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1.
Compend Contin Educ Dent ; 43(3): 184-188, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917589

RESUMO

At the EuroPerio conference held in Amsterdam in 2018, an update to the previous classification of periodontal diseases was presented. The update was a joint effort of the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) and the European Federation of Periodontology (EFP). On the face of it, the new classification system for diagnosing periodontal diseases and conditions is merely an update of previous definitions from 1999. However, upon close examination, it is much more than another semantic change of old definitions. The new classification rocks the ground upon which generations of pre- and post-graduate students and specialists in the field have stood. It is a perceptual change in the way clinicians describe, diagnose, and ultimately treat periodontal patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais , Periodontia , Humanos , Doenças Periodontais/classificação , Doenças Periodontais/diagnóstico , Periodontia/classificação
2.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 7442123, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912154

RESUMO

The value of 320-slice spiral computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging in staging and long-term dynamic evaluation of breast cancer was explored. 120 breast cancer patients who underwent preoperative CT examination and were confirmed by surgery and pathology were selected. All patients underwent preoperative TNM staging of breast cancer, with 120 cases in each stage. According to the results of 320-slice spiral CT, the postoperative pathology and surgical methods were compared and analyzed. CT diagnosis of breast cancer showed that T1 sensitivity was 71% and accuracy was 61%, T2 sensitivity was 74% and accuracy was 64%, T3 sensitivity was 94% and the accuracy was 84%, and the T4 sensitivity was 100% and the accuracy was 91%. The sensitivity of N1 stage was 71%, and the accuracy was 61%; and the sensitivity of N2 ~ N3 stage was 81%, and the accuracy was 76%. There were 7 cases of M1 with distant metastasis, the sensitivity was 71%, and the accuracy was 71%. At T1 stage, blood flow (BF) was 39.2 ± 16.7 mL/min/100 g, blood volume (BV) was 2.66 ± 1.4 mL/100 g, mean transit time (MTT) was 8.16 ± 2.7 s, and permeability surface (PS) was 16.6 ± 9.7 mL/min/100 g. 320-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging technology provided a new diagnostic mode for everyone, which can quantitatively identify breast cancer with multiple parameters, which was of great significance for clinical auxiliary diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Imagem de Perfusão/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
3.
Rev. esp. med. nucl. imagen mol. (Ed. impr.) ; 41(4): 247-257, jul. - ago. 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-205187

RESUMO

Las encefalitis autoinmunes son procesos inflamatorios cerebrales que se clasifican en dos grandes grupos según el mecanismo patogénico subyacente: las mediadas por anticuerpos vs. antígenos intracelulares (paraneoplásicas) y las mediadas por anticuerpos frente a los antígenos extracelulares o de superficie neuronal. Las manifestaciones clínicas son muy variadas y poco específicas. Las pruebas complementarias incluidas en el diagnóstico clínico de la encefalitis autoinmune incluyen, entre otras, la determinación de anticuerpos en suero o en líquido cefalorraquídeo y la resonancia magnética (RM). La RM puede presentar patrones característicos como la afectación mesial del temporal, aunque en determinados casos puede ser normal. La imagen de tomografía por emisión de positrones (PET/TC) con 18F-Fluorodeoxiglucosa (18F-FDG PET/TC) puede ser de gran utilidad en los casos de encefalitis autoinmunes paraneoplásicas para encontrar el tumor primario. En los casos de encefalitis autoinmunes mediadas por anticuerpos frente a los antígenos extracelulares, la 18F-FDG PET/TC presenta unos patrones que pueden ayudar al diagnóstico clínico. Esta colaboración especial pretende presentar de forma clara y de fácil comprensión las características clínicas de la encefalitis autoinmune, las dificultades en el diagnóstico clínico y los patrones observados en la RM y en la 18F-FDG PET/TC (AU)


