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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253613, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345548

RESUMO

Abstract Soybean meal is an inexpensive plant origin protein which has been used in practical diets as a replacement of animal protein such as fish meal or chicken meal, due to the uneconomical price of animal protein diets. Consequently, a research study was conducted on some commercial species of Indian major carps i.e. Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) and Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822) to estimate optimum dietary protein requirement of soy bean meal in diet in an intensive polyculture. Three different diets (SBM I, SBM II and SBM III) were formulated by 80%, 50% and 20% replacement of fish meal with soybean meal from a 45% fish meal diet (control).Highest monthly mean weight gain was obtained by SBM II (with 35% CP and about 50% substitution of fish meal), while SBM III (45% Crude Protein and about 20% substitution of fish meal) was stood second. All tested diets respond enormously by producing high yield as compare to control diet, though SBM II generated highest yield among all. On the bases of the following research, it was revealed that the SBM can surrogate even50% fish meal without any augmentation of other amino acids in the diet of Indian major carps.


Resumo O farelo de soja é uma proteína de origem vegetal de baixo custo que tem sido usada em dietas práticas como um substituto da proteína animal, como farinha de peixe ou farinha de frango, devido ao preço não econômico das dietas com proteína animal. Consequentemente, um estudo/pesquisa foi realizado com algumas espécies comerciais de carpas principais indianas, ou seja, Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) e Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822), para estimar a necessidade ideal de proteína dietética de farelo de soja na dieta em uma policultura intensiva. Três dietas diferentes (SBM I, SBM II e SBM III) foram formuladas por 80%, 50% e 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe por farelo de soja de uma dieta de 45% de farinha de peixe (controle). O maior ganho de peso médio mensal foi obtido por SBM II (com 35% PB e cerca de 50% de substituição de farinha de peixe), enquanto SBM III (45% de proteína bruta e cerca de 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe) ficou em segundo lugar. Todas as dietas testadas respondem enormemente produzindo alto rendimento em comparação com a dieta controle, embora SBM II tenha gerado o maior rendimento entre todas. Com base na pesquisa a seguir, foi revelado que o SBM pode substituir até 50% da farinha de peixe sem qualquer aumento de outros aminoácidos na dieta das carpas principais indianas.


Assuntos
Animais , Carpas , Cyprinidae , Soja , Alimentos Marinhos , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250916, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345552

RESUMO

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.


Resumo O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da Moringa olifera no crescimento e saúde intestinal da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração com 30% de proteína bruta foi preparada como dieta experimental com 4%, 8% e 10% de suplementação de folhas de M. olifera, respectivamente. A dieta controle foi desprovida de folhas de M. olifera. O ensaio de alimentação de 10 semanas foi realizado em 60 peixes em aquários. O peixe pesava 3% do peso corporal duas vezes ao dia. A dieta com alto nível de inclusão de folhas de M. olifera aumentou significativamente a taxa de crescimento, taxa de sobrevivência (SR), taxa de crescimento de sobrevivência (SGR) e eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) em todos os grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de controle. Da mesma forma, a taxa de conversão de alimentação (FCR) diminuiu gradualmente e foi considerada altamente significativa. Para verificar a saúde intestinal da tilápia, amostras aleatórias foram selecionadas e dissecadas. O ágar nutriente foi usado como meio de cultura para verificar o crescimento das bactérias. O método da placa de Verter foi usado para a contagem de colônias viáveis ​​por contador de colônias. Através do método de coloração, diferentes como Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella e Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram identificados abundantemente no intestino de peixes da dieta controle, mas em menor número nos grupos de dieta de tratamento. Esses resultados mostraram que M. olifera deixa até 10% da proteína dietética e pode ser usado para tilápia do Nilo para um crescimento significativo e microbiota intestinal saudável de peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Ciclídeos , Moringa , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Folhas de Planta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250517, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355859

