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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130604, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298395

RESUMO

The aroma profiles of fresh flat peach juice (FPJ) samples obtained from four different cultivars (RP1), (ZLP), (RP18), and (ZP) were characterized by gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). Totally, 32 aroma-active compounds in FPJs were identified by GC-MS-O and further quantified. Of these, 14 aroma-active compounds presented odor activity values (OAVs) greater than 1, with several lactones and aldehydes contributing as key aroma-active components of FPJs. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) revealed that RP18 was greatly related to "fruity", "sweet" and "peach-like" attributes, while ZLP was highly correlated with "floral" and "green and grassy" attributes, confirming the quantitative describe analysis (QDA) results. In addition, an aroma recombination experiment was conducted to mimic the aroma profile of flat peach juice based on the actual concentrations of RP18. Omission experiments indicated that lactones were very highly significant for the characteristic aroma of FPJ.


Assuntos
Prunus persica , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
2.
Food Chem ; 366: 130582, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303205

RESUMO

Leaf removal applied in the upper canopy of modified vertical shooting positioning trellis system has been proposed as an effective strategy to mitigate the adverse effects of global warming on grape and wine quality. In this study, we removed the upper leaves of Cabernet Sauvignon canopy in a semi-arid climate for three consecutive years (2018-2020). About one-third of the whole canopy leaves were removed at the beginning of véraison (LR1) and post-véraison (LR2). All leaf removal treatments included two schemes: (i) leaf removal in the same vines in all vintages to investigate the carry-over effects (1-LR1 and 1-LR2); (ii) leaf removal in different vines in each vintage as repeated experiments among vintages (2-LR1 and 2-LR2). Results showed that leaf removal treatments significantly decreased total soluble solids accumulation in grapes without affecting titratable acidity and pH. LR1 treatments could delay ripening to 6.6 days on average, which was 2.6 days longer than LR2 treatments. LR treatments did not affect the yield but decreased soluble sugar content in canes. Leaves net assimilation rate showed no compensation for the loss of leaves. For phenolic composition, LR treatments increased flavonol concentration in both wines and grapes while had inconsistent effects on anthocyanins and flavanols over three seasons. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that different LR treatment stages (LR1s vs LR2s) and whether LR in the same vines over consecutive years (1-LRs vs 2-LRs) had limited effects on phenolic profiles. In conclusion, LR in consecutive years at the upper canopy of grapevines was a practical strategy to face global warming in Xinjiang.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vinho , Antocianinas/análise , Flavonóis , Frutas/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Vinho/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 366: 130574, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303209

RESUMO

There is growing interest in chitosan-based intelligent packaging films for monitoring food quality. However, practical application of these biopolymeric films has been limited by their poor physical and mechanical attributes. Herein, a versatile colorimetric indicator film was developed based on chitosan (CHI) and broken Riceberry phenolic extract (RPE). The effects of RPE fortification on the microstructure, physical, and functional attributes of the CHI films were comprehensively evaluated. The results revealed that CHI-RPE films exhibited increased hydrophobicity, mechanical resistance, thermal stability, barrier properties, and antioxidant activity compared to plain CHI film. The CHI-RPE films were cytocompatible. Notably, CHI-RPE film also produced intense naked-eye detectable colorimetric response to pH (2-12) variation and volatile ammonia. When enclosed with fresh shrimp, CHI-RPE film changed from orange-red to yellow in response to shrimp spoilage. Thus, CHI-RPE film has high potential for fabricating pragmatic, smart packaging labels for on-site visual detection of freshness in seafood products.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Antocianinas , Antioxidantes , Embalagem de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
4.
Food Chem ; 366: 130614, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304137

RESUMO

Understanding how starch constituent in frozen dough affected bread quality would be valuable for contributing to the frozen products with better quality. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, starch was fractionated from multiple freezing-thawing (F/T) treated dough and reconstituted with gluten. Results showed that F/T treatment destructed the molecular and supramolecular structures of starch, which were more severe as the F/T cycle increasing. These structural disorganizations made water molecules easier to permeate into the interior of starch granules and form hydrogen bonds with starch molecular chains, which elevated the peak, breakdown, setback and final viscosity of starch paste. In addition, F/T treatment resulted in decreased specific volume (from 1.54 to 0.90 × 103 m3/Kg) and increased hardness (from 42.98 to 52.31 N) for steamed bread. We propose the strengthened water absorption ability and accelerated intra- and inter-molecular rearrangement of starch molecules and weak stability of "starch-gluten matrices" would allow interpreting deteriorated bread quality.


