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1.
JAMA ; 326(13): 1310-1318, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609446

RESUMO

Importance: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease of the esophagus that affects an estimated 34.4/100 000 people in Europe and North America. EoE affects both children and adults, and causes dysphagia, food impaction of the esophagus, and esophageal strictures. Observations: EoE is defined by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, such as vomiting, dysphagia, or feeding difficulties, in a patient with an esophageal biopsy demonstrating at least 15 eosinophils per high-power field in the absence of other conditions associated with esophageal eosinophilia such as gastroesophageal reflux disease or achalasia. Genetic factors and environmental factors, such as exposure to antibiotics early in life, are associated with EoE. Current therapies include proton pump inhibitors; topical steroid preparations, such as fluticasone and budesonide; dietary therapy with amino acid formula or empirical food elimination; and endoscopic dilation. In a systematic review of observational studies that included 1051 patients with EoE, proton pump inhibitor therapy was associated with a histologic response, defined as less than 15 eosinophils per high-power field on endoscopic biopsy, in 41.7% of patients, while placebo was associated with a 13.3% response rate. In a systematic review of 8 randomized trials of 437 patients with EoE, topical corticosteroid treatment was associated with histologic remission in 64.9% of patients compared with 13.3% for placebo. Patients with esophageal narrowing may require dilation. Objective assessment of therapeutic response typically requires endoscopy with biopsy. Conclusions and Relevance: EoE has a prevalence of approximately 34.4/100 000 worldwide. Treatments consist of proton pump inhibitors, topical steroids, elemental diet, and empirical food elimination, with esophageal dilation reserved for patients with symptomatic esophageal narrowing.


Assuntos
Esofagite Eosinofílica , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Aminoácidos/uso terapêutico , Budesonida/uso terapêutico , Cápsulas/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Dilatação , Esofagite Eosinofílica/diagnóstico , Esofagite Eosinofílica/etiologia , Esofagite Eosinofílica/patologia , Esofagite Eosinofílica/terapia , Eosinófilos/patologia , Esofagoscopia , Esôfago/patologia , Fluticasona/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/dietoterapia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico
2.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-13, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546604

RESUMO

Viruses have evolved to manipulate host lipid metabolism to benefit their replication cycle. Enveloped viruses, including coronaviruses, use host lipids in various stages of the viral life cycle, particularly in the formation of replication compartments and envelopes. Host lipids are utilised by the virus in receptor binding, viral fusion and entry, as well as viral replication. Association of dyslipidaemia with the pathological development of Covid-19 raises the possibility that exploitation of host lipid metabolism might have therapeutic benefit against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this review, promising host lipid targets are discussed along with potential inhibitors. In addition, specific host lipids are involved in the inflammatory responses due to viral infection, so lipid supplementation represents another potential strategy to counteract the severity of viral infection. Furthermore, switching the lipid metabolism through a ketogenic diet is another potential way of limiting the effects of viral infection. Taken together, restricting the access of host lipids to the virus, either by using lipid inhibitors or supplementation with exogenous lipids, might significantly limit SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or severity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , COVID-19/dietoterapia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lipídeos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257433, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520483

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is frequently associated with various health issues and is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly with its recent relevance to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To combat its increasing prevalence in Southeast Asia, numerous intervention programs have been implemented. We conducted a scoping review on recent interventions to manage MetS among Southeast Asians using standard methodologies. Cochrane, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, and Scopus databases were systematically searched to yield peer-reviewed articles published between 2010-2020. We included 13 articles describing 11 unique interventions in four Southeast Asian countries: Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam. These interventions were broadly categorized into four groups: (i) nutrition (n = 4); (ii) physical activity (n = 2); (iii) nutrition and physical activity (n = 2); and (iv) multi-intervention (n = 3). Most studies investigated the effects of an intervention on components of MetS, which are anthropometry, blood pressure, glucose-related parameters, and lipid profile. Significant improvements ranged from 50% of studies reporting serum triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels to 100% for waist circumference. Evidence on interventions for individuals with MetS remains limited in Southeast Asia. More studies from other countries in this region are needed, especially on the effects of dietary interventions, to effectively address gaps in knowledge and provide sufficient data to design the ideal intervention for Southeast Asian populations.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Dieta , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Lipídeos/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371953

