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1.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807596

RESUMO

The year 2020 was profoundly marked by the emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2, causing COVID-19, which represents the greatest pandemic of the 21st century until now, and a major challenge for virologists in the scientific and medical communities. Increased numbers of SARS-CoV-2 infection all over the world imposed social and travel restrictions, including avoidance of face-to-face scientific meetings. Therefore, for the first time in history, the 2020 edition of the Brazilian Society of Virology (SBV) congress was totally online. Despite the challenge of the new format, the Brazilian society board and collaborators were successful in virtually congregating more than 921 attendees, which was the greatest SBV participant number ever reached. Seminal talks from prominent national and international researchers were presented every night, during a week, and included discussions about environmental, basic, animal, human, plant and invertebrate virology. A special roundtable debated exclusively new data and perspectives regarding COVID-19 by some of the greatest Brazilian virologists. Women scientists were very well represented in another special roundtable called "Young Women Inspiring Research", which was one of the most viewed and commented section during the meeting, given the extraordinary quality of the presented work. Finally, SBV offered the Helio Gelli Pereira award for one graduate and one undergraduate student, which has also been a fruitful collaboration between the society and Viruses journal. The annual SBV meeting has, therefore, reached its goals to inspire young scientists, stimulate high-quality scientific discussion and to encourage global collaboration between virologists.


Assuntos
Virologia , Brasil , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Sociedades Científicas , Interface Usuário-Computador , Virologia/organização & administração
2.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 21(4): 349-362, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706663

RESUMO

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2, the new coronavirus that originated in 2019, continues to impact every aspect of society in a profound manner. Testing will remain an important tool to mitigate the effects of this pandemic as early and accurate diagnosis can lead to appropriate countermeasures to reduce mortality and morbidity. However, testing isn't a simple yes/no answer as the target and host are complex, the virus is a moving target, there is a plethora of tests that identify different parts of the virus and have their own limits and range of detection, and when prevalence is low, false positives and negatives can be very high.Areas covered: This article covers all the major questions related to COVID-19 diagnostics, the why, when, where, who, what and how of testing, the different types of tests, interpretation of results and the ideal ASSURED-SQVM diagnostic. A comprehensive literature review using all the publicly available databases and government websites and reports was performed.Expert opinion: Diagnostics that meet the 'ASSURED-SQVM' (Affordable, Selective and Sensitive, User-friendly, Rapid and Robust, Equipment-free, Deliverable to end-users and additionally, allows for Self-testing, Quantifiable, detects if pathogens are Viable and can detect Multiple pathogens) would make a major impact in our fight against the current pandemic. While a significant majority of researchers focus on developing novel diagnostics that are highly selective and sensitive, it is the opinion of these authors that other aspects of the ASSURED-SQVM principles also be considered early in the development process for widespread use.


Assuntos
/métodos , /diagnóstico , /estatística & dados numéricos , Prova Pericial , Pessoal de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , RNA Viral/análise , Virologia/métodos
3.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(4): 912-920, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases during the reopening period in older adults, given that little is known about the prevalence of COVID-19 after the stay-at-home order was lifted in the United States, nor the actual effects of adherence to recommended public health measures (RPHM) on the risk of COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study nested in a parent prospective cohort study, which followed a population-based sample of 2325 adults 50 years and older residing in southeast Minnesota to assess the incidence of viral infections. Participants were instructed to self-collect both nasal and oropharyngeal swabs, which were tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-based severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) assay between May 8, 2020, and June, 30, 2020. We assessed the prevalence of COVID-19 cases and characteristics of study subjects. RESULTS: A total of 1505 eligible subjects participated in the study whose mean age was 68 years, with 885 (59%) women, 32 (2%) racial/ethnic minorities, and 906 (60%) with high-risk conditions for influenza. The prevalence of other Coronaviridae (human coronavirus [HCoV]-229E, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-OC43) during the 2019 to 2020 flu season was 109 (7%), and none tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Almost all participants reported adhering to the RPHM (1,488 [99%] for social distancing, 1,438 [96%] for wearing mask in a public space, 1,476 [98%] for hand hygiene, and 1,441 (96%) for staying home mostly). Eighty-six percent of participants resided in a single-family home. CONCLUSION: We did not identify SARS-COV-2 infection in our study cohort. The combination of participants' behavior in following the RPHM and their living environment may considerably mitigate the risk of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública , Idoso , /epidemiologia , /psicologia , /estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Precauções Universais/métodos , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos , Virologia/métodos
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009318, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662033