Assuntos
Pão , Amido , Pão/análise , Farinha/análise , Congelamento , Glutens , Vapor
5.
Food Chem ; 366: 130644, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311234

RESUMO

Bioactive compounds were extracted using two different extraction solvents (acetone and water) from pulp and whole grape berries derived from hybrid Vitis vinifera L. varieties Sweet sapphire (SP) and Sweet surprise (SU) and were characterised based on a comprehensive metabolomic approach by chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MSE and GC-FID/MS). GC-FID/MS analysis was performed with two different extraction methods (solvent extraction method and solid-phase extraction). Anthocyanins were characterised and quantified by HPLC-UV. The antioxidant potential was assessed by different assays. SP acetone extract from grape skin had the highest mean to DPPH, FRAP, ORAC and phenolic content SP samples, also showed higher anthocyanin content. Globally, 87 phenolic compounds were identified. The relative quantification by UPLC-MSE showed flavonoids the most abundant class. Forty two compounds were found in the volatile fraction of SU, while only thirty one volatile compounds were found in the SP samples.


Assuntos
Vitis , Óxido de Alumínio , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Food Chem ; 366: 130570, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311238

RESUMO

Umami and aroma are important flavor qualities of edible mushrooms, and packaging can maintain or improve the flavor during storage. This study explored the effects of light-proof packaging (LPP), light-transparent packaging (LTP), vacuum light-proof packaging (VLPP), and vacuum light-transparent packaging (VLTP) on umami taste and aroma of dried Suillus granulatus. Monosodium glutamate-like amino acid content, equivalent umami concentration, and electronic tongue umami sensory scores in VLTP were higher at 2, 4, and 6 months and higher in LTP at 8 and 10 months. Principal component analysis of aroma components showed that the comprehensive scores were higher for the transparent packaging. Ketones and pyrazines were more abundant in transparent packaging. Flavor quality was better at 4-6 months, based on the equivalent umami concentration and the concentration of eight-carbon compounds that contribute to aroma. Transparent packaging is a promising way to optimize the flavor of dried Suillus granulatus.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Paladar , Basidiomycota , Aromatizantes/análise , Odorantes/análise
7.
Food Chem ; 366: 130593, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314928

RESUMO

It is a common belief in China that aging could improve the quality of white tea. However, the stored-induced compositional changes remain elusive. In this study, ten subsets of white tea samples, which had been stored for 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, 7-, 10-, 11- and 13- years, were selected. Macro-compositions were quantified firstly. As the results showed, it was interesting to find total flavonoids, thearubigins (TRs), and theabrownines (TBs) increasing, accompanied with a gradual decrease of total polyphenols, which suggest a conversion of phenolic component in the aging process. Then, nontargeted metabolomics was further conducted on selected subsets of samples, including 1-, 7- and 13- years stored to profile their conversion. As a result, most different metabolites were related to flavonol glycosides and flavone glycosides, suggesting dynamic phenolic component changes were vital in aging. The partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) also identified them as markers in distinguishing.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Chá , Flavonoides/análise , Polifenóis/análise
8.
Food Chem ; 366: 130636, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314929

RESUMO

The study aimed to determine the efficiency of advanced chelate compounds-based trace minerals (OTM) in laying hens. Laying hens (240, 32 weeks old) were assigned to one of the following five groups: NOTM (no added trace minerals), CONTM (standard mineral salts), and three experimental groups in which chelates were used to replace 33, 66, and 100% of mineral salts (OTM33, OTM66, and OTM100, respectively). Each treatment had six replicates with eight hens per replicate. After 18 weeks, performance and physicochemical properties of eggs in all experimental groups was better than those in the NOTM group. Among the treatments, OTM66 and OTM100 produced the best results in terms of laying performance, yolk PUFA/SFA ratio, Zn and Se contents, and malondialdehyde concentration in both serum and yolk. In conclusion, up to 66% OTM supplementation was beneficial for performance, lipid and mineral composition of yolk, and oxidative status.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Ácidos Graxos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Minerais/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
9.
Food Chem ; 366: 130588, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314930