Autoimmune encephalitis are brain inflammatory processes that are classified into two main groups according to the underlying pathogenic mechanism: antibodies to intracellular antigens (paraneoplastic) and antibodies to extracellular or neuronal surface antigens. The clinical manifestations of autoimmune encephalitis are very varied and non-specific. Complementary tests included in its clinical diagnosis include determination of antibodies in serum or cerebrospinal fluid and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI may show characteristic patterns such as mesial temporal involvement, although in some cases it may be normal or non-specific. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT (18F-FDG PET/CT) imaging may be helpful in cases of paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis to find the primary tumor. In autoimmune encephalitis mediated by antibodies to extracellular antigens, 18F-FDG PET/CT shows distinctive patterns that can aid clinical diagnosis. This special collaboration aims to present in a clear and easy-to-understand way, the clinical features of autoimmune encephalitis, the difficulties in clinical diagnosis and the patterns seen on MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Encefalite/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Encefalite/classificação , Prognóstico
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 9900668, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937383

RESUMO

Cancer of the mesothelium, sometimes referred to as malignant mesothelioma (MM), is an extremely uncommon form of the illness that almost always results in death. Chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy are all potential treatments for multiple myeloma; however, the majority of patients are identified with the disease at an advanced stage, at which time it is resistant to these therapies. After obtaining a diagnosis of advanced multiple myeloma, the average length of time that a person lives is one year after hearing this news. There is a substantial link between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma (MM). Using an approach that enables feature selection and machine learning, this article proposes a classification and detection method for mesothelioma cancer. The CFS correlation-based feature selection approach is first used in the feature selection process. It acts as a filter, selecting just the traits that are relevant to the categorization. The accuracy of the categorization model is improved as a direct consequence of this. After that, classification is carried out with the help of naive Bayes, fuzzy SVM, and the ID3 algorithm. Various metrics have been utilized during the process of measuring the effectiveness of machine learning strategies. It has been discovered that the choice of features has a substantial influence on the accuracy of the categorization.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Mesotelioma , Algoritmos , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Mesotelioma/classificação , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma Maligno/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico
5.
BMJ ; 378: e070695, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of covid-19 death after infection with omicron BA.1 compared with delta (B.1.617.2). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: England, United Kingdom, from 1 December 2021 to 30 December 2021. PARTICIPANTS: 1 035 149 people aged 18-100 years who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 under the national surveillance programme and had an infection identified as omicron BA.1 or delta compatible. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measure was covid-19 death as identified from death certification records. The exposure of interest was the SARS-CoV-2 variant identified from NHS Test and Trace PCR positive tests taken in the community (pillar 2) and analysed by Lighthouse laboratories. Cause specific Cox proportional hazard regression models (censoring non-covid-19 deaths) were adjusted for sex, age, vaccination status, previous infection, calendar time, ethnicity, index of multiple deprivation rank, household deprivation, university degree, keyworker status, country of birth, main language, region, disability, and comorbidities. Interactions between variant and sex, age, vaccination status, and comorbidities were also investigated. RESULTS: The risk of covid-19 death was 66% lower (95% confidence interval 54% to 75%) for omicron BA.1 compared with delta after adjusting for a wide range of potential confounders. The reduction in the risk of covid-19 death for omicron compared with delta was more pronounced in people aged 18-59 years (number of deaths: delta=46, omicron=11; hazard ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.07 to 0.27) than in those aged ≥70 years (number of deaths: delta=113, omicron=135; hazard ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.61, P<0.0001). No evidence of a difference in risk was found between variant and number of comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: The results support earlier studies showing a reduction in severity of infection with omicron BA.1 compared with delta in terms of hospital admission. This study extends the research to also show a reduction in the risk of covid-19 death for the omicron variant compared with the delta variant.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
6.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e259351, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830130

RESUMO

Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized from the leaf extract of Brassica oleracea L. Acephala group (collard green) followed by their characterization using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). The antibacterial properties of zinc nanoparticles were tested against Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC ® 9027™), Escherichia coli (ATCC ® 8739™), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC® BAA-1705™) and Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC ® 6538™) and Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC ® 13932™), at four different concentrations (50.00 µg/ml, 100.00 µg/ml, 500.00 µg/ml and 1 mg/ml) of zinc oxide nanoparticles suspension. Results revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles exhibit strong antibacterial effects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli at 500.00 µg/ml-1 mg/ml concentrations. An increase in efficacy of nanoparticles with the decrease of their size was also evident. This is a first ever report on Brassica oleracea, L. based nanoparticles which demonstrates that 500.00 µg-1 mg/ml conc. of zinc oxide nanoparticles have antibacterial activity against both Gram -ve and Gram +ve bacteria and have the potential to be considered as an antibacterial agent in future.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Brassica , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Óxido de Zinco , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Brassica/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
7.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(9): 252, 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834125