RESUMO

Abstract Lactobacilli are probiotics with Aflatoxin (AF) detoxification ability, found in fermented products, GIT of animals and environment. Purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of broiler isolates of Lactobacillus against Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). For this purpose, 5 isolates of Lactobacillus from broiler gut were incubated with 100 ppb AFB1 in aqueous environment and effect of different parameters (cell fractions, time, temperature, pH) on detoxification was determined by HPLC. The ameliorative effect of Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) against AFB1 was studied in broiler. The results revealed that LS (CR. 4) showed the best results (in vitro) as compared to other isolates (L. salivarius (CR. 3, CR, 4), L. agilis (CE. 2.1, CE. 3.1) and L. crispatus (CE. 28). Cell debris of CR. 4 showed significantly higher detoxification (P<0.05). Maximum amount of AFB1 was detoxified at 30°C (97%), pH 4.0 (99%) and 6 h (99.97%). In vivo study showed that AFB1 decreased weight gain (1,269 ± 0.04 gm/ bird), feed consumed (2,161 ± 0.08 gm/ bird), serum total protein (2.42 ± 0.34 gm/ dl), serum albumin (0.5 ± 0.2 2 gm/dl) and antibody titer (4.2 ± 0.83). Liver function enzymes were found (alanine transaminase (ALT): 32 ± 10.7 U/L) and aspartate transaminase (AST): 314.8 ± 27 U/L) elevated in AFB1 fed broilers. Treatment with 1% LS not only decreased the toxic effects of AFB1 (group D) but also improved the overall health of broilers due to its probiotic effects (p<0.05) as compared to control negative (group A). The detoxification ability of LS was better than commercial binder (CB) (0.2% Protmyc). It was concluded that detoxification of AFB1 by Lactobacillus was strain, temperature, pH and time dependent. LS has detoxification ability against AFB1 in vivo.


Resumo Os lactobacilos são probióticos com capacidade de desintoxicação da Aflatoxina (AF), encontrados em produtos fermentados, TGI de animais e meio ambiente. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a capacidade de isolados de frango de corte de Lactobacillus contra a Aflatoxina B1 (AFB1). Para tanto, 5 isolados de Lactobacillus de intestino de frango foram incubados com 100 ppb AFB1 em meio aquoso, e o efeito de diferentes parâmetros (frações celulares, tempo, temperatura, pH) na desintoxicação foi determinado por CLAE. O efeito melhorador de Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) contra AFB1 foi estudado em frangos de corte. Os resultados revelaram que LS (CR. 4) apresentou os melhores resultados (in vitro) em comparação com outros isolados [L. salivarius (CR. 3, CR. 4), L. agilis (CE. 2.1, CE. 3.1) e L. crispatus (CE. 28)]. Detritos celulares de CR. 4 mostraram desintoxicação significativamente maior (P < 0.05). A quantidade máxima de AFB1 foi desintoxicada a 30 °C (97%), pH 4.0 (99%) e 6 h (99,97%). O estudo in vivo mostrou que AFB1 diminuiu o ganho de peso (1,269 ± 0.04 g / ave), alimento consumido (2,161 ± 0.08 g / ave), proteína total sérica (2.42 ± 0.34 g / dl), albumina sérica (0.5 ± 0.22 gm / dl) e título de anticorpo (4.2 ± 0.83). As enzimas da função hepática foram encontradas (alanina transaminase (ALT): 32 ± 10.7 U / L) e aspartato transaminase (AST): 314.8 ± 27 U / L) elevadas em AFB1 alimentados com frangos. O tratamento com 1% LS não só diminuiu os efeitos tóxicos de AFB1 (grupo D), mas também melhorou a saúde geral dos frangos devido aos seus efeitos probióticos (p < 0.05) em comparação com o controle negativo (grupo A). A capacidade de desintoxicação do LS foi melhor do que o aglutinante comercial (CB) (0.2% Protmyc). Concluiu-se que a desintoxicação de AFB1 por Lactobacillus foi dependente da cepa, temperatura, pH e tempo. LS tem capacidade de desintoxicação contra AFB1 in vivo.