RESUMO

Background Vitamin D deficiency occurs in as much as 90-95% of the Polish population, although this condition is known to cause negative long-term health implications. The role of medical doctors in advising proper supplementation, monitoring and correcting the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in individuals is of great importance and should be used to help mitigate its common deficits. The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices of Polish physicians regarding vitamin D supplementation in order to identify areas for improvement and determinants for the knowledge gaps. Methods The study group comprised 701 medical doctors aged 32.1 ± 5.3 years on average, mostly women (71.61%). An original survey questionnaire was developed for the purpose of the study. Results The mean vitamin D knowledge score was 6.8 ± 2.3 (in a scale 0-13) and was related to gender (p < 0.001), type of specialization (p = 0.032), D3 supplements use (p < 0.001), recommending supplementation to patients (p = 0.005), to relatives and friends (p < 0.001) and to healthy adults (p < 0.001). In terms of self-administration, 14% of respondents take vitamin D all-year-round while 24% only in autumn and winter. 25% of respondents monitor their vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) serum concentration. Most participants (61%) did not recommend supplementing vitamin D to their patients on a regular basis. Conclusions The study indicates that medical doctors in Poland need to have more training and education on vitamin D supplementation in order to better address the problem of its deficits in the population.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Médicos , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitamina D , Vitaminas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/dietoterapia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
6.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371815

RESUMO

High blood pressure is a crucial risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases, and a diet rich in whole-grain foods may modulate blood pressure. This study investigated the effects of dehulled adlay consumption on blood pressure in vivo. We initially fed spontaneous hypertensive rats diets without (SHR group) or with 12 or 24% dehulled adlay (SHR + LA and SHR + HA groups), and discovered that it could limit blood pressure increases over a 12-week experimental period. Although we found no significant changes in plasma, heart, and kidney angiotensin-converting enzyme activities, both adlay-consuming groups had lower endothelin-1 and creatinine concentrations than the SHR group; the SHR + HA group also had lower aspartate aminotransferase and uric acid levels than the SHR group did. We later recruited 23 participants with overweight and obesity, and they consumed 60 g of dehulled adlay daily for a six-week experimental period. At the end of the study, we observed a significant decrease in the group's systolic blood pressure (SBP), and the change in SBP was even more evident in participants with high baseline SBP. In conclusion, our results suggested that daily intake of dehulled adlay had beneficial effects in blood-pressure management. Future studies may further clarify the possible underlying mechanisms for the consuming of dehulled adlay as a beneficial dietary approach for people at risk of hypertension.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Coix , Dieta/métodos , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Grãos Integrais , Adulto , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
7.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371838

RESUMO

Bone disorders are a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), obesity and gut malabsorption. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is defined as an appropriate increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, driven by either reduced serum calcium or increased phosphate concentrations, due to an underlying condition. The available evidence on the effects of dietary advice on secondary hyperparathyroidism confirms the benefit of a diet characterized by decreased phosphate intake, avoiding low calcium and vitamin D consumption (recommended intakes 1000-1200 mg/day and 400-800 UI/day, respectively). In addition, low protein intake in CKD patients is associated with a better control of SHPT risk factors, although its strength in avoiding hyperphosphatemia and the resulting outcomes are debated, mostly for dialyzed patients. Ultimately, a consensus on the effect of dietary acid loads in the prevention of SHPT is still lacking. In conclusion, a reasonable approach for reducing the risk for secondary hyperparathyroidism is to individualize dietary manipulation based on existing risk factors and concomitant medical conditions. More studies are needed to evaluate long-term outcomes of a balanced diet on the management and prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism in at-risk patients at.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/fisiopatologia , Minerais/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Cálcio/sangue , Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/etiologia , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Fosfatos/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/sangue
8.
Biol Aujourdhui ; 215(1-2): 63-72, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397376

