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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1697-1699, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783790

ABSTRACT

Noma is a progressive infectious disease manifested by a necrotic ulcer of the mouth and face. It usually occurs in poor, malnourished children, with about 30,000-140,000 cases each year and a low survival rate. The exact cause of noma remains unclear, but bacterial infection has been postulated to be a major cause of this disease. Antibiotics and improved nutrition could help inhibit the progression of noma, but most patients still require oral surgery because of the bacterial infection-induced tissue damage. In this study, we report an unusual case of a noma patient whose facial lesion developed a malignancy. The necrotic tissue and infectious area were surgically resected, and a forearm flap was used to repair the patient's facial defect. This case aimed at increasing people's awareness of tropical diseases such as noma.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Mouth Neoplasms/diagnosis , Noma/diagnosis , Aged , Female , Forearm , Humans , Mouth/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/etiology , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/surgery , Necrosis , Neoplasms , Noma/complications , Noma/pathology , Noma/surgery
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008435, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817617

ABSTRACT

Noma is an orofacial gangrene affecting primarily children living in extreme poverty in remote parts of subtropical and tropical countries. Mortality and disability are high, and survivors often have physical and functional deformities resulting in stigma and isolation. Many healthcare professionals and primary healthcare workers where noma risk factors exist have no knowledge about noma and its implications. Public health measures to improve nutrition, immunizations, sanitation, and access to healthcare and measures to eliminate extreme poverty can lead to the eradication of noma. Research allocation has been insufficient to study the epidemiology, treatment, and prevention of noma. In a recent editorial by Hotez and colleagues in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), "What constitutes an NTD?" Noma is not included. The exclusion of noma from NTDs constitutes this preventable childhood disease as a neglected neglected disease. The purpose of this article is the inclusion of noma with the PLOS NTDs. Increased awareness and attention to noma can lead to the eradication of this disease affecting the world's most vulnerable.


Subject(s)
Child Nutrition Disorders/complications , Neglected Diseases , Noma , Child , Humans , Poverty , Risk Factors
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 613-618, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372746

ABSTRACT

Noma affects the most marginalized communities in the world, beginning as oral ulceration and rapidly progressing to orofacial gangrene. With a mortality rate estimated to be as high as 90% and with very few able to access treatment in its active phase, very little is understood about the disease. This retrospective review of patients treated by Facing Africa for deformity and functional impairment secondary to noma between May 2015 and 2019 highlights some of the difficulties encountered by those afflicted. Eighty new patients with historical noma defects were identified and were seen over the course of nine surgical missions, with notes providing valuable geographical, socioeconomic, and psychosocial information. The mean self-reported age of onset was 5 years and 8 months, with a median time of 18 years from onset to accessing treatment. Before intervention, 65% covered their face in public, 59% reported difficulty eating, 81% were unhappy with their appearance, and 71% experienced bullying. We aimed at emphasizing the significant burden, both psychologically and physically of noma, demonstrating the disparity between recent decades of progress in the well-being of Ethiopians in general and the access to health care and mental health support for some of those most in need.


Subject(s)
Communication , Drinking Water , Eating , Health Services Accessibility , Noma/surgery , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Adolescent , Adult , Age of Onset , Body Dissatisfaction/psychology , Bullying/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Missions , Noma/physiopathology , Noma/psychology , Poverty , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Water Supply , Young Adult
4.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(2): 488-491, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996539

ABSTRACT

Trismus is a frequent complication of healed Noma infection and is caused by soft tissue and muscle contraction. Free-flap surgery is recommended to replace the missing oral mucosa and soft tissue. However, significant complications can occur if this surgery is performed in places like Africa, where conditions are usually less than optimal. In 2007, the authors started to treat patients with trismus in Niamey, Niger by distracting the soft tissue and muscle constriction between the jaws with a bone distractor continuously for 1 month with the aim of achieving a mouth opening of 3 cm. The distraction was limited to 1 mm/d. performed under local anesthesia with some sedation. Minor complications such as infection in the pin holes were easily managed. In 2009, 2 patients with trismus after Noma with a follow-up of 2 years were reported. Till date, the authors have successfully performed trismus release in more than 69 patients in Niamey and Guinea Bissau. The present study analyses the results of distraction therapy in 40 patients with follow-ups until 60 months. At the end of distraction, the mean interincisal distance was 2.7 ±â€Š0.5 cm. Mouth opening 6 months after distraction had not reverted. However, 3 to 5 years after treatment, some signs of relapse were detected, with an average mouth opening of 1.5 ±â€Š1.9 cm. Physiotherapy was unfortunately not feasible. The presented results strongly support the efficacy of distraction therapy to correct trismus in Noma patients.