Assuntos
Animais , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Probióticos , Galinhas , Lactobacillus , Ração Animal/análise
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252471, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355868

RESUMO

Abstract Smog has become the fifth season of Pakistan especially in Lahore city. Increased level of air pollutants (primary and secondary) are thought to be responsible for the formation of smog in Lahore. Therefore, the current study was carried out for the evaluation of air pollutants (primary and secondary) of smog in Wagah border particularly and other sites (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. For this purpose, baseline data on winter smog from March to December on primary and secondary air pollutants and meteorological parameters was collected from Environmental Protection Department and Pakistan Meteorological Department respectively. Devices being used in both departments for analysis of parameters were also studied. Collected data was further statistically analyzed to determine the correlation of parameters with meteorological conditions and was subjected to air quality index. According to results, PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found very high above the NEQS. NOx concentrations were also high above the permissible limits whereas SO2 and O3 were found below the NEQS thus have no roles in smog formation. Air Quality Index (AQI) of pollutants was PM 2.5(86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) and SO2 (10-95). AQI of PM 2.5 remained between moderate to very unhealthy levels. AQI of PM 10 remained between good to hazardous levels. AQI of NOx remained between good to unhealthy for sensitive groups' levels. AQI of O3 and SO2 remained between good to moderate levels. Pearson correlation showed that every pollutant has a different relation with different or same parameters in different areas. It is concluded from the present study that particulate matter was much more responsible for smog formation. Although NOx also played role in smog formation. So there is need to reduce sources of particulate matter and NOx specifically in order to reduce smog formation in Lahore.


Resumo Smog tornou-se a quinta estação do Paquistão, especialmente na cidade de Lahore. Acredita-se que o aumento do nível de poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) seja responsável pela formação de poluição atmosférica em Lahore. Portanto, o presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação dos poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) do smog na fronteira de Wagah em particular e em outros locais (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. Para este propósito, os dados de referência sobre a poluição atmosférica de inverno de março a dezembro sobre poluentes atmosféricos primários e secundários e parâmetros meteorológicos foram coletados do Departamento de Proteção Ambiental e do Departamento Meteorológico do Paquistão, respectivamente. Dispositivos sendo usados ​​em ambos os departamentos para análise de parâmetros também foram estudados. Os dados coletados foram posteriormente analisados ​​estatisticamente para determinar a correlação dos parâmetros com as condições meteorológicas e foram submetidos ao índice de qualidade do ar. De acordo com os resultados, PM 10 e PM 2,5 foram encontrados muito acima do NEQS. As concentrações de NOx também estavam muito acima dos limites permitidos, enquanto SO2 e O3 foram encontrados abaixo do NEQS, portanto, não têm papéis na formação de smog. O índice de qualidade do ar (AQI) de poluentes foi PM 2,5 (86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) e SO2 (10-95). O AQI de PM 2,5 permaneceu entre níveis moderados a muito prejudiciais à saúde. O AQI de PM 10 permaneceu entre níveis bons e perigosos. AQI de NOx permaneceu entre bom e não saudável para os níveis de grupos sensíveis. O AQI de O3 e SO2 permaneceu entre níveis bons a moderados. A correlação de Pearson mostrou que cada poluente tem uma relação diferente com parâmetros diferentes ou iguais em áreas diferentes. Conclui-se do presente estudo que o material particulado foi muito mais responsável pela formação de smog. Embora o NOx também tenha desempenhado um papel na formação do smog. Portanto, é necessário reduzir as fontes de partículas e NOx, especificamente para reduzir a formação de smog em Lahore.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Paquistão , Smog , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cidades , Material Particulado/análise
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253599, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355891

RESUMO

Abstract The antioxidant activity of Tetragonisca angustula honey (TAH) and its ethanolic extract (TAEE) were investigated. The total levels of phenolic (TPC) and flavonoids (TFC) were also evaluated. The results for TPC were 19.91 ± 0.38 and 29.37 ± 1.82 mg GAE g-1 and for TFC 0.20 ± 0.02 and 0.14 ± 0.01 mg QE g-1 of TAH and TAEE, respectively. Antioxidant activities were 73.29 ± 0.49% and 93.36 ± 0.27% in the DPPH● assay and 71.73 ± 4.07% and 97.86 ± 0.35% in ABTS●+ for TAH and TAEE, respectively. The total reducing activity was determined by the method of reducing power (PR) and iron ion (Fe III) and the results varied in PR from 151.7 ± 25.7 and 230.7 ± 25.2 mg GAE L-1, for TAH and TAEE respectively and for (Fe III) in EC50 0.284 in TAEE and 0.687 in TAH. Chemical analysis by HPLC-DAD of the ethanolic extract (TAEE) revealed the presence of ferulic acid as majority phenolic component in the extract. The 1H NMR analysis confirmed this structure and showed the also presence of glucose, citric acid, succinic acid, proline and hydrocarbon derivatives. In addition, the botanical origin was also investigated and showed a multifloral characteristic, having found 19 pollen types with a botanical predominance of the Anacardiaceae family, with Tapirira pollen occurring as predominant (42.6%) and Schinus as secondary (25.7%). The results showed that T. angustula honey is an interesting source of antioxidant phenolic compounds due to its floral origin and can act as a protector of human health when consumed.