RESUMO

1H NMR fingerprinting of edible oils and a set of multivariate classification and regression models organised in a decision tree is proposed as a stepwise strategy to assure the authenticity and traceability of olive oils and their declared blends with other vegetable oils (VOs). Oils of the 'virgin olive oil' and 'olive oil' categories and their mixtures with the most common VOs, i.e. sunflower, high oleic sunflower, hazelnut, avocado, soybean, corn, refined palm olein and desterolized high oleic sunflower oils, were studied. Partial least squares (PLS) discriminant analysis provided stable and robust binary classification models to identify the olive oil type and the VO in the blend. PLS regression afforded models with excellent precisions and acceptable accuracies to determine the percentage of VO in the mixture. The satisfactory performance of this approach, tested with blind samples, confirm its potential to support regulations and control bodies.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Óleos Vegetais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Óleo de Girassol
10.
Food Chem ; 366: 130648, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325245

RESUMO

A novel label-free fluorescence aptasensor was established for chloramphenicol (CAP) detection by DNA four-arm junction-assisted target recycling and SYBR Green I dye-aided fluorescence-signal amplification. The CAP aptamer was hybridized to its complementary strand (primer) to form a double-stranded primer/aptamer complex. In the presence of CAP, aptamers can specifically bind with CAP to dissociate primers, which can trigger the self-assembly of four hairpins to continuously generate DNA four-arm junctions. After digesting the excess hairpins using T7 exonuclease, SYBR Green I was inserted into the base pair-rich DNA four-arm junctions, which led to a significant increase in fluorescence intensity. Under optimal conditions, the developed aptasensor can detect CAP in a linear range of 1.0 pg mL-1 to 10 ng mL-1 with a detection limit of 0.72 pg mL-1. The recovery rates in milk and honey ranged from 90.3% to 106.6%. Thus, the method shows substantial potential for CAP detection in food products.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Animais , Cloranfenicol/análise , DNA , Limite de Detecção , Leite/química
11.
Food Chem ; 366: 130654, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325246

RESUMO

Patulin (PAT) is a potent mycotoxin commonly found in apples and apple-based products such as juice, thus affecting global food safety. Therefore, development of fast and simple analytical methods to effectively control its contamination is of great importance. This study developed and validated a technique for the analysis of PAT in samples of industrialized apple juice based on liquid-liquid extraction and using acetonitrile as the extraction solvent. Detection via mass spectrometry was performed after Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI). Mean recoveries of 97.5, 92.49 and 96.92% were reached for 4, 8 and 20 µg/L of PAT, respectively. The analyte was monitored with an APCI source in negative ion mode to identify its fragments. The 24 analyzed samples presented PAT levels below the limit of quantification. It may be concluded that the method fulfilled all of the validation criteria, thus being appropriate for routine surveillance of PAT in apple juice.


Assuntos
Malus , Patulina , Bebidas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Patulina/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
12.
Food Chem ; 366: 130618, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330028

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the micronization (MT), steam explosion (SE), and gamma irradiation (GI) treatment on the chemical composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and in vitro digestibility of dietary fiber from soybean hulls. GI (1200 kGy) treatment exerted the optimum effects on improving soluble dietary fiber content, in vitro gross energy digestibility (IVGED), and reducing sugar yield (RS) in the three modification methods, increased by 342.88%, 55.24%, and 117.02%, respectively. Compared with GI treatment, MT-GI combined treatment could further enhance the degradation effect of irradiation and improve the physicochemical properties (p<0.05) in soybean fibers. From the results of correlation analysis, RS was a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) with IVGED, and RS = -112.24 + 4.90 × IVGED (r2 = 0.82, p<0.01). In summary, MT-GI combined treatment could be considered the ideal modification method to improve the quality of soybean fiber.