RESUMO

Species taxa are the units of taxonomy most suited to measure virus diversity, and they account for more than 70% of all virus taxa. Yet, as evidenced by the content of GenBank entries and illustrated by the recent literature on SARS-CoV-2, they are the most neglected taxa of virus research. To correct this disparity, we propose to make species taxa a first choice for communicating virus taxonomy in publications concerning viruses. We see it as a key step toward promoting research on diverse viruses, including pathogens, at this fundamental level of biology.


Assuntos
Classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Vírus/classificação , Virologia
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 230, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the common diseases in children and the routine detection methods frequently fail to identify the infectious pathogens especially for viruses. The Filmarray respiratory panel (FARP) can reliably and rapidly identify viruses and bacteria pathogens. This study is to evaluate the performance and clinical significance of FARP in children. METHODS: Children diagnosed with RTIs in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) were enrolled in this study. Nasopharyngeal secretion (NPS) samples of these children were collected and the FARP assay for 17 pathogens and routine microbiological methods were performed. Clinical data of all patients was also collected and evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 90 children were enrolled into this study and 58 patients (64.4%) were positive for 13 pathogens by FARP, with 18 being detected positive with multiple-virus (31.3%, 18/58). Human rhinovirus/enterovirus (21.0%%, 17/58) were the predominant pathogen, followed by adenovirus (18.5%). Higher proportions of various pathogens were identified in the infant and toddler (0-2 years) groups with human rhinovirus/enterovirus being mostly virus. Adenovirus were common in the group aged 3-5 years, but only three pathogens including M.pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus were also found in age group (6-14 years). Among 58 FARP positive patients, significant differences were found in antibiotic prescription and use of glucocorticoid between the single-organism-positive group and the multi-organism-positive group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, there was significant difference in use of anti-virus and usage of glucocorticoid between severe respiratory infections group and non severe respiratory infections group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that FARP can provide the rapid detection of respiratory virus and atypical bacteria for children, especially with severe respiratory tract infections.


Assuntos
Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Virologia/métodos , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Masculino , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037356, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587138

RESUMO

Importance: Acute viral bronchiolitis is a common and costly pediatric condition for which clinical practice guidelines discourage use of diagnostic tests and therapies. Objective: To evaluate trends over time for use of nonrecommended services for bronchiolitis since publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics clinical practice guideline on bronchiolitis (originally published in October 2006 and updated in November 2014). Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted using interrupted time-series regression analysis adjusting for the hospital providing service, patient demographic characteristics, and payer, with 2014 guideline update publication as the event point. Included patients were children younger than 2 years old discharged from the emergency department (ED) or hospital inpatient setting with a primary diagnosis of bronchiolitis at US Children's Hospitals contributing data to the Pediatric Health Information Systems database. Data were analyzed from June through December 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rates of nonrecommended tests (ie, chest radiography, viral testing, and complete blood cell count) and treatments (ie, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, antibiotics) were measured. Results: Among 602 375 encounters involving children with a primary diagnosis of bronchiolitis, 404 203 encounters (67.1%) were ED discharges and 198 172 encounters (32.9%) were inpatient discharges; 468 226 encounters (77.7%) involved children younger than 12 months, and 356 796 encounters (59.2%) involved boys. In the period after initial guideline publication (ie, November 2006 to November 2014), a negative use trajectory was found in all measures except viral testing in the ED group. Using the 2014 guideline update as the event point, several measures showed decreased use between study time periods. The greatest decrease was in bronchodilator use, which changed by -13.5 percentage points in the ED group (95% CI, -15.2 percentage points to -11.8 percentage points) and -11.3 percentage points in the inpatient group (95% CI, -13.1 percentage points to -9.4 percentage points). In the period after the 2014 guideline update (ie, December 2014 to December 2019), bronchodilators also showed the greatest change in usage trajectory, steepening more than 2-fold in both groups. In the ED group, the negative trajectory steepened from -0.11% monthly (95% CI, -0.13% to -0.09%) in the first guideline period to a new mean monthly slope of -0.26% (95% CI, -0.30% to -0.23%). In the inpatient group, the mean monthly slope steepened from -0.08% (95% CI, -0.10 to -0.05%) to -0.26% (95% CI, 0.30% to -0.22%). Length of stay decreased from 2.0 days (95% CI, 1.9 days to 2.1 days) to 1.7 days (95% CI, 1.7 days to 1.8 days). Hospital admission rate decreased from 18.0% (95% CI, 13.8% to 22.2%) to 17.8% (95% CI, 13.6 to 22.1%). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study with interrupted time-series analysis found that use of most nonrecommended bronchiolitis services decreased continuously after 2006. The rate of decline in bronchodilator use increased more than 2-fold after the 2014 guideline update. These findings support potential associations of practice guidelines with improved bronchiolitis care.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite Viral/diagnóstico , Bronquiolite Viral/terapia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Hospitalização/tendências , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/tendências , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Masculino , Técnicas Microbiológicas/tendências , Pediatria/normas , Radiografia Torácica/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos , Virologia/tendências
7.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(4): 1587-1593, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399890