Resumo A atividade antioxidante do mel de Tetragonisca angustula (TAH) e seu extrato etanólico (TAEE) foram investigados. Os níveis totais de fenólicos (TPC) e flavonóides (TFC) também foram avaliados. Os resultados para TPC foram 19,91 ± 0,38 e 29,37 ± 1,82 mg GAE g-1 e para TFC 0,20 ± 0,02 e 0,14 ± 0,01 mg QE g-1 de TAH e TAEE, respectivamente. As atividades antioxidantes foram 73,29 ± 0,49% e 93,36 ± 0,27% no ensaio DPPH● e 71,73 ± 4,07% e 97,86 ± 0,35% no ABTS●+ para TAH e TAEE, respectivamente. A atividade redutora total foi determinada pelo método de poder redutor (PR) e íon ferrico (Fe III) e os resultados variaram em PR de 151,7 ± 25,7 e 230,7 ± 25,2 mg GAE L-1, para TAH e TAEE respectivamente e para (Fe III) em EC50 0,284 em TAEE e 0,687 em TAH. A análise química por HPLC-DAD do extrato etanólico (TAEE) revelou a presença de ácido ferúlico como componente majoritário no extrato. A análise de RMN 1H confirmou esta estrutura e mostrou a presença de glicose, ácido cítrico, ácido succínico, prolina e derivados de hidrocarbonetos no TAEE. Além disso, a origem botânica também foi investigada e apresentou característica multifloral, tendo encontrado 19 tipos polínicos com predomínio botânico da família Anacardiaceae, sendo o pólen Tapirira predominante (42,6%) e o Schinus secundário (25,7%). Os resultados mostraram que o mel de T. angustula é uma interessante fonte de compostos fenólicos antioxidantes devido à sua origem floral e pode atuar como protetor da saúde humana quando consumido.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Mel/análise , Antioxidantes , Fenóis/análise , Brasil , Ácidos Cumáricos
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253555, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355900

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of selenium nanoparticles on the growth, hematology and nutrients digestibility of Labeorohita fingerlings. Fingerlings were fed with seven isocaloric sunflower meal-based diet supplemented with different concentrations of nanoparticles naming T1 to T7 (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mg/kg), with 5% wet body weight while chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. After experimentation for 90 days T3 treated group (1mg/kg -1Se-nano level) showed the best result in hematological parameters (WBC's 7.97 ×103mm-3, RBC's 2.98 ×106 mm-3 and Platelet count 67), nutrient digestibility (crude protein: 74%, ether extract: 76%, gross energy: 70%) and growth performance (weight gain 13.24 g, weight gain% 198, feed conversion ratio 1.5, survival rate 100%) as compared to the other treatment groups. Specific growth rates were found significantly higher in T5 than in other groups. The present study indicated positive effect of 1 mg/kg Se-nanoparticles on growth advancement, hematological parameters, and nutrients digestibility of L. rohita fingerlings.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar os efeitos das nanopartículas de selênio no crescimento, hematologia e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de alevinos de Labeo rohita. Os alevinos foram alimentados com sete dietas isocalóricas à base de farinha de girassol suplementada com diferentes concentrações de nanopartículas, nomeando T1 a T7 (0, 0,5, 1, 1,5, 2, 2,5 e 3 mg / kg), com 5% do peso corporal úmido enquanto o óxido crômico foi usado como um marcador indigesto. Após a experimentação por 90 dias, o grupo tratado com T3 (nível 1mg / kg -1Se-nano) mostrou o melhor resultado em parâmetros hematológicos (WBC's 7,97 × 103mm-3, RBC's 2,98 × 106mm-3 e contagem de plaquetas 67), digestibilidade dos nutrientes (proteína bruta: 74%, extrato de éter: 76%, energia bruta: 70%) e desempenho de crescimento (ganho de peso 13,24 g, ganho de peso % 198, taxa de conversão alimentar 1,5, taxa de sobrevivência 100%) em comparação com os outros grupos de tratamento. As taxas de crescimento específicas foram encontradas significativamente mais altas em T5 do que em outros grupos. O presente estudo indicou efeito positivo de 1 mg / kg de nanopartículas de Se no avanço do crescimento, parâmetros hematológicos e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de L. rohita.