Assuntos
Soja , Vapor , Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão
13.
Food Chem ; 366: 130587, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332424

RESUMO

Miniaturized and simplified sample preparation methods with reduced consumption of chemicals and non-halogenated solvents are presented for the determination of 12 sulfonamides in baby foods. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used for the identification and quantification of the compounds based on the acquisition of full spectrum at high resolution with accurate mass for precursor and its fragment ions. Three miniaturized protocols based on QuEChERS, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction or low-temperature cleanup were evaluated regarding the extraction efficiency and removal capability of matrix co-extractives. All approaches achieved satisfactory recoveries (70.0-120.0%); however, the miniaturized QuEChERS distinguished by lower co-extractives content in the final extract providing lower matrix effects. Thus, the performance characteristics of the miniaturized QuEChERS were established using different matrices: beef-, egg yolk- and vegetable-based baby food or chicken- and vegetable-based baby food, in compliance with the Codex Alimentarius Commission guidelines. The target compounds were investigated in 30 commercial baby foods.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Alimentos Infantis , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Carne/análise , Sulfonamidas
14.
Food Chem ; 366: 130691, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339922

RESUMO

Millet Huangjiu (MHJ), a type of northern Huangjiu with a long history, has attracted considerable attention in China and East Asia for its unique flavor. To elucidate the changing course of aroma components during the fermentation process of MHJ, 15 MHJ samples prepared at different fermentation stages were assessed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and odor activity value (OAV) coupled with multivariate data analysis. A total of 66 volatile compounds were identified, among which 21 odorant active substances were regarded as the main aroma components (OAVs ≥ 1). The numbers and contents of esters in MHJs accumulated with the extension of fermentation time. Ethanol, ethyl acetate, phenylethyl alcohol and other 7 aromatic substances are the key flavoring agents in the final fermented MHJ. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) showed that 14 volatile compounds (formic acid, ethanol, etc.) are supposed to be the key substances that cause significant differences in MHJ flavor at different fermentation stages.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Fermentação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Milhetes , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
15.
Food Chem ; 367: 130667, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339981

RESUMO

The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of different fertilizers on the physicochemical properties, multi-element and volatile composition of cucumbers. All samples were divided into five groups according to different combinations and amounts of chicken manure, NPK 17-17-17 fertilizer and microbial fertilizer. The co-application of chicken manure (120,000 kg/ha) and NPK 17-17-17 fertilizer (750 kg/ha) achieved the best texture properties, whereas the addition of the microbial fertilizer at 6000 kg/ha significantly improved the color quality of cucumbers. Similarly, the co-application of chicken manure, NPK 17-17-17 fertilizer and microbial fertilizer at 6000 kg/ha enhanced the number and abundance of volatile components detected in the cucumbers. Cucumbers from the control group contained the highest levels of most of the determined elements. Overall, a combination of chicken manure, NPK 17-17-17 fertilizer and 6000 kg/ha microbial fertilizer is recommended as a relatively efficient fertilizer utilization for cucumbers.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Fertilizantes , Agricultura , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco , Solo
16.
Food Chem ; 367: 130624, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339982

RESUMO

Wuyi Rock tea (WRT), a top-ranking oolong tea, possesses characteristic woody, floral, nutty flavor. WRT flavor is mainly formed during the manufacturing process. However, details regarding its formation process are not fully understood yet. In this study, the dynamics of volatile and phenolic components over the whole manufacturing process of WRT were investigated. During withering, despite minor changes in volatile and phenolic components, the central vacuole shrunk remarkably, which reduced the cell mechanical performance and facilitated the subsequent enzymatic fermentation. During fermentation, approximately 78% of flavan-3-ols in fresh tea leaves were oxidized and converted to a diverse mixture of highly heterogeneous oxidation products, such as theaflavins, whereas flavonols, phenolic acids, and xanthine alkaloids remained stable throughout the manufacturing process. Aldehydes, ketones, and heterocyclic compounds, imparting woody, floral, and nutty scent, were mainly formed during the roasting steps. This detailed information can expand our understanding on the formation of WRT flavor.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Chá , Aromatizantes , Manipulação de Alimentos , Odorantes/análise , Folhas de Planta , Paladar
17.
Food Chem ; 367: 130664, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343804