RESUMO

An active microbial community of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria is needed for efficient utilization of nitrogenous compounds from wastewater. In this study, we explored the bacterial community diversity and structure within rivers, treated and untreated wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) discharging into Lake Victoria. Water samples were collected from rivers and WWTPs that drain into Lake Victoria. Physicochemical analysis was done to determine the level of nutrients or pollutant loading in the samples. Total community DNA was extracted, followed by Illumina high throughput sequencing to determine the total microbial community and abundance. Enrichment and isolation were then done to recover potential nitrifiers and denitrifiers. Physicochemical analysis pointed to high levels total nitrogen and ammonia in both treated and untreated WWTPs as compared to the samples from the lake and rivers. A total of 1,763 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) spread across 26 bacterial phyla were observed with the most dominant phylum being Proteobacteria. We observed a decreasing trend in diversity from the lake, rivers to WWTPs. The genus Planktothrix constituted 19% of the sequence reads in sample J2 collected from the lagoon. All the isolates recovered in this study were affiliated to three genera: Pseudomonas, Klebsiella and Enterobacter in the phylum Proteobacteria. A combination of metagenomic analysis and a culture-dependent approach helped us understand the relative abundance as well as potential nitrifiers and denitrifiers present in different samples. The recovered isolates could be used for in situ removal of nitrogenous compounds from contaminated wastewater.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Lagos , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Purificação da Água , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Desnitrificação , Enterobacter/classificação , Enterobacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterobacter/metabolismo , Quênia , Klebsiella/classificação , Klebsiella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Klebsiella/isolamento & purificação , Klebsiella/metabolismo , Lagos/química , Lagos/microbiologia , Nitrificação , Proteobactérias/classificação , Proteobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteobactérias/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/classificação , Pseudomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Rios/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/química
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12010, 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835977

RESUMO

Monitoring product temperature during lyophilization is critical, especially during the process development stage, as the final product may be jeopardized if its process temperature exceeds a threshold value. Also, in-situ temperature monitoring of the product gives the capability of creating an optimized closed-loop lyophilization process. While conventional thermocouples can track product temperature, they are invasive, limited to a single-point measurement, and can significantly alter the freezing and drying behavior of the product in the monitored vial. This work has developed a new methodology that combines non-invasive temperature monitoring and comprehensive modeling. It allows the accurate reconstruction of the complete temperature profile of the product inside the vial during the lyophilization process. The proposed methodology is experimentally validated by combining the sensors' wirelessly collected data with the advanced multiphysics simulations. The flexible wireless multi-point temperature sensing probe is produced using micro-manufacturing techniques and attached outside the vial, allowing for accurate extraction of the product temperature.


Assuntos
Dessecação , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Dessecação/métodos , Liofilização/métodos , Congelamento , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/instrumentação , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/normas , Temperatura , Termômetros/classificação
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(29): e2121036119, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858351

RESUMO

Many processes of biological diversification can simultaneously affect multiple evolutionary lineages. Examples include multiple members of a gene family diverging when a region of a chromosome is duplicated, multiple viral strains diverging at a "super-spreading" event, and a geological event fragmenting whole communities of species. It is difficult to test for patterns of shared divergences predicted by such processes because all phylogenetic methods assume that lineages diverge independently. We introduce a Bayesian phylogenetic approach to relax the assumption of independent, bifurcating divergences by expanding the space of topologies to include trees with shared and multifurcating divergences. This allows us to jointly infer phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and patterns of divergences predicted by processes of diversification that affect multiple evolutionary lineages simultaneously or lead to more than two descendant lineages. Using simulations, we find that the method accurately infers shared and multifurcating divergence events when they occur and performs as well as current phylogenetic methods when divergences are independent and bifurcating. We apply our approach to genomic data from two genera of geckos from across the Philippines to test if past changes to the islands' landscape caused bursts of speciation. Unlike previous analyses restricted to only pairs of gecko populations, we find evidence for patterns of shared divergences. By generalizing the space of phylogenetic trees in a way that is independent from the likelihood model, our approach opens many avenues for future research into processes of diversification across the life sciences.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Lagartos , Filogenia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Genoma , Lagartos/classificação , Lagartos/genética
10.
Metabolomics ; 18(7): 49, 2022 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781851