RESUMO

Growth kinetics of a Vero cells adapted Bangladeshi strain of peste des petits ruminants virus was studied in Vero cells to determine maximum virus yield. One-step growth curve was formulated after determining virus in both supernatant (CFV) and cell lysate (CAV) at different time categories by microtitre plate titration in Vero cells and the viral presence was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. The virus was first detected in both the supernatants and cell pellets at 12 hpi. The virus titre reached its plateau at 72 hpi. Maximum virus titre of CAV was 6.2 log10 TCID50/ml and that of CFV was 5.2 log10 TCID50/ml at 72 hpi. After that, the titer gradually declined, but maintained at 4.5 log10 TCID50/ml in case of CAV and 4.2 log10 TCID50/ml in case of CFV at 96 hpi. It was concluded that the optimum time point for harvesting Vero cell culture is 72 hpi.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Virologia , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cinética , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Vero , Carga Viral , Virologia/métodos
8.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 495-500, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134526

RESUMO

RESUMEN: El virus SARS-CoV-2 ingresa al organismo de un individuo susceptible a través de la cavidad oral, nasal o de la mucosa conjuntival; busca ensamblarse por medio de su glicoproteína de superficie o espiga con los receptores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina 2 que en boca los encontramos con mayor expresión en las células escamosas que recubren el epitelio lingual y las glándulas salivales, una vez que ingresa por medio de la activación de proteasas ingresa a la célula huésped para denudar su RNA viral, a diferencia de otros virus no necesita ir hasta el núcleo de tal forma que en el citoplasma inicia su replicación y utiliza los ribosomas del huésped para formar una gran cantidad de proteínas virales tanto estructurales como accesorias que le permita formar nuevos viriones potencialmente infecciosos; los estomatólogos deben tomar en cuenta esta vía de infección y extremar las medidas para disminuir su carga viral local en la cavidad oral y las barreras físicas de protección para el operador, el paciente y la ergonomía del consultorio.


ABSTRACT: SARS-CoV-2 virus enters the body of a susceptible individual through oral, nasal or conjunctival mucosa, seeking to bind to the spike glycoprotein surface through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors. These are found in the mouth with a higher expression in oral squamous cells that cover the lingual epithelium and salivary glands. Once proteolytic activation begins, it enters the host cell to denudate its viral RNA. In contrast with other viruses, it does not require nucleus access, and therefore replicates in the cytoplasm using the host's ribosomes to produce great amounts of both structural and accessory viral proteins. Since this generates new and potentially infectious virions, dentists must consider this route of infection and take extreme measures to decrease their viral load in the oral cavity. Physical protection barriers for the operator, the patient and the health and safety of the work place are critical in these cases.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Betacoronavirus , Glândulas Salivares/virologia , Virologia/métodos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Boca
9.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 3073-3077, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025195

