the contamination of the samples with T. gondii, based on the 529 bp (RE) sequence of T. gondii. The analytical sensitivity of LAMP and real-time PCR was evaluated by duplicating the five-step serial dilutions of T. gondii tachyzoites from 0.25 to 5×105 spiked tachyzoites per milliliter of the Toxoplasma seronegative blood sample. The extracted DNA from other parasites and human chromosomal DNA were used to determine the specificity of the molecular methods. The obtained results were analyzed using Kappa statistical test and SPSS22 software. Out of 119 studied samples, 7 (5.8%) and 5 (4.2%) samples were positive for Toxoplasma by TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR and LAMP, respectively. The limits of detection of TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR and RE-LAMP in negative serum samples were one and five tachyzoites (CT 38), respectively. Both real-time PCR and LAMP methods were 100% specific for Toxoplasma detection. Positive results were obtained only with T. gondii DNA, while other DNA samples were negative. The TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR based on the RE sequence showed higher sensitivity to T. gondii DNA detection in blood samples of cancer patients and serial dilutions of parasitic tachyzoites. The results show that TaqMan probe-based real-time PRC is a sensitive and specific method for the detection of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised individuals, as well as the LAMP assay, which can be used as a suitable alternative diagnostic method for the detection of toxoplasmosis in such patients, without need the for any expensive equipment.


Assuntos
DNA de Protozoário/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Parasitologia/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Infecções Oportunistas/parasitologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia
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