RESUMO

Obesity is considered a pandemic responsible for millions of deaths worldwide for many years. At the end of 2019, the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appeared, causing the death of more than a million people in less than a year. Numerous studies suggest that obesity could be defined as key to the onset of severe forms of this emerging disease. Indeed, SARS-CoV2 infects the host by binding to ACE2 receptors present on the surface of the cells and causes excessive secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α, which lead to developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It therefore seems essential to make up effective preventive strategies to protect this part of the population from the risk of developing a severe form of COVID-19. The ketogenic diet, which is low in sugars and high in fat, has interesting properties, both in the fight against obesity but also against severe infections. This article focuses on the latest scientific advances that make it possible to consider the ketogenic diet as a preventive strategy that simultaneously reduces the development of obesity while strengthening the immune system, two key actions in the fight against SARS-CoV2 infections and severe forms of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Dieta Cetogênica , Inflamação/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Dieta Cetogênica/efeitos adversos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Leptina/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360631

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as an impairment of glucose tolerance, manifested by hyperglycemia, which occurs at any stage of pregnancy. GDM is more common in the third trimester of pregnancy and usually disappears after birth. It was hypothesized that the glycemic status of the mother can modulate liver development and growth early during the pregnancy. The simplest modality to monitor the evolution of GDM employs noninvasive techniques. In this category, routinely obstetrical ultrasound (OUS) examinations (simple or 2D/3D) can be employed for specific fetal measurements, such as fetal liver length (FLL) or volume (FLV). FLL and FLV may emerge as possible predictors of GDM as they positively relate to the maternal glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and to the results of the oral glucose tolerance test. The aim of this review is to offer insight into the relationship between GDM and fetal nutritional status. Risk factors for GDM and the short- and long-term outcomes of GDM pregnancies are also discussed, as well as the significance of different dietary patterns. Moreover, the review aims to fill one gap in the literature, investigating whether fetal liver growth can be used as a predictor of GDM evolution. To conclude, although studies pointed out a connection between fetal indices and GDM as useful tools in the early detection of GDM (before 23 weeks of gestation), additional research is needed to properly manage GDM and offspring health.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Fígado/embriologia , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Gestacional/dietoterapia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Terapia Nutricional , Tamanho do Órgão , Gravidez , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
10.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444645

RESUMO

Older adults with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) are at high risk of sarcopenia. Protein-rich nutritional composition supplementation (PS) combined with resistance exercise training (RET) improves muscle gains and facilitates physical activity in older adults. However, whether PS augments the effects of RET on muscle mass and PA in patients with KOA remains unclear. Therefore, this study identified the effects of PS on sarcopenic indices and PA in older women with KOA subjected to an RET program. Eligible older women aged 60-85 years and diagnosed as having KOA were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG). Both groups performed RET twice a week for 12 weeks. The EG received additional PS during this period. Outcome measures included appendicular lean mass index, walking speed, physical activity, and scores on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index-WOMAC). All measures were tested at baseline and after intervention. With participant characteristics and baseline scores as covariates, analysis of variance was performed to identify between-group differences in changes in all outcome measures after intervention. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Compared with the CG, the EG achieved greater changes in appendicular lean mass index (adjusted mean difference (aMD) = 0.19 kg/m2, p < 0.01), physical activity (aMD = 30.0 MET-hour/week, p < 0.001), walking speed (aMD = 0.09 m/s, p < 0.05), and WOMAC global function (aMD = -8.21, p < 0.001) after intervention. In conclusion, PS exerted augmentative effects on sarcopenic indices, physical activity, and perceived global WOMAC score in older women with KOA through 12 weeks of RET.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Treinamento de Força , Sarcopenia/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Metabolismo Energético , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/dietoterapia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/dietoterapia , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361038

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are immune-mediated, chronic relapsing diseases with a rising prevalence worldwide in both adult and pediatric populations. Treatment options for immune-mediated diseases, including IBDs, are traditional steroids, immunomodulators, and biologics, none of which are capable of inducing long-lasting remission in all patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a fundamental role in inducing tolerance and regulating T cells and their tolerogenic functions. Hence, modulation of intestinal mucosal immunity by DCs could provide a novel, additional tool for the treatment of IBD. Recent evidence indicates that probiotic bacteria might impact immunomodulation both in vitro and in vivo by regulating DCs' maturation and producing tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs) which, in turn, might dampen inflammation. In this review, we will discuss this evidence and the mechanisms of action of probiotics and their metabolites in inducing tolDCs in IBDs and some conditions associated with them.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/dietoterapia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia
12.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21777, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403519