RESUMO

The species concept used in virology is based on the logic of the Linnaean hierarchy, which views a species class as the lowest abstract category that is included in all the higher categories in the classification, such as genera and families. As a result of this class inclusion, the members of a species class are always less numerous than the members of higher classes, which become more numerous as one moves up in the hierarchy. Because species classes always have fewer members than any of the higher classes, logic requires that they need more qualifications for establishing membership than any of the higher classes. This invalidates the claim that a species could be defined by a single property present in all its members. Species were only accepted in virus classification in 1991, because virologists assumed that it would lead to the use of Latin species names, which they rejected. Anglicized binomial species names have been used by virologists for more the 40 years and are popular because they consist of a virus name followed by a genus name that most virologists are familiar with. The ICTV has proposed to introduce a new Latinized virus species binomial nomenclature using the genus name followed by a hard-to-remember Latinized species epithet that bears little resemblance to the name of the virus itself. However, the proposal did not clarify what the advantage is of having to learn hundreds of new unfamiliar virus species names. In 2013, the ICTV changed the definition of a virus species as an abstract class and defined it as a group of physical objects, which induced virologists to believe that a virus species could be defined by a few characteristics of the viral genome. In recent years, thousands of viral sequences have been discovered in metagenomic databases, and the ICTV has suggested that it should be possible to incorporate these sequences in the current ICTV virus classification. Unfortunately, the relational properties of these hypothetical viruses that result from their biological interactions with hosts and vectors remain in the vast majority of cases totally unknown. The absence of this information makes it in fact impossible to incorporate these metagenomic sequences in the current classification of virus species.


Assuntos
Virologia/história , Vírus/classificação , Gerenciamento de Dados , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Genoma Viral , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI
10.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 3079-3083, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025196

RESUMO

On several occasions over the past century it has been proposed that Latinized (Linnaean) binomial names (LBs) should be used for the formal names of virus species, and the opinions expressed in the early debates are still valid. The use of LBs would be sensible for the current Taxonomy if confined to the names of the specific and generic taxa of viruses of which some basic biological properties are known (e.g. ecology, hosts and virions); there is no advantage in filling the literature with formal names for partly described viruses or virus-like gene sequences. The ICTV should support the time-honoured convention that LBs are only used with biological (phylogenetic) classifications. Recent changes have left the ICTV Taxonomy and its Code uncoordinated, and its aims and audience uncertain.


Assuntos
Virologia/tendências , Vírus/classificação , Classificação/métodos , Terminologia como Assunto
11.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4380-4388, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090795

RESUMO

One of the most widely used methods to detect an acute viral infection in clinical specimens is diagnostic real-time polymerase chain reaction. However, because of the COVID-19 pandemic, mass-spectrometry-based proteomics is currently being discussed as a potential diagnostic method for viral infections. Because proteomics is not yet applied in routine virus diagnostics, here we discuss its potential to detect viral infections. Apart from theoretical considerations, the current status and technical limitations are considered. Finally, the challenges that have to be overcome to establish proteomics in routine virus diagnostics are highlighted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Proteômica/métodos , Virologia/métodos , Betacoronavirus/química , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/virologia
12.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(23)2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978129

RESUMO

Knowledge of the isoelectric points (pIs) of viruses is beneficial for predicting virus behavior in environmental transport and physical/chemical treatment applications. However, the empirically measured pIs of many viruses have thus far defied simple explanation, let alone prediction, based on the ionizable amino acid composition of the virus capsid. Here, we suggest an approach for predicting the pI of nonenveloped viruses by excluding capsid regions that stabilize the virus polynucleotide via electrostatic interactions. This method was applied first to viruses with known polynucleotide-binding regions (PBRs) and/or three-dimensional (3D) structures. Then, PBRs were predicted in a group of 32 unique viral capsid proteome sequences via conserved structures and sequence motifs. Removing predicted PBRs resulted in a significantly better fit to empirical pI values. After modification, mean differences between theoretical and empirical pI values were reduced from 2.1 ± 2.4 to 0.1 ± 1.7 pH units.IMPORTANCE This model fits predicted pIs to empirical values for a diverse set of viruses. The results suggest that many previously reported discrepancies between theoretical and empirical virus pIs can be explained by coulombic neutralization of PBRs of the inner capsid. Given the diversity of virus capsid structures, this nonarbitrary, heuristic approach to predicting virus pI offers an effective alternative to a simplistic, one-size-fits-all charge model of the virion. The accurate, structure-based prediction of PBRs of the virus capsid employed here may also be of general interest to structural virologists.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Virologia/métodos , Vírus/química , Capsídeo/química , Ponto Isoelétrico , Modelos Biológicos
13.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(4): 153-160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908070