Assuntos
Animais , Nanopartículas , Helianthus , Nutrientes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250723, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355902

RESUMO

Abstract This study assessed the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole effect on the main indicators of the quality of sheep meat obtained from infected and deworming animals. A total of 20 heads of Akzhaik meat and wool sheep (i.e. 2 years of age, of different sex) were used in a 20-day experiment and 2 groups of 10 heads were formed (n = 4). The sheep were fed with the basic diet (i.e. control, group CON), without adding anything, and the second group was fed the basic diet orally with the addition of a dose of 1.2 g / head (an experimental group). At the end of the experiment, a control slaughter was carried out from each group in order to study the biochemical composition of meat and its quality. The anthelmintic feed additive albendazole did not have a significant effect on the indicators (organoleptic and physicochemical) of meat quality (P> 0.04). However, the ratio of fat and ash in the meat of the control group has differences in indicators and is reduced by 24.81% and 0.03%, respectively. The drug had a significant effect on the biological value of meat in the experimental group, where there is a higher content of essential amino acids (P = 0.06), nonessential (P = 0.05) concentrations in comparison with the CON groups. The results obtained show that the meat of the experimental groups of sheep, when using the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole, did not have a significant effect on organoleptic parameters, but significantly positively influenced the metabolism, live weight gain and biological value of meat.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol sobre os principais indicadores de qualidade da carne ovina obtida de animais infectados e desparasitados. Um total de 20 cabeças de carne Akzhaik e ovelhas de lã (ou seja, 2 anos de idade, de sexo diferente) foi usado em um experimento de 20 dias e dois grupos de 10 cabeças foram formados (n = 4). As ovelhas foram alimentadas com dieta básica (ou seja, controle, grupo CON), sem adicionar nada, e o segundo grupo foi alimentado com dieta básica por via oral com a adição de uma dose de 1,2 g / cabeça (um grupo experimental). Ao final do experimento, foi realizado um abate controle de cada grupo para estudar a composição bioquímica da carne e sua qualidade. O aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol não teve efeito significativo sobre os indicadores (organolépticos e físico-químicos) de qualidade da carne (P > 0,04). No entanto, a proporção de gordura e cinzas na carne do grupo de controle tem diferenças nos indicadores e é reduzida em 24,81% e 0,03%, respectivamente. A droga teve efeito significativo sobre o valor biológico da carne no grupo experimental, onde há maior teor de aminoácidos essenciais (P = 0,06), concentrações não essenciais (P = 0,05) em comparação com os grupos CON. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a carne dos grupos experimentais de ovinos, ao utilizar o aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol, não teve efeito significativo nos parâmetros organolépticos, mas influenciou positivamente de forma significativa no metabolismo, ganho de peso vivo e valor biológico da carne.


Assuntos
Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Anti-Helmínticos , Ovinos , Albendazol , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/análise
8.
Food Chem ; 399: 133918, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994858

RESUMO

A core-shell magnetic sulfonatocalix[6]arene covalently cross-linked polymer was proposed as a magnetic adsorbent, combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for the enrichment and determination of epoxy derivatives in canned foods. The adsorbent has high density of host-guest recognition functional groups, abundant binding sites and suitable cavity size, showing good extraction performance for epoxy derivatives. Quantum chemical simulation calculations provedmultiple interaction forces in the adsorption process. Theextractionparameterswere investigated. Under optimized experimental conditions, 13 kinds of target analytes showed low detection limits (0.0072-0.023 ng/g) and good precisions (RSDs of 0.8 %-9.4 %). This method has been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 13 kinds of epoxy derivatives in different food samples including canned beverage, fish, meat, and milk powder. Satisfactory recoveries (74.9 %-118 %) were obtained. The results showed the potential application prospects in the enrichment and detection of hazardous substances in food.