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Natural products are often efficacious and safe alternatives to synthetic drugs. This study explored secondary leaves and bark metabolites profiles in extracts of a new Egyptian hybrid, Annona cherimola × Annona squamosa, known as Abdel Razek. This hybrid exhibited 100% similarity with A. cherimola as evidenced by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analyses. METHODS: Primary constituents in methanol extracts of different plant organs were identified. Extracts richest in alkaloids and polyphenolics were assessed for in vitro antioxidant activity and the most potent were further studied in vivo for treating gastric ulcer in rats. The latter activity was assessed histopathologically. RESULTS: Structural analysis with HPLC/ESI-MSn, and UPLC/HESI-MS/MS identified 63 metabolites, including seven amino acids, 20 alkaloids, 16 flavonoids, eight phenolics and other compounds. Severe stomach alteration was observed after ethanol induction in rats. Ulcer score, oxidative stress biomarkers, cell organelles biomarker enzymes, and gastrointestinal histological features improved to variable degrees after treatment with Annona Abdel Razek hybrid leaves and bark methanol extracts. CONCLUSION: Extracts of Annona Abdel Razek had showed in vitro antioxidant effect and may be promising for the treatment of gastric ulcers.


Assuntos
Annona , Extratos Vegetais , Alcaloides/química , Animais , Annona/química , Annona/classificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Egito , Metabolômica , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Tokai J Exp Clin Med ; 47(2): 44-46, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35801545

RESUMO

Myiasis refers to the infestation of living humans and vertebrate animals by dipterous larvae. Many organs can be infested by fly larvae, but cutaneous and wound myiases are the most frequently encountered clinical forms. Persistent ulcer or non-healing wound is one of the symptoms of squamous cell carcinoma which is the second most common skin cancer in the world. Here we report a case of an elderly man with a severe wound myiasis in a squamous cell carcinoma lesion of the scalp. The maggots were confirmed to be Lucilia sericata which are widespread flies in Japan. Human myiasis is rarely reported in Japan, but patients with necrotic, hemorrhaging, or pus-filled wounds are susceptible to infestation. It is necessary for doctors and nurses to ensure that their patients change their dressings daily and keep their wounds clean.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/complicações , Dípteros/patogenicidade , Miíase/complicações , Couro Cabeludo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/complicações , Idoso , Animais , Dípteros/classificação , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Japão , Larva , Masculino , Miíase/diagnóstico , Miíase/terapia , Couro Cabeludo/parasitologia , Couro Cabeludo/patologia
12.
J Parasitol ; 108(4): 337-342, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35895748

RESUMO

The round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) is an invasive species that has become one of the most abundant fish in the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada over the past 15 yr. Since its introduction, the round goby has acquired a number of native parasites, yet little is known about the dynamics of parasite recruitment. To examine this question, young-of-the-year and juvenile round gobies were collected monthly from 2 localities in the river (Îles de la Paix, Île Dorval) from June through November 2012. At Îles de la Paix, round gobies (n = 180) were infected with 3 species of parasites, all larval stages (Diplostomum spp., Tylodelphys scheuringi, Neoechinorhynchus tenellus). Prevalence of the digenean Diplostomum spp. varied from 3.3 to 13.3%, and mean abundance from 0.03 to 0.53 from June through September, with a maximum in August. The digenean T. scheuringi was seen only in August, at a prevalence of 10.0% and a mean abundance of 0.53. The acanthocephalan N. tenellus was observed in June, August, and September, prevalence ranging from 3.3 to 10.0% and mean abundance from 0.03 to 0.27. Maximum infection for all 3 species occurred in August. All infected fish were ≥44 mm in total length (TL). Fish infected with more than 1 parasite species were >60 mm TL. No round goby (n = 178) was infected at Île Dorval. This study demonstrated that the invasive round goby starts to acquire parasite infections in the St. Lawrence River in the first year of life and may contribute to the transmission of some parasites within this ecosystem.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitos/fisiologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Ecossistema , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Rios/parasitologia , Estações do Ano , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/fisiologia
13.
Am J Vet Res ; 83(8)2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35895785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biomechanical properties of the mandibles of cats with experimentally created osteotomies simulating oblique ramus fractures, which were stabilized with malleable L-miniplates with either locking screws [locking construct (LC)] or nonlocking screws [nonlocking construct (NLC)], compared with those for intact mandibles. SAMPLES: 20 mandibles from 10 adult cat cadavers. PROCEDURES: A block study design was adopted to allocate the mandibles of each cadaver to 2 of the 3 test groups (LC, NLC, or intact mandible). Mandibles within each cadaver were allocated systematically to a test group. For mandibles assigned to an LC and an NLC, a complete oblique osteotomy was performed from the mid rostral aspect of the ramus in a caudoventral direction. All mandibles were loaded in a single-load-to-failure test through cantilever bending. Load and actuator displacement were recorded simultaneously. Mode of failure and radiographic evidence of damage to tooth roots and the mandibular canal were evaluated. Biomechanical properties were compared among the groups. RESULTS: No iatrogenic tooth root damage was evident, but all mandibles with an LC and an NLC had evidence of screw invasion into the mandibular canal. Plated mandibles had significantly less stiffness and bending moment than intact mandibles. Stiffness was not significantly different between the LC and the NLC; the NLC had a greater bending moment at failure than the LC. The pre-yield stiffness of plated mandibles decreased when the number of screw holes overlapping the mandibular canal increased. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The use of a malleable L-miniplate in a caudal mandibular fracture model is feasible. Both the LC and the NLC were inferior mechanically to intact mandibles. Type of construct used did not affect the construct stiffness significantly in tested mandibles.


