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Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770208


International trade has become more complicated and is now related to more aspects of health and the health system. As Thailand is active in international trade and health, understanding what knowledge exists and determining the knowledge gap is essential for generating the necessary evidence in order to promote better understanding and allow evidence-based policy decisions to be made. This study reviewed the existence of knowledge on international trade and health issues in a scoping review, focusing on Thailand during the period 1991-2020. In total, 156 studies from seven databases and manual searching were included. Of these, 46% were related to trade in health services and 39% were linked to intellectual property, particularly access to medicines. This review found only a very small amount of research on other issues and did not identify any study on trade policies or products related to health and international trade and the environment. We therefore recommend that further studies should be carried out to provide more critical evidence-in particular, more research focusing on the impacts of trade on health-related goods and the analysis of the positive and negative impacts of international trade on industry is needed. Furthermore, better knowledge management through the publication of research findings and making them searchable on international databases will increase the visibility of international trade, increase our knowledge of health issues, and provide supporting evidence.

Commerce , Internationality , Intellectual Property , Policy , Thailand
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258131, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644314


The present article examines the impact of intellectual property (IP) utilization and concentration on economic growth in Mexico. The findings presented center on the use of different forms of IP by researchers in the National System of Researchers (SNI in Spanish) of Mexico. We focus especially on the externalities associated with the use of IP by researchers, as well as on understanding how knowledge about, and utilization of IP relates to economic growth, as measured by gross domestic product (GDP). The results of our analyses indicate that in the context of the Mexican SNI, the utilization of certain forms of IP, specifically patents and industrial designs, had a positive impact on economic growth, while the use of utility models was negatively linked to drivers of growth. Policies based on these results could seek to foster awareness and utilization of particular forms of IP by SNI researchers, which in turn could result in greater economic growth in Mexico.

Intellectual Property , Knowledge , Research Personnel , Humans , Mexico
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256956, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473792


This study investigates the topology and dynamics of collaboration networks that exist between inventors and their patent co-authors for patents granted by the USPTO from 2007-2019 (2,241,201 patents and 1,879,037 inventors). We study changes in the configurations of different technology fields via the power-law, small-world, preferential attachment, shrinking diameter, densification law, and gelling point hypotheses. Similar to the existing literature, we obtain mixed results. Based on network statistics, we argue that the sudden rise of large networks in six technology sectors can be understood as a phase transition in which small, isolated networks form one giant component. In two other technology sectors, such a transition occurred much later and much less dramatically. The examination of inventor networks over time reveals the increased complexity of all technology sectors, regardless of the individual characteristics of the network. Therefore, we introduce ideas associated with the technological diversification of inventors to complement our analysis, and we find evidence that inventors tend to diversify into new fields that are less mature. This behavior appears to be correlated with the compliance of some of the expected network rules and has implications for the emerging patterns among the different collaboration networks under consideration here.

Intellectual Property , Inventions , Inventors , Patents as Topic , Humans , Interprofessional Relations , Social Interaction , Social Network Analysis
Cad. Ibero Am. Direito Sanit. (Impr.) ; 10(3): 145-171, jul.-set.2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291458


O direito de propriedade intelectual tem as suas exceções e os seus limites internos, previstos na lei. Nos últimos tempos, vem crescendo a discussão da sua compressão à luz de princípios gerais, como o interesse público, a liberdade de expressão ou a saúde pública. Dir-se-ia, pois, que estes direitos têm, também, uma função social, para além da proteção das prerrogativas dos seus titulares, o que é verdadeiro, sobretudo, para as patentes farmacêuticas. Grande parte desta discussão sempre passou, na verdade, pelas patentes farmacêuticas, sua concessão e exploração, em especial no que tange às patentes biotecnológicas. Esta discussão mais e mais se exacerbou quanto às patentes das vacinas destinadas ao tratamento contra a COVID-19. Não falta quem queira lançar mão dos meios previstos nas leis nacionais e internacionais para compelir às licenças obrigatórias das patentes e, até, à sua expropriação. Em causa, podem estar, no entanto, outros aspetos, como contratos mal negociados pela Comissão da União Europeia com algumas empresas farmacêuticas e os problemas logísticos na produção de vacinas. Por outro lado, centrar a discussão nas patentes poderá ser redutor, uma vez que há outros aspetos da propriedade intelectual a considerar. Contudo, a resposta estará, muito provavelmente, no equilíbrio entre os direitos dos titulares de patentes e o interesse público.

Intellectual property law has its exceptions and internal limits, as provided by law. In recent times, there has been a growing discussion of its compression in the light of general principles, such as public interest, freedom of expression or public health. It would be said, therefore, that these rights also have a social function, in addition to protecting the rights of their holders, which is especially true for pharmaceutical patents. Much of this discussion has always, in fact, passed through pharmaceutical patents, their granting and exploitation, especially regardingbiotechnological patents. This discussion has become increasinglyexacerbated regardingthe patents on vaccines intended for treatment against COVID-19. There is no shortage of people who want to use the means provided by national and international laws to compel mandatory patent licenses and even their expropriation. At issue, however, may be other aspects, such as contracts poorly negotiated by the European Union Commission with pharmaceutical companies and logistical problems in the production of vaccines. On the other hand, focusing the discussion on patents, can be reduced, there are other aspects of intellectual property to consider. However, the answer will most likely lie in the balance between the rights ofpatent holders and the public interest.