Assuntos
Éter , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Alimentos em Conserva/análise , Glicerol , Éteres de Glicerila , Indicadores e Reagentes , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Polímeros/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
9.
Food Chem ; 399: 133843, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998488

RESUMO

A facile approach was proposed for the preparation of boric acid-functionalized core-shell structured magnetic covalent organic framework (COF) nanocomposites through employing the Fe3O4 nanoparticles as magnetic core, boric acid-functionalized COFs as the shell via sequential post-synthetic modification (denoted as Fe3O4@COF@BA). The synthesized nanocomposites showed large specific surface area, high magnetic responsiveness, and desirable chemical and thermal stability. Combined with HPLC-MS/MS, the as-prepared Fe3O4@COF@BA composite was applied as a sorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) from meat samples. Under optimal conditions, the method displays low limits of detection (LODs, 0.08-0.72 µg kg-1) and good precision with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 5.4 %. The approach was successfully employed for the extraction and detection of EDCs in blank and spiked beef, chicken and pork samples with recovery ranging from 88.8 to 104.2 %.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Adsorção , Animais , Ácidos Bóricos , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Limite de Detecção , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Carne/análise , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Food Chem ; 399: 133799, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998490

RESUMO

Flesh quality is evaluated according to nutritional value and sensory quality. Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) improves mammalian meat quality, but research relating this to aquaculture is scarce. In this study, five doses of CIN (0, 36, 72, 108, 144 mg/kg diet) were fed to grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) for 60 days. The results show that CIN supplementation increased nutritional value by increasing crude protein content. CIN also improved the sensory quality by increasing the pH and collagen content, decreasing shear force, lactate, and cooking loss. These changes may be related to changes in muscle fiber growth by increasing myofiber diameter. The increased myofiber diameter induced by CIN is associated with TOR mRNA and protein levels, and down-regulated FOXO3a mRNA levels, which might be associated with PTP1B/IGF1/PI3K/AKTs-TOR/FOXO3a signaling. Based on muscle crude protein content, optimal CIN supplementation dosage was 88.01 mg/kg.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carpas/genética , Carpas/metabolismo , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Mamíferos/genética , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Food Chem ; 399: 133946, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998491

RESUMO

Genotype, growth stages, and moisture regimes affect polyphenols as beneficial compounds in rapeseed with edible and medicinal properties. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of tissue, genotype background and moisture on growth, pigment composition, phenolic acids, flavonoids, antioxidant, and antiglycation activities in rapeseed. Treatments included two moisture regimes (10% field capacity as drought-treated and 30% field capacity as control), tissue (leaf, flower and seed), and 12 rapeseed genotypes. The range of loss in growth traits under drought compared with control was between 23% and 47%. Drought reduced number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weights by 23%, 31%, 37%, and 36%, respectively whilst increased chlorophylls, carotenoids, total pigment, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities. Analysis for antiglycation properties in two genotypes (G01 and G08) which accumulated higher phenolic compounds showed that higher antiglycation property was associated with higher epicatechin, and caffeic, and syringic acids. Flower extracts showed higher phenolics than leaf and seed suggesting flowering stage is a preferred timing to harvest a higher polyphenols from rapeseed. Overall, our results demonstrated role of specific polyphenols in antiglycation activities and the importance of growth stage and genotype in attaining higher polyphenols and antioxidants that affect edible and medicinal values of rapeseed under water limited conditions.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Brassica napus/genética , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia
12.
Food Chem ; 399: 133979, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998494

RESUMO

The changes of capsaicinoids in the pericarp and placenta of Jeromin pepper fruits, collected at two different stages of plant's maturity (young and adult), has been studied throughout the ripening process. This variety is used in the production of "Pimentón de La Vera" and recognized under a Protected Designation of Origin, so it is of great importance to determine their optimum harvesting time to get the most of its beneficial health effects. Capsaicinoids reached the maximum concentration on the 30th days post-anthesis (dpa) for the young plant, while in the adult plant it was later, specifically on 40th and 60th dpa for the placenta and pericarp, respectively. From this moment on, a sharp decrease in their content is observed. In addition, higher amounts of total capsaicinoids have been found in the second stage of plant maturity with respect to the first one, both in the placenta and in the pericarp.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Piper nigrum , Capsaicina/análise , Frutas/química
13.
Food Chem ; 399: 133976, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998497