RESUMO

Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis and also responsible for serious threat to public health. Koumiss is a fermented mare's milk product, used as traditional drink. Here, we explored the effect of koumiss on gut microbiota and the host immune response against M bovis infection. Therefore, mice were treated with koumiss and fresh mare milk for 14 days before M bovis infection and continue for 5 weeks after infection. The results showed a clear change in the intestinal flora of mice treated with koumiss, and the lungs of mice treated with koumiss showed severe edema, inflammatory infiltration, and pulmonary nodules in M bovis-infected mice. Notably, we found that the content of short-chain fatty acids was significantly lower in the koumiss-treated group compared with the control group. However, the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis-related proteins in the lungs of koumiss-treated mice were significantly decreased. Collectively, these findings suggest that koumiss treatment disturb the intestinal flora of, which is associated with disease severity and the possible mechanism that induces lungs pathology. Our current findings can be exploited further to establish the "gut-lung" axis which might be a novel strategy for the control of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Kumis/efeitos adversos , Mycobacterium bovis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Cavalos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/metabolismo
13.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21861, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416029

RESUMO

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an intractable genetic disease associated with progressive skeletal muscle weakness and degeneration. Recently, it was reported that intraperitoneal injections of ketone bodies partially ameliorated muscular dystrophy by increasing satellite cell (SC) proliferation. Here, we evaluated whether a ketogenic diet (KD) with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT-KD) could alter genetically mutated DMD in model rats. We found that the MCT-KD significantly increased muscle strength and fiber diameter in these rats. The MCT-KD significantly suppressed the key features of DMD, namely, muscle necrosis, inflammation, and subsequent fibrosis. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the MCT-KD promoted the proliferation of muscle SCs, suggesting enhanced muscle regeneration. The muscle strength of DMD model rats fed with MCT-KD was significantly improved even at the age of 9 months. Our findings suggested that the MCT-KD ameliorates muscular dystrophy by inhibiting myonecrosis and promoting the proliferation of muscle SCs. As far as we can ascertain, this is the first study to apply a functional diet as therapy for DMD in experimental animals. Further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the MCT-KD-induced improvement of DMD.


Assuntos
Dieta Cetogênica , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/dietoterapia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/fisiopatologia , Triglicerídeos/química , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fibrose/dietoterapia , Fibrose/patologia , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Inflamação/patologia , Cetonas/sangue , Cetose , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/patologia , Necrose/dietoterapia , Necrose/patologia , Ratos , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/uso terapêutico
14.
Nature ; 597(7875): 263-267, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408323

RESUMO

Fructose consumption is linked to the rising incidence of obesity and cancer, which are two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally1,2. Dietary fructose metabolism begins at the epithelium of the small intestine, where fructose is transported by glucose transporter type 5 (GLUT5; encoded by SLC2A5) and phosphorylated by ketohexokinase to form fructose 1-phosphate, which accumulates to high levels in the cell3,4. Although this pathway has been implicated in obesity and tumour promotion, the exact mechanism that drives these pathologies in the intestine remains unclear. Here we show that dietary fructose improves the survival of intestinal cells and increases intestinal villus length in several mouse models. The increase in villus length expands the surface area of the gut and increases nutrient absorption and adiposity in mice that are fed a high-fat diet. In hypoxic intestinal cells, fructose 1-phosphate inhibits the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase to promote cell survival5-7. Genetic ablation of ketohexokinase or stimulation of pyruvate kinase prevents villus elongation and abolishes the nutrient absorption and tumour growth that are induced by feeding mice with high-fructose corn syrup. The ability of fructose to promote cell survival through an allosteric metabolite thus provides additional insights into the excess adiposity generated by a Western diet, and a compelling explanation for the promotion of tumour growth by high-fructose corn syrup.