La ley de propiedad intelectual tiene sus excepciones y límites internos, según lo establece la ley. En los últimos tiempos, ha habido un creciente debate sobre su compresión a la luz de principios generales, como el interés público, la libertad de expresión o la salud pública. Se diría,por tanto, que estos derechos también tienen una función social, además de proteger los derechos de sus titulares, lo que es especialmente cierto para las patentes farmacéuticas. Gran parte de esta discusión siempre ha pasado, de hecho, por las patentes farmacéuticas, su concesión y explotación, especialmente en lo que respecta a las patentes biotecnológicas. Esta discusión se ha exacerbado cada vez más con respecto a las patentes de vacunas destinadas al tratamiento contra COVID-19. No hay escasez de personas que quieran utilizar los medios que brindan las leyes nacionales e internacionales para imponer licencias de patentes obligatorias e incluso su expropiación. Sin embargo, pueden estar en juego otros aspectos, como los contratos mal negociados por la Comisión de la Unión Europea con algunas empresas farmacéuticas y los problemas logísticos en la producción de vacunas. Por otro lado, centrar la discusión en las patentes, se puede reducir, hay otros aspectos de la propiedad intelectual a considerar. Sin embargo, lo más probable es que la respuesta esté en el equilibrio entre los derechos de los titulares de patentes y el interés público.

Am J Law Med ; 47(2-3): 157-175, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405779


The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed myriad and complex challenges for our national health care system spanning preparedness, response, access, costs, infrastructure, coordination, and medical innovation. These challenges implicate federal, state, and local agencies and actors, as well as international collaborative bodies. One constant throughout the pandemic has been the pressing need for safe and effective diagnostics, prophylactic vaccines, and drug treatments to counter the virus.1 Inarguably, significant problems with the multi-faceted system of drug and vaccine innovation and regulation manifested long before the COVID-19 pandemic.2 The pandemic, however, has laid bare the inextricable connections among federal funding, patents, product review and approval mechanisms, and the eventual medical products and resulting costs.

Biological Products/economics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Approval/legislation & jurisprudence , Government Agencies , Patents as Topic , Therapies, Investigational/economics , Humans , Information Dissemination , Intellectual Property , Research Support as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(7): 499-503, 2021.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263876


Access to vaccines against covid-19 is a very topical issue. On the one hand, we are suffering from supply problems and inadequate availability of doses both nationally and internationally. On the other hand, public health needs do not coincide with those of the market economy: the need to vaccinate the entire world population to overcome the pandemic cannot be satisfied due to market rules and limits in production processes. The result is a radical inequality in access to vaccines. We are aware of the delicate balance between health and economy: the latter cannot ignore the former. Also for this reason, the demand for greater equity in access to vaccines is growing: the race for innovation may not be hindered by a targeted relaxation of the rules on intellectual property during a pandemic health emergency.

COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Development , Intellectual Property , Biomedical Research/economics , COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , Diffusion of Innovation , Global Health , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Italy , Needs Assessment , Patents as Topic , Public Health , Research Support as Topic/economics , Vaccination Coverage
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(7)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253631


The recent rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines offers hope in addressing the worst pandemic in a hundred years. However, many countries in the Global South face great difficulties in accessing vaccines, partly because of restrictive intellectual property law. These laws exacerbate both global and domestic inequalities and prevent countries from fully realising the right to health for all their people. Commodification of essential medicines, such as vaccines, pushes poorer countries into extreme debt and reproduces national inequalities that discriminate against marginalised groups. This article explains how a decolonial framing of human rights and public health could contribute to addressing this systemic injustice. We envisage a human rights and global health law framework based on solidarity and international cooperation that focuses funding on long-term goals and frees access to medicines from the restrictions of intellectual property law. This would increase domestic vaccine production, acquisition and distribution capabilities in the Global South.

COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Services Accessibility , Human Rights , Humans , Intellectual Property , SARS-CoV-2
J Med Ethics ; 47(9): 595-598, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233956


This paper gives an ethical argument for temporarily waiving intellectual property (IP) protections for COVID-19 vaccines. It examines two proposals under discussion at the World Trade Organization (WTO): the India/South Africa proposal and the WTO Director General proposal. Section I explains the background leading up to the WTO debate. Section II rebuts ethical arguments for retaining current IP protections, which appeal to benefiting society by spurring innovation and protecting rightful ownership. It sets forth positive ethical arguments for a temporary waiver that appeal to standing in solidarity and holding companies accountable. After examining built-in exceptions to existing agreements and finding them inadequate, the paper replies to objections to a temporary waiver and concludes, in section III, that the ethical argument for temporarily waiving IP protection for COVID-19 vaccines is strong.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Dissent and Disputes , Humans , Intellectual Property , SARS-CoV-2
Conserv Biol ; 35(6): 1747-1754, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057267


Internet-based research is increasingly important for conservation science and has wide-ranging applications and contexts, including culturomics, illegal wildlife trade, and citizen science. However, online research methods pose a range of ethical and legal challenges. Online data may be protected by copyright, database rights, or contract law. Privacy rights may also restrict the use and access of data, as well as ethical requirements from institutions. Online data have real-world meaning, and the ethical treatment of individuals and communities must not be marginalized when conducting internet-based research. As ethics frameworks originally developed for biomedical applications are inadequate for these methods, we propose that research activities involving the analysis of preexisting online data be treated analogous to offline social science methods, in particular, nondeceptive covert observation. By treating internet users and their data with respect and due consideration, conservationists can uphold the public trust needed to effectively address real-world issues.