RESUMO

Cyclodextrin-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (CD-DLLME) was developed for the determination of triazole and strobilurin fungicides in water, juice, and vinegar samples using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). Undecanol, which is a green solvent, was selected as the extraction solvent. A cyclodextrin aqueous solution was chosen as the dispersion solvent and demulsifier to avoid the use of a toxic dispersion solvent and eliminate the centrifugation step. Dispersion and phase separation were completed within 1 and 60 s, respectively. The linear range of this method was 1 to 100 µg L-1. The limits of detection were 0.3 µg L-1 along with the preconcentration factor of 133 and enrichment factor of 124. The recovery was 83.2% to 103.2%. This pretreatment method was fast, simple, and environmentally friendly and was successfully applied to the analysis of triazole and strobilurin fungicide residues in water, juice, and vinegar samples.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas , Fungicidas Industriais , Microextração em Fase Líquida , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácido Acético , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Solventes , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Food Chem ; 367: 130628, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343807

RESUMO

A spectrophotometric method based on diazo-coupling reaction for nitrite analysis was established and validated, including inter-laboratory validation, linearity, accuracy, precision, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). The time-saving and high-recovery method was established by examining the filtration step, colorimetric process and concentration range of the calibration curve. This method showed good linearity (r2 > 0.999) in the range of 0.025-1.0 µg/mL. The three-level recoveries were between 86.7% and 108.6%, with the coefficient of variation (CV) below 5.8%. Mean nitrite concentration ranges in processed foods were ND-33.47 mg/kg. The mean nitrite intake was 0.8% of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI, 0.07 mg/kg bw/day) for all children and adolescents and 2.8% for the consumer group. The major contributors for all subjects and consumers were ham, sausage and bacon. These results indicated that the improved method was suitable for analyzing nitrite in processed foods and the nitrite exposure levels were safe.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Nitritos , Adolescente , Criança , Dieta , Exposição Dietética , Humanos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Nitritos/análise , República da Coreia
19.
Food Chem ; 367: 130663, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343810

RESUMO

Effects of high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) stabilized by egg yolk-modified starch complex on the gelling properties of chicken gels with or without sodium chloride (NaCl)/sodium tripolyphosphate (TP) were studied. The addition of 30 % HIPE increased the hardness from 376 g to 590 g. The NaCl addition further improved textural and viscoelastic properties compared with the gels without NaCl. 30 % HIPE-filled gels with salts (NaCl and TP) has the highest hardness (3562 g) and the lowest cooking loss (3.41 %). Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) revealed that salts, especially TP, could promote the transition of α-helices to ß-sheets structure. Moreover, the chicken gels with TP had higher acyl chain disorder. In summary, the co-addition of HIPE and salt (NaCl/TP) has a positive effect on the formation of chicken gel, thereby providing potential applications in comminuted meat products.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Produtos da Carne , Animais , Emulsões , Géis , Produtos da Carne/análise , Sais
20.
Food Chem ; 367: 130680, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348198

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of different types of smoking materials on the flavor, heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) content, and sensory attributes of smoked chicken drumsticks. All smoked samples showed lower pH and L*-value and higher a*-value and b*-value than the control sample (P < 0.05), but no significant differences in water content and water activity (P > 0.05). The samples smoked with sucrose combined with pear-tree woodchips (SP) or green tea leaves (ST) had higher overall acceptability than other samples (P < 0.05). Smoking increased the total HAA content, and the ST sample exhibited the highest total HAA content (P < 0.05). A total of 54 volatile compounds was identified. Overall, SP and ST are suitable for smoked chicken considering the sensory properties, while S and SA are proper for smoked chicken considering the minimization of HAAs, which may provide a theory basis for the production of smoked chicken.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Compostos Heterocíclicos , Aminas/análise , Animais , Fumaça , Fumar
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