Assuntos
Placas Ósseas/veterinária , Gatos/lesões , Fraturas Mandibulares/veterinária , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Placas Ósseas/classificação , Parafusos Ósseos/veterinária , Cadáver , Gatos/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/veterinária , Fraturas Mandibulares/fisiopatologia , Fraturas Mandibulares/cirurgia , Suporte de Carga
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(15)2022 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35898004

RESUMO

Growth indices can quantify crop productivity and establish optimal environmental, nutritional, and irrigation control strategies. A convolutional neural network (CNN)-based model is presented for estimating various growth indices (i.e., fresh weight, dry weight, height, leaf area, and diameter) of four varieties of greenhouse lettuce using red, green, blue, and depth (RGB-D) data obtained using a stereo camera. Data from an online autonomous greenhouse challenge (Wageningen University, June 2021) were employed in this study. The data were collected using an Intel RealSense D415 camera. The developed model has a two-stage CNN architecture based on ResNet50V2 layers. The developed model provided coefficients of determination from 0.88 to 0.95, with normalized root mean square errors of 6.09%, 6.30%, 7.65%, 7.92%, and 5.62% for fresh weight, dry weight, height, diameter, and leaf area, respectively, on unknown lettuce images. Using red, green, blue (RGB) and depth data employed in the CNN improved the determination accuracy for all five lettuce growth indices due to the ability of the stereo camera to extract height information on lettuce. The average time for processing each lettuce image using the developed CNN model run on a Jetson SUB mini-PC with a Jetson Xavier NX was 0.83 s, indicating the potential for the model in fast real-time sensing of lettuce growth indices.


Assuntos
Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Redes Neurais de Computação , Humanos , Alface/classificação , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 8415187, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35898478

RESUMO

Pneumonia infection is the leading cause of death in young children. The commonly used pneumonia detection method is that doctors diagnose through chest X-ray, and external factors easily interfere with the results. Assisting doctors in diagnosing pneumonia in patients based on deep learning methods can effectively eliminate similar problems. However, the complex network structure and redundant parameters of deep neural networks and the limited storage and computing resources of clinical medical hardware devices make it difficult for this method to use widely in clinical practice. Therefore, this paper studies a lightweight pneumonia classification network, CPGResNet50 (ResNet50 with custom channel pruning and ghost methods), based on ResNet50 pruning and compression to better meet the application requirements of clinical pneumonia auxiliary diagnosis with high precision and low memory. First, based on the hierarchical channel pruning method, the channel after the convolutional layer in the bottleneck part of the backbone network layer is used as the pruning object, and the pruning operation is performed after its normalization to obtain a network model with a high compression ratio. Second, the pruned convolutional layers are decomposed into original convolutions and cheap convolutions using the optimized convolution method. The feature maps generated by the two convolution parts are combined as the input to the next convolutional layer. Further, we conducted many experiments using pneumonia X-ray medical image data. The results show that the proposed method reduces the number of parameters of the ResNet50 network model from 23.7 M to 3.455 M when the pruning rate is 90%, a reduction is more than 85%, FIOPs dropped from 4.12G to 523.09 M, and the speed increased by more than 85%. The model training accuracy error remained within 1%. Therefore, the proposed method has a good performance in the auxiliary diagnosis of pneumonia and obtained good experimental results.