Subject(s)
Noma/complications , Trismus/therapy , Child , Humans , Mouth Mucosa , Physical Therapy Modalities , Trismus/etiology
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(1): e0007972, 2020 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noma is an orofacial gangrene that rapidly disintegrates the tissues of the face. Little is known about noma, as most patients live in underserved and inaccessible regions. We aimed to assess the descriptive language used and beliefs around noma, at the Noma Children's Hospital in Sokoto, Nigeria. Findings will be used to inform prevention programs. METHODS: Five focus group discussions (FGD) were held with caretakers of patients with noma who were admitted to the hospital at the time of interview, and 12 in-depth interviews (IDI) were held with staff at the hospital. Topic guides used for interviews were adapted to encourage the natural flow of conversation. Emergent codes, patterns and themes were deciphered from the data derived from IDI's and FGDs. RESULTS: Our study uncovered two main themes: names, descriptions and explanations for the disease, and risks and consequences of noma. Naming of the disease differed between caretakers and heath care workers. The general names used for noma illustrate the beliefs and social system used to explain the disease. Beliefs were varied; participant responses demonstrate a wide range of understanding of the disease and its causes. Difficulty in accessing care for patients with noma was evident and the findings suggest a variety of actions taking place before reaching a health center or health worker. Patient caretakers mentioned that barriers to care included a lack of knowledge regarding this medical condition, as well as a lack of trust in seeking medical care. Participants in our study spoke of the mental health strain the disease placed on them, particularly due to the stigma that is associated with noma. CONCLUSIONS: Caretaker and practitioner perspectives enhance our understanding of the disease in this context and can be used to improve treatment and prevention programs, and to better understand barriers to accessing health care. Differences in disease naming illustrate the difference in beliefs about the disease. This has an impact on health seeking behaviours, which for noma cases has important ramifications on outcomes, due to the rapid progression of the disease.


Subject(s)
Culture , Language , Noma/epidemiology , Female , Focus Groups , Health Personnel , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care
7.
Int Health ; 12(1): 28-35, 2020 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noma, a neglected disease mostly affecting children, with a 90% mortality rate if untreated, is an orofacial gangrene that disintegrates the tissues of the face in <1 wk. Noma can become inactive with early stage antibiotic treatment. Traditional healers, known as mai maganin gargajiya in Hausa, play an important role in the health system and provide care to noma patients. METHODS: We conducted 12 in-depth interviews with caretakers who were looking after noma patients admitted at the Noma Children's Hospital and 15 traditional healers in their home villages in Sokoto state, northwest Nigeria. We explored perceptions of noma, relationship dynamics, healthcare practices and intervention opportunities. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed and translated. Manual coding and thematic analysis were utilised. RESULTS: Traditional healers offered specialised forms of care for specific conditions and referral guidance. They viewed the stages of noma as different conditions with individualised remedies and were willing to refer noma patients. Caretakers trusted traditional healers. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional healers could play a crucial role in the early detection of noma and the health-seeking decision-making process of patients. Intervention programmes should include traditional healers through training and referral partnerships. This collaboration could save lives and reduce the severity of noma complications.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Medicine, African Traditional , Noma/therapy , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria , Qualitative Research , Referral and Consultation , Young Adult
8.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752451

ABSTRACT

Background: Noma can be a lethal disease and causes disfigurement in young children in low-resource countries, particularly in Africa. In these settings, 80% of the population mainly consult traditional healers for healthcare problems. Our study aimed to describe the sociodemographic characteristics of traditional healers and to assess their knowledge of noma. Methods: We conducted a survey among traditional healers in three Malian regions from May 2015 to January 2016 and collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, professional activity, knowledge, and experience of noma and collaboration with modern medicine. Results: Among 770 traditional healers invited to participate, 732 responded (95%) (mean age, 54.5 years). Most were illiterate (66.3%), which was associated with older age (p < 0.001). Although they treated all types of disease, only 10.5% had some knowledge of noma, with regional differences (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Noma is poorly known among traditional healers, especially in remote areas. Our findings suggest a lack of interest among young people for traditional medicine, implying an imminent decrease of healers, and thus the need for national health systems to strengthen and promote access to modern health care. Training programmes to improve the early diagnosis referral of noma patients should include all types of primary health workers.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Medicine, Traditional/methods , Medicine, Traditional/statistics & numerical data , Noma/diagnosis , Noma/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mali , Middle Aged , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(7): e0007574, 2019 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329580