RESUMO

The COVID-19 infection has been a matter of urgency to tackle around the world today, there exist 200 countries around the world and 54 countries in Africa that the COVID-19 infection cases have been confirmed. This situation prompted us to look into the challenges African laboratories are facing in the diagnosis of novel COVID-19 infection. A limited supply of essential laboratory equipment and test kits are some of the challenges faced in combatting the novel virus in Africa. Also, there is inadequate skilled personnel, which might pose a significant danger in case there is a surge in COVID-19 infection cases. The choice of diagnostic method in Africa is limited as there are only two available diagnostic methods being used out of the six methods used globally, thereby reducing the opportunity of supplementary diagnosis, which will further lead to inappropriate diagnosis and affect the accuracy of diagnostic reports. Furthermore, challenges like inadequate power supply, the method used in sample collection, storage and transportation of specimens are also significant as they also pose their respective implication. From the observations, there is an urgent need for more investment into the laboratories for proper, timely, and accurate diagnosis of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Virologia/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Orçamentos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Carga Viral , Virologia/economia , Fluxo de Trabalho
14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2269-2277, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990161

RESUMO

Replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based recombinant viruses are useful tools for studying emerging and highly pathogenic enveloped viruses in level 2 biosafety facilities. Here, we used a replication-competent recombinant VSVs (rVSVs) encoding the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 in place of the original G glycoprotein (rVSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2) to develop a high-throughput entry assay for SARS-CoV-2. The S protein was incorporated into the recovered rVSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 particles, which could be neutralized by sera from convalescent COVID-19 patients. The recombinant SARS-CoV-2 also displayed entry characteristics similar to the wild type virus, such as cell tropism and pH-dependence. The neutralizing titers of antibodies and sera measured by rVSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 were highly correlated with those measured by wild-type viruses or pseudoviruses. Therefore, this is a safe and convenient screening tool for SARS-CoV-2, and it may promote the development of COVID-19 vaccines and therapeutics.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana/fisiologia , Virologia/métodos , Internalização do Vírus , Betacoronavirus/genética , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Pandemias , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238052, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866163

RESUMO

The integrase inhibitor dolutegravir was included in initial antiretroviral therapy in Brazil in January 2017. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy and safety of antiretrovirals have improved with the introduction of new classes of antiretrovirals, such as integrase inhibitors. This study aimed to estimate the frequency of individuals with a virologic response by week 24 of antiretroviral treatment and to describe the adverse events of the regimen containing dolutegravir. This was a cohort of people living with HIV followed up at a referral hospital. Patients were included who had initiated their first treatment between January and August 2017. Data were obtained from medical records, the Drug Logistics Management System and from the Laboratory Tests Control System. Two hundred and twenty-two patients were included for the tolerability analysis and one hundred and thirty-seven for the virologic response analysis. The mean age was 34 years, the median time between diagnosis and initiating treatment was 1.9 months and the median time on antiretroviral therapy was 13.2 months. The frequency of adverse events was 10% (95% CI: 7% to 15.2%), of these, amongst the most frequent events, 91% presented gastrointestinal effects, and 47.8% neuropsychiatric. By week 24 the estimated incidence of virologic response was 89.1% (95% CI: 83% to 93.5%), with an increase during the first 6 months in the number of T-CD4 lymphocytes of 50.7 cells/mm 3 (95% CI: 42 to 59.3). Initial antiretroviral regimens containing dolutegravir were well tolerated and effective in viral suppression during the first 24 weeks after initiating treatment. The occurrence of adverse events was low, either mild or moderate.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Segurança , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxazinas , Piperazinas , Piridonas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Virologia
16.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 166: 112436, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750677