RESUMO

The effect of adding native or germinated quinoa flour to wheat flour on gluten structure, starch digestibility and quality properties in pasta was evaluated. The free sulfhydryl contents in wheat/quinoa dough (1.41-3.16 µmol/g) were higher than the wheat dough content (0.764 µmol/g). The gluten network was gradually disrupted as additions of quinoa increased, resulting in improved starch digestibility. Further, germinated quinoa showed greater disruption and starch digestibility effects than native quinoa. Although the cooking quality of pasta decreased with additions of quinoa, cooking losses were below 7 %, which is acceptable. Adding excess germinated quinoa (30 %) had negative impacts on the textural properties. The sensory quality of pasta with 10-20 % native or germinated quinoa (24 h) flour (QF24) was acceptable. These findings suggested that a recipe of 20 % QF24 in wheat flour is recommended to develop wheat/germinated quinoa pasta with improved digestibility and acceptable changes in qualities.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Farinha , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Culinária/métodos , Farinha/análise , Glutens/química , Amido/química , Triticum/química
14.
Food Chem ; 399: 133970, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998499

RESUMO

Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are routine methods for rapid foodborne pollutants screening, with detection limits that are closely associated with the label probes used. The exploitation of high performance and robust probe is highly desirable, and remains a great challenge. Herein, we reported an emerging fluorescent nanobeads i.e. carbon-dots (CD) covalently incorporated mesoporous silicon nanoparticles (CD-MSNs) for LFIAs. CD-MSNs revealed brighter fluorescence, larger particle size and more modification sites in comparison with those of single CD. After bio-functionalisation, CD-MSNs probes were introduced to construct LFIA test strips, and designed for ultrasensitive detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), two representative foodborne pollutants, based on the competitive and sandwich models, respectively. Very competitive quantitative detection limits i.e. 0.05 ng/mL and 102 cfu/mL were correspondingly obtained. Additionally, the test strips were successfully applied to rapidly and accurately screen AFB1 and S. aureus in food samples, highlighting their practicality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Nanopartículas , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Carbono , Corantes Fluorescentes , Imunoensaio/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Silício , Staphylococcus aureus
15.
Food Chem ; 399: 133901, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001927

RESUMO

In this study, a novel supramolecular solvent based on surface-active ionic liquid was prepared and used as an extraction solvent for dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of four triazine herbicides in tea samples. The formation mechanism, microstructure and physicochemical properties of supramolecular solvent were studied. Some parameters, including the molar ratio of surface-active ionic liquid to tetrahydrofuran, volume of supramolecular solvent, vortex time, pH of sample solution, type and amount of salt, were investigated and optimized. The good linearities (r > 0.9990) for the analytes were obtained. The limits of detection and quantification for triazine herbicides were in the range of 1.7-2.1 µg kg-1 and 5.6-7.1 µg kg-1, respectively. The spiked recoveries were 80.0-119.9 %. The supramolecular solvent prepared in this study has the advantages of simple preparation process, low viscosity and good dispersibility. It can be used for the extraction and enrichment of trace triazine herbicides in tea samples.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Líquidos Iônicos , Microextração em Fase Líquida , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Herbicidas/análise , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Limite de Detecção , Solventes/química , Chá , Triazinas/análise
16.
Food Chem ; 399: 133887, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001929

RESUMO

Although the demand for meat analogues is increasing, aspects of the analogues' textural characteristics continue to be problematic. To solve these problems, a new technique for applying vacuum packaging and pressurized heat (i.e., vacuum-autoclaving) to low-moisture TSP has been proposed. An analysis of the morphological characteristics of the analogues showed that the vacuum-autoclaving treatment affected the packing structure of the materials. The density was increased by about 0.25 g/mL by vacuum-autoclaving, and the movement of water was restricted by the formation of a packed structure. The disulfide bonds increased by 3 µM/g or more and the ß-sheets and α-helixes increased by 7 % or more; this contributed to structural changes due to protein aggregation. The texturization index and hardness tended to decrease by more than 30 %, indicating a decrease in overall structural strength. The newly proposed technology has potential for use in the commercialization of meat analogues.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos , Proteínas de Soja , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Carne/análise , Tecnologia , Vácuo
17.
Food Chem ; 399: 133969, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007443