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noma is a spreading and fulminant disease believed to be native to Sub-Saharan Africa over the last decade and associated with low socioeconomic status of citizens of the region. Within this noma belt, most epidemiological reports regarding the disease have emanated from the north western region of Nigeria. However, our indigenous surgical mission encountered a substantial number of cases of noma and post-noma defects noteworthy of epidemiological representation across north central Nigeria. METHODS: All noma cases encountered within the 8-year study period were included and divided based on clinical signs into acute and sequelae groups. Incidence estimation was based on acute/recently active cases and was calculated using the statistical method proposed by the WHO Oral Health Unit (1994). Period prevalence of noma was calculated considering the population at risk in the zone. FINDINGS: A total of 78 subjects were included in the study with age ranging from 2-75 years. Twelve subjects (15.4%) presented with acute disease while 66 (84.6%) had various forms of post-noma defects. The estimated incidence of noma in the north central zone was 8.3 per 100000 with a range of 4.1-17.9 per 100000 across various states. Period prevalence of noma which incorporated all cases seen within the study period was 1.6 per 100000 population at risk. CONCLUSION: Although noma may be more prevalent in the north western region of Nigeria, substantial number of cases occurs within the north central zone which calls for deliberate public awareness campaign on disease risk factors and prevention, and education of primary health-care providers.


Subject(s)
Noma/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
11.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(3): 957-961, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184103

ABSTRACT

Noma is an ancient Greek term referring to a gangrenous disease that destroys soft and hard tissues of oral and perioral structures. This disease has been known since ancient times and persisted in Europe until World War 2, while in the present day it is almost exclusively found in sub-Saharan Africa.


Subject(s)
Noma/epidemiology , Europe , HIV , Humans
12.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 200, 2019 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noma is a rare disease, which is characterized by rapid progression and a high rate of mortality; however, relatively few cases of noma infection accompanied by septic shock in children have been described. Further, most health care professionals have no knowledge of this disease or of its clinical significance. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we present a case report of a six-year-old male patient who was diagnosed with noma infection at a Chinese pediatric medical intensive care unit (PMICU), at which time, it was discovered that he had septic shock. Following treatment by continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for septic shock arising from noma, the patient was in generally good condition, and the local wound was seen to be essentially healed five weeks post-admission. CONCLUSION: Noma is an opportunistic infectious disease condition. Treatment of the acute phase of noma predominantly focuses on controlling the infection and improving systemic conditions. In addition, CRRT could be considered as a treatment option for cases that present with noma accompanied by septic shock.


Subject(s)
Noma/complications , Renal Replacement Therapy , Shock, Septic/etiology , Shock, Septic/therapy , Child , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Noma/blood , Noma/pathology , Photography , Shock, Septic/blood
13.
Periodontol 2000 ; 80(1): 189-199, 2019 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090145

ABSTRACT

Noma (canrum oris) is a mutilating necrotizing disease of uncertain etiology, but it is accepted that it is caused primarily by a polybacterial infection with secondary ischemia. The consequent necrotizing fasciitis, myonecrosis, and osteonecrosis results in destruction of facial structures with severe functional impairment and disfigurement. It most frequently affects children, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, who are malnourished or debilitated by systemic conditions including but not limited to malaria, measles, and tuberculosis; and less frequently debilitated HIV-seropositive subjects. In the vast majority of cases, in susceptible subjects, noma is preceded by necrotizing stomatitis. However, it has been reported, albeit rarely, that noma can arise without any preceding oral lesions being observed. Noma is not recurrent and is not transmissible.


Subject(s)
Noma , Stomatitis , Africa South of the Sahara , Child , Humans
14.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 143(6): 1747-1758, 2019 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907816

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The submental flap is a pedicled island flap with excellent color match for facial reconstruction. The flap can be raised with muscle, submandibular gland, or bone and can be transposed to reach defects up to two-thirds of the face. The authors report the primary author's (D.M.) experience of 25 years using the submental flap from its original description to most recent technical evolutions in both Europe and Africa. METHODS: This is a retrospective study including all patients with facial defects who underwent reconstruction using a submental flap between 1991 and 2016. This study included the use of all four variations of the submental flap: platysmal, digastric, extended, and superextended. The authors report technical adaptations and complications encountered. RESULTS: The authors performed 311 facial reconstructions using submental flaps: 32 platysmal, 133 digastric, 91 extended, and 45 superextended variations. In conjunction with these reconstructions, the authors performed 10 osteocutaneous submental flaps and two free flaps. The authors report two cases of total flap necrosis (0.6 percent) and 28 minor complications, including 23 cases of distal skin necrosis (7 percent), one reversible mandibular facial nerve palsy (0.3 percent), and three hematomas (1 percent). CONCLUSIONS: The submental flap has proven to be a reliable flap for head and neck reconstruction. The four technical modifications described use varying amounts of soft tissue to replace tissue lost and can include vascularized bone from the mandibular margin. This flap exemplifies Gillies' principle of "replacing like with like" and should be discussed as an alternative to free tissue transfer in facial reconstruction, especially in settings where resources are limited. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.