Assuntos
Compressão de Dados , Aprendizado Profundo , Pneumonia , Algoritmos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Pneumonia/classificação , Pneumonia/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 827506, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35874675

RESUMO

Background: Although messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines have unique advantages against multiple tumors, mRNA vaccine targets in stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) remain unknown. The potential effectiveness of mRNA vaccines is closely associated with the tumor immune infiltration microenvironment. The present study aimed to identify tumor antigens of STAD as mRNA vaccine targets and systematically determine immune subtypes (ISs) of STAD that might be suitable for immunotherapy. Methods: Gene expression profiles and clinical data of patients with gastric cancer were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA; n = 409) and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO; n = 433), and genomic data were extracted from cBioPortal. Differential gene expression was analyzed using the limma package, genetic alterations were visualized using maftools, and prognosis was analyzed using ToPP. Correlations between gene expression and immune infiltration were calculated using TIMER software, and potential ISs were identified using ConsensusClusterPlus. Functional enrichment was analyzed in clusterProfiler, and r co-expression networks were analyzed using the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) package in R. Results: Overexpression of the prognostic and highly mutated antigens ADAMTS18, COL10A1, PPEF1, and STRA6 was associated with infiltration by antigen-presenting cells in STAD. Five ISs (IS1-IS5) in STAD with distinct prognoses were developed and validated in TCGA and GEO databases. The tumor mutational burden and molecular and clinical characteristics significantly differed among IS1-IS5. Both IS1 and IS2 were associated with a high mutational burden, massive infiltration by immune cells, especially antigen-presenting cells, and better survival compared with the other subtypes. Both IS4 and IS5 were associated with cold immune infiltration and correlated with advanced pathological stages. We analyzed the immune microenvironments of five subtypes of immune modulators and biomarkers to select suitable populations for mRNA vaccination and established four co-expressed key modules to validate the characteristics of the ISs. Finally, the correlation of these four mRNA vaccine targets with the transcription factors of DC cells, including BATF3, IRF4, IRF8, ZEB2, ID2, KLF4, E2-2, and IKZF1, were explored to reveal the underlying mechanisms. Conclusions: ADAMTS18, COL10A1, PPEF1, and STRA6 are potential mRNA vaccine candidates for STAD. Patients with IS1 and IS2 are suitable populations for mRNA vaccination immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Vacinas Anticâncer , Neoplasias Gástricas , Vacinas de mRNA , Adenocarcinoma/classificação , Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Gástricas/classificação , Neoplasias Gástricas/imunologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Vacinação
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(15)2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35898081

RESUMO

Transport-sharing systems are eco-friendly and the most promising services in smart urban environments, where the booming Internet of things (IoT) technologies play an important role in the smart infrastructure. Due to the imbalanced bike distribution, bikes and stalls in the docking stations could be unavailable when needed, leading to bad customer experiences. We develop a dynamic repositioning strategy for the management of bikes in this paper, which supports dispatchers to keep stations in service. Two open datasets are examined, and the exploratory data analysis presents that there is a significant difference of travel patterns between working and non-working days, where the former has an excess demand at rush hours and the latter is usually at a low demand. To evaluate the effect when the demand outstrips a station's capacity, we propose a non-linear scaling technique to transform demand patterns and perform the clustering analysis for each of five categories obtained from the sophisticated analysis of the dataset. Our repositioning strategy is developed according to the transformed demands. Compared with the previous work, numerical simulations reveal that our strategy has a better performance for high-demand stations, and thus can substantially reduce the repositioning cost, which brings benefit to bike-sharing operators for managing the city bike system.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Demanda Induzida , Meios de Transporte/métodos , Ciclismo/classificação , Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Demanda Induzida/tendências , Meios de Transporte/estatística & dados numéricos , Viagem
18.
Science ; 377(6602): 218-222, 2022 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857544