RESUMO

Bloodroot (Haemodorum spicatum) is an Australian native bulb plant yielding red pigment. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic and carotenoid profiles of the 80% ethanol extract of the H. spicatum bulb by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS and HPLC-DAD. Results revealed the relatively low total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the bulb extract with the maximum absorbance at 477 nm. Only 2 carotenoids (lutein and capsanthin) were detected at relatively low levels in the extract. A total of 40 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified, including 5 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids and 22 other phenolic compounds, where 35 were reported for the first time in H. spicatum, together with 3 previously reported phenylphenalenones, haemodorol, haemoxiphidone and 2,5,6-trimethoxy-9-phenyl-1H-phenalen-1-one, and 2 oxabenzochrysenones, 5-hydroxy-2-methoxy-1H-naphtho[2,1,8-mna]xanthen-1-one and 5-hydroxy-1H-naphtho[2,1,8-mna]xanthen-1-one. This study provided the most comprehensive phenolic and carotenoid profiles of H. spicatum up to date.


Assuntos
Etanol , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Austrália , Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
18.
Food Chem ; 399: 133902, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027808

RESUMO

The aim of this manuscript was to validate and apply an analytical methodology for the simultaneous determination of 34 mycotoxins in cocoa. The extraction method used in the tests was a liquid-liquid partition by NaCl addition with a freezing step followed by quantification using LC-MS/MS. The results were discussed based on national and international directives for food contaminants. The recoveries and precision were adequate, except for the mycotoxins ionized with the ammonium adduct (NH4+), E-cristinine and ß-ZOL. This result directly influenced the measurement uncertainty of these mycotoxins, because the precision and the correction factor of the recovery were the factors with the greatest impact on the uncertainty of the method. The evaluation of the matrix effect showed considerable signal suppression for 53 % of the evaluated mycotoxins. Nevertheless, the mycotoxins exhibited relatively low quantification limits, with values between 1 and 75 µg kg-1. The validated methodology was applied to 15 cocoa samples collected in warehouses in Brazil. Positive results were found for all the evaluated samples, in which nine toxins were detected out of the 34 investigated.


Assuntos
Cacau , Micotoxinas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Micotoxinas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Incerteza
19.
Food Chem ; 399: 133818, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027809

RESUMO

Offal tissues carry a lower market value compared to skeletal meats in some global markets. The inclusion of offal in any meat product in the EU and UK must be declared on the label. While many technologies have been applied to the challenge of determining adulteration with offal in meat products, no single method has been recognised and validated as a reliable test to support legislative requirements. This literature review investigated appropriate methods to determine the adulteration of meat with offal. The aim was to identify technologies suitable for future validation to underpin a high throughput, low-cost method suitable for application by enforcement laboratories. Considering all of the methods, technologies which determine elemental composition and peptide markers were particularly highlighted as demonstrating potential for future development to determine a wide range of offal tissues to support the safety and integrity of the food chain.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Segurança Alimentar , Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise
20.
Food Chem ; 399: 133972, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027810

RESUMO

Pomegranate (Punica grantum L.) fruit juice was concentrated by forward osmosis or thermal evaporation and the samples were stored at ambient (25 °C) and accelerated (37 °C) storage conditions. The anthocyanin content of raw, reconstituted forward osmosis as well as reconstituted thermally evaporated pomegranate juice were 421.1, 414.4 and 357.2 mg/kg respectively. The physicochemical attributes of pomegranate juice concentrate such as anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, browning index, and hydroxymethyl furfural showed that the quality of the concentrate was markedly affected by storage conditions. Based on the hydroxymethyl furfural content (≤25 mg/kg), it was concluded that the forward osmosis concentrated juices could be stored at ambient and accelerated conditions for ∼101 and ∼66 days, respectively. While, thermally concentrated juice could only be stored for less ∼31 and ∼3 days, respectively. Forward osmosis could be a method to concentrate pomegranate juice with minimum effect on quality attributes with extended shelf life.


Assuntos
Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Romã (Fruta) , Antocianinas/análise , Frutas/química , Furaldeído/análise , Cinética , Osmose
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