Subject(s)
Face/surgery , Free Tissue Flaps , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Skin Transplantation/methods , Adult , Africa , Child , Chin , Europe , Facial Neoplasms/surgery , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Noma/surgery , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/trends , Retrospective Studies , Skin Transplantation/trends , Tissue and Organ Harvesting/methods , Tissue and Organ Harvesting/trends , Wound Closure Techniques/trends
15.
Ann Afr Med ; 18(1): 17-22, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729928

ABSTRACT

Background: Noma (cancrum oris) remains the scourge of children and the "face of poverty" in Sub-Saharan Africa. Recent data on the burden of noma and its risk factors are needed for evaluating and redesigning interventions for its prevention and control. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the pattern of noma and its risk factors in Northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective study that looked into cases of noma (cancrum oris) admitted into the Noma Children Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria, between January 1999 and December 2011. Information on patients' bio-data, the site and severity of lesions, and presence of trismus and its severity were extracted from the patients' case files and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: One hundred and fifty-nine (8.3%) of the 1923 patients admitted to the hospital from January 1999 to December 2011 were diagnosed with fresh noma. The mean age of the patients was 3.0 ± 1.4 years, and majority of them, 139 (87.4%) were aged 1-5 years. The soft-tissue lesions essentially involved multiple sites but most commonly the outer and inner cheeks (84.3%). The most common risk factors identified were measles (47.2%) and protein-energy malnutrition (42.1%). There were rises and falls in the prevalence of noma in the period studied. Conclusion: This study showed a high burden of noma in Northwestern Nigeria, mostly among children aged 1-5 years, and with soft-tissue lesions involving multiple sites. Measles and malnutrition were the major risk factors identified, and the disease trend showed a wave-like pattern. There is an urgent need to eliminate the disease in Nigeria through prevention and control of infectious diseases and malnutrition.


Subject(s)
Measles/complications , Noma/diagnosis , Noma/epidemiology , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Measles/epidemiology , Nigeria/epidemiology , Noma/etiology , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
16.
Laryngoscope ; 129(1): 96-99, 2019 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194753

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Noma is a devastating and destructive disease of the face for which there is a dearth of information regarding surgical options. Herein, we describe the facial deformities and patient characteristics in a patient population affected by noma and the surgical approaches used in treatment. METHODS: Retrospective case series of a Doctors Without Borders (Médecins Sans Frontières) intervention at Sokoto Children's Noma Hospital in northern Nigeria, the highest-volume noma hospital in the world. RESULTS: Twenty-two procedures were performed on 18 patients with noma, 44% of whom were children. The majority of patients (n = 10, 55.5%) were made aware of surgical care through a Doctors Without Borders outreach program. Patients' reasons for seeking care included functional (61.1%, n = 11), appearance (61.1%, n = 11), and social stigma (66.7%, n = 12). The majority (83.3%, n = 15) had lip involvement. Four patients (22.2%) underwent staged flap procedures including prelamination, flap delay, or pedicle division. The mean duration of surgical procedure was 87 minutes (range 5-306 minutes). The minor complication rate was 16%. There were no major complications or deaths. CONCLUSION: Noma is a mutilating disease of the face that occurs in settings of extreme malnutrition. A total of 55.5% of noma patients were made aware of surgical care through outreach programs. The majority of noma patients seek care to improve function (61.1%) and appearance (61.1%), and to address social stigma (66.7%). A total of 83.3% of noma patients had lip involvement. Facial reconstructive surgeons must rely on principles of congenital, traumatic, and oncologic deformity repair while focusing on safe, reliable procedures for low-resource settings. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 129:96-99, 2019.