RESUMO

Pharyngeal arches are a key innovation that likely contributed to the evolution of the jaws and braincase of vertebrates. It has long been hypothesized that the pharyngeal (branchial) arch evolved from an unjointed cartilaginous rod in vertebrate ancestors such as that in the nonvertebrate chordate amphioxus, but whether such ancestral anatomy existed remains unknown. The pharyngeal skeleton of controversial Cambrian animals called yunnanozoans may contain the oldest fossil evidence constraining the early evolution of the arches, yet its correlation with that of vertebrates is still disputed. By examining additional specimens in previously unexplored techniques (for example, x-ray microtomography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry element mapping), we found evidence that yunnanozoan branchial arches consist of cellular cartilage with an extracellular matrix dominated by microfibrils, a feature hitherto considered specific to vertebrates. Our phylogenetic analysis provides further support that yunnanozoans are stem vertebrates.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Região Branquial , Arcada Osseodentária , Vertebrados , Animais , Região Branquial/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Vertebrados/anatomia & histologia , Vertebrados/classificação
19.
Nature ; 607(7920): 721-725, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859181

RESUMO

Mounting concern over the global decline of pollinators has fuelled calls for investigating their role in maintaining plant diversity1,2. Theory predicts that competition for pollinators can stabilize interactions between plant species by providing opportunities for niche differentiation3, while at the same time can drive competitive imbalances that favour exclusion4. Here we empirically tested these contrasting effects by manipulating competition for pollinators in a way that predicts its long-term implications for plant coexistence. We subjected annual plant individuals situated across experimentally imposed gradients in neighbour density to either ambient insect pollination or a pollen supplementation treatment alleviating competition for pollinators. The vital rates of these individuals informed plant population dynamic models predicting the key theoretical metrics of species coexistence. Competition for pollinators generally destabilized the interactions between plant species, reducing the proportion of pairs expected to coexist. Interactions with pollinators also influenced the competitive imbalances between plant species, effects that are expected to strengthen with pollinator decline, potentially disrupting plant coexistence. Indeed, results from an experiment simulating pollinator decline showed that plant species experiencing greater reductions in floral visitation also suffered greater declines in population growth rate. Our results reveal that competition for pollinators may weaken plant coexistence by destabilizing interactions and contributing to competitive imbalances, information critical for interpreting the impacts of pollinator decline.


Assuntos
Insetos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Plantas , Polinização , Animais , Biodiversidade , Comportamento Competitivo , Flores/fisiologia , Insetos/classificação , Insetos/fisiologia , Plantas/classificação , Pólen , Dinâmica Populacional
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35887024

RESUMO

MiRNAs are important epigenetic players with tissue- and disease-specific effects. In this study, our aim was to investigate the putative differential expression of miRNAs in adrenal tissues from different forms of Cushing's syndrome (CS). For this, miRNA-based next-generation sequencing was performed in adrenal tissues taken from patients with ACTH-independent cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas (CPA), from patients with ACTH-dependent pituitary Cushing's disease (CD) after bilateral adrenalectomy, and from control subjects. A confirmatory QPCR was also performed in adrenals from patients with other CS subtypes, such as primary bilateral macronodular hyperplasia and ectopic CS. Sequencing revealed significant differences in the miRNA profiles of CD and CPA. QPCR revealed the upregulated expression of miR-1247-5p in CPA and PBMAH (log2 fold change > 2.5, p < 0.05). MiR-379-5p was found to be upregulated in PBMAH and CD (log2 fold change > 1.8, p < 0.05). Analyses of miR-1247-5p and miR-379-5p expression in the adrenals of mice which had been exposed to short-term ACTH stimulation showed no influence on the adrenal miRNA expression profiles. For miRNA-specific target prediction, RNA-seq data from the adrenals of CPA, PBMAH, and control samples were analyzed with different bioinformatic platforms. The analyses revealed that both miR-1247-5p and miR-379-5p target specific genes in the WNT signaling pathway. In conclusion, this study identified distinct adrenal miRNAs as being associated with CS subtypes.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Cushing , MicroRNAs , Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Adrenalectomia , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/metabolismo , Animais , Síndrome de Cushing/classificação , Síndrome de Cushing/genética , Síndrome de Cushing/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/genética , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/metabolismo
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