RESUMO

Our recent experience of the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of easy-to-use, quick, cheap, sensitive and selective detection of virus pathogens for the efficient monitoring and treatment of virus diseases. Early detection of viruses provides essential information about possible efficient and targeted treatments, prolongs the therapeutic window and hence reduces morbidity. Graphene is a lightweight, chemically stable and conductive material that can be successfully utilized for the detection of various virus strains. The sensitivity and selectivity of graphene can be enhanced by its functionalization or combination with other materials. Introducing suitable functional groups and/or counterparts in the hybrid structure enables tuning of the optical and electrical properties, which is particularly attractive for rapid and easy-to-use virus detection. In this review, we cover all the different types of graphene-based sensors available for virus detection, including, e.g., photoluminescence and colorimetric sensors, and surface plasmon resonance biosensors. Various strategies of electrochemical detection of viruses based on, e.g., DNA hybridization or antigen-antibody interactions, are also discussed. We summarize the current state-of-the-art applications of graphene-based systems for sensing a variety of viruses, e.g., SARS-CoV-2, influenza, dengue fever, hepatitis C virus, HIV, rotavirus and Zika virus. General principles, mechanisms of action, advantages and drawbacks are presented to provide useful information for the further development and construction of advanced virus biosensors. We highlight that the unique and tunable physicochemical properties of graphene-based nanomaterials make them ideal candidates for engineering and miniaturization of biosensors.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Grafite , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas Biossensoriais/tendências , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/instrumentação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Colorimetria , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/genética , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Desenho de Equipamento , Grafite/química , Humanos , Luminescência , Nanoestruturas/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pontos Quânticos/química , Análise Espectral Raman , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Virologia/métodos , Vírus/genética , Vírus/patogenicidade
17.
Arch Virol ; 165(11): 2737-2748, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816125

RESUMO

This article reports the changes to virus classification and taxonomy approved and ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in March 2020. The entire ICTV was invited to vote on 206 taxonomic proposals approved by the ICTV Executive Committee at its meeting in July 2019, as well as on the proposed revision of the ICTV Statutes. All proposals and the revision of the Statutes were approved by an absolute majority of the ICTV voting membership. Of note, ICTV has approved a proposal that extends the previously established realm Riboviria to encompass nearly all RNA viruses and reverse-transcribing viruses, and approved three separate proposals to establish three realms for viruses with DNA genomes.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Vírus/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Virologia/organização & administração , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
18.
Arch Virol ; 165(11): 2733-2736, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740831

RESUMO

Virus classification arranges viruses showing similar properties into groups and, even though this depends on choices of which specific properties have a value for classification, it does have certain important features. It aims to give a structured arrangement of viruses so that the human mind can comprehend them more easily. It helps with communication between virologists, and between virologists and non-virologists (e.g. regulators, advisers, other stakeholders etc.). It enables properties of new viruses to be predicted, and it could reveal possible evolutionary relationships. We need appropriate unambiguous names for virus species, which is the keystone taxon, howsoever these are defined. We react to the recent consultation paper [1] and suggest that, before deciding on a binomial (Latinized or non-Latinized) system for virus species names, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses develops a 21st century virus classification system that handles the large numbers of new virus species expected from metagenomic studies. This system should be user-friendly for easy communication, especially between virologists and non-virologist stakeholders.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Terminologia como Assunto , Vírus/classificação , Virologia/organização & administração , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
19.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(7): 685-691, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744561

RESUMO

A new coronavirus, called SARS-CoV-2, was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The SARS-CoV-2 spread very rapidly, causing a global pandemic, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Older adults have higher peak of viral load and, especially those with comorbidities, had higher COVID-19-related fatality rates than younger adults. In this Perspective paper, we summarize current knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 and aging, in order to understand why older people are more affected by COVID-19. We discuss about the possibility that the so-called "immunosenescence" and "inflammaging" processes, already present in a fraction of frail older adults, could allow the immune escape of SARS-CoV-2 leading to COVID-19 serious complications. Finally, we propose to use geroscience approaches to the field of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Geriatria , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Virologia , Idoso , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Envelhecimento/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Pandemias
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