Subject(s)
Face/surgery , Noma/surgery , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria , Noma/psychology , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/psychology , Retrospective Studies , Social Stigma , Surgical Flaps/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
17.
Int Health ; 11(4): 290-296, 2019 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noma is a quickly progressing, neglected opportunistic infection. It starts in the mouth as an oral lesion but can relatively quickly develop into extensive facial destruction and lead to death if not treated in time. This study aims to shed light on primary healthcare workers' practice competences in working with and knowledge of noma. METHODS: A structured questionnaire using questions and case scenarios was filled out by 76 healthcare workers in Burkina Faso. Half of the nurses included in this study participated in a 2-day noma training. Data were analysed descriptively and Fisher's exact test was used to study differences between occupational groups using Stata. RESULTS: Most healthcare workers reported having examined the mouth of children with diseases predisposing to noma. The total practice competence was poor, with almost 70% having suboptimal or very low competences. However, competences varied between different stages of noma disease. Knowledge scores varied between occupational groups. The majority of nurses and odontostomatology specialist nurses had optimal or good knowledge of noma. Significant differences in knowledge and practice competence were found between nurses who attended a 2-day training course on noma and those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: Health care workers in this study had quite poor practice competences in managing noma. The knowledge scores of these health workers were moderate. It is important for healthcare workers to be able to identify noma patients at an early stage, as at this point the disease can still be completely reversed.


Subject(s)
Clinical Competence , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Noma/therapy , Nurses , Primary Health Care , Adult , Burkina Faso , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Continuing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(8): e0006631, 2018 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30138374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noma (cancrum oris), a neglected tropical disease, rapidly disintegrates the hard and soft tissue of the face and leads to severe disfiguration and high mortality. The disease is poorly understood. We aimed to estimate risk factors for diagnosed noma to better guide existing prevention and treatment strategies using a case-control study design. METHODS: Cases were patients admitted between May 2015 and June 2016, who were under 15 years of age at reported onset of the disease. Controls were individuals matched to cases by village, age and sex. Caretakers answered the questionnaires. Risk factors for diagnosed noma were estimated by calculating unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and respective 95% confidence intervals (CI) using conditional logistic regression. FINDINGS: We included 74 cases and 222 controls (both median age 5 (IQR 3, 15)). Five cases (6.5%) and 36 (16.2%) controls had a vaccination card (p = 0.03). Vaccination coverage for polio and measles was below 7% in both groups. The two main reported water sources were a bore hole in the village (cases n = 27, 35.1%; controls n = 63, 28.4%; p = 0.08), and a well in the compound (cases n = 24, 31.2%; controls n = 102, 45.9%; p = 0.08). The adjusted analysis identified potential risk and protective factors for diagnosed noma which need further exploration. These include the potential risk factor of the child being fed pap every day (OR 9.8; CI 1.5, 62.7); and potential protective factors including the mother being the primary caretaker (OR 0.08; CI 0.01, 0.5); the caretaker being married (OR 0.006; CI 0.0006, 0.5) and colostrum being given to the baby (OR 0.4; CI 0.09, 2.09). INTERPRETATION: This study suggests that social conditions and infant feeding practices are potentially associated with being a diagnosed noma case in northwest Nigeria; these findings warrant further investigation into these factors.


Subject(s)
Noma/diagnosis , Noma/epidemiology , Adolescent , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Neglected Diseases , Nigeria/epidemiology , Noma/etiology , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors
20.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 47(12): 1527-1533, 2018 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104131

ABSTRACT

Extraarticular ankylosis occurs frequently in children suffering from noma sequelae. Over 20years of operating on these patients, we observed high recurrence of mouth opening limitation. We therefore progressively changed our surgical strategy. This retrospective study compares the impact of different parameters (types of surgery, noma type, physiotherapy compliance, age and sex) on immediate and long-term mouth opening. It includes a series of 121 patients with extraarticular ankylosis operated on between 1990 and 2015. Soft tissue reconstruction evolved from local and pedicled flaps to large free flaps. Mouth opening was performed by bone-bridge excision, sometimes associated to contralateral coronoidectomy. Mouth opening technique including bilateral coronoidectomy with free flap reconstruction was the only independent factor for significantly better immediate mouth opening with a mean increase of 8.7mm [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.3-13.1, P<0.001) and this effect was maintained in the 3years of follow-up. Another positive factor related to long-term results was excellent physiotherapy, while noma type 4 was a negative factor. Recurrence remains problematic in the management of noma sequelae. If physiotherapy and long-term follow-up cannot be offered, patients should not be operated on, because if limitation of mouth opening recurs, oral feeding may become impossible when a facial defect has been reconstructed.


Subject(s)
Ankylosis/etiology , Ankylosis/surgery , Noma/complications , Noma/surgery , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Burkina Faso , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Niger , Physical Therapy Modalities , Retrospective Studies , Surgical Flaps , Treatment Outcome
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