Assuntos
Frutose/farmacologia , Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose/farmacologia , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática , Feminino , Frutoquinases/metabolismo , Frutose/metabolismo , Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose/metabolismo , Hipóxia/dietoterapia , Hipóxia/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Piruvato Quinase/metabolismo
15.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444706

RESUMO

Cranberry is a fruit originally from New England and currently growing throughout the east and northeast parts of the USA and Canada. The supplementation of cranberry extracts as nutraceuticals showed to contribute to the prevention of urinary tract infections, and most likely it may help to prevent cardiovascular and gastroenteric diseases, as highlighted by several clinical trials. However, aiming to validate the efficacy and safety of clinical applications as long-term randomized clinical trials (RCTs), further investigations of the mechanisms of action are required. In addition, a real challenge for next years is the standardization of cranberry's polyphenolic fractions. In this context, the optimization of the extraction process and downstream processing represent a key point for a reliable active principle for the formulation of a food supplement. For this reason, new non-conventional extraction methods have been developed to improve the quality of the extracts and reduce the overall costs. The aim of this survey is to describe both technologies and processes for highly active cranberry extracts as well as the effects observed in clinical studies and the respective tolerability notes.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Frutas , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/dietoterapia , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis , Infecções Urinárias/dietoterapia , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química
16.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444942

RESUMO

Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease occurring in genetically predisposed individuals in response to the intake of gluten. Clinical presentation can be heterogeneous. Iron-deficient anemia (IDA) is one of the most common extra-intestinal manifestations of CD. Although IDA usually reverts with a gluten-free diet (GFD), some patients show persistent IDA, the mechanisms of which are poorly understood. Recent studies suggest an association between the rs855791 polymorphism in the TMPRSS6 gene and persistent IDA in adults with CD. The current study aimed to assess the potential link between rs855791 and persistent IDA in pediatric patients with CD. The study included 106 children diagnosed with CD between 2015 and 2019. Clinical and blood parameters (including blood count, serum iron) were collected at diagnosis and after ≥12 months of GFD, and the rs855791 genotype was assessed for each patient. IDA was present at diagnosis in 25 patients (23.6%); only three (3%) had persistent IDA after GFD. The prevalence of rs855791 genotypes was 9% (n = 10) for TT, 53% (n = 56) for CT, and 38% (n = 40) for CC. There was a tendency toward a higher proportion of the T allele in patients with IDA and lower hemoglobin in the TT genotype but without statistical significance. An association between rs855791 and persistent IDA was not observed. These findings suggest that persistent IDA is uncommon in pediatric patients with CD. The prevalence of rs855791 in children with CD is reported for the first time.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/genética , Doença Celíaca/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Alelos , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Doença Celíaca/sangue , Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Criança , Dieta Livre de Glúten/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(9): 906-917, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415887

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The need for home care services is expanding around the world with increased attention to the resources required to produce them. To assist decision making, there is a need to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative programs within home care. Electronic searches were performed in five databases (before February 2020) identifying 3292 potentially relevant studies that assessed new or enhanced home care interventions compared with usual care for adults with an accompanying economic evaluation. From these, 133 articles were selected for full-text screening; 17 met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Six main areas of research were identified including the following: alternative nursing care (n = 4), interdisciplinary care coordination (n = 4), fall prevention (n = 4), telemedicine/remote monitoring (n = 2), restorative/reablement care (n = 2), and one multifactorial undernutrition intervention study. Risk of bias was found to be high/weak (n = 7) or have some concerns/moderate (n = 6) rating, in addition to inconsistent reporting of important information required for economic evaluations. Both health and cost outcomes had mixed results. Cost-effective interventions were found in two areas including alternative nursing care and reablement/restorative care. Clinicians and decision makers are encouraged to carefully evaluate the quality of the studies because of issues with risk of bias and incomplete reporting of economic outcomes.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/economia , Vida Independente/economia , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Economia da Enfermagem , Humanos , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Telemedicina/economia
18.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444651

RESUMO

Cow's milk allergy is a common food allergy in infants, and is associated with an increased risk of developing other allergic diseases. Dietary selenium (Se), one of the essential micronutrients for humans and animals, is an important bioelement which can influence both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the effects of Se on food allergy are still largely unknown. In the current study it was investigated whether dietary Se supplementation can inhibit whey-induced food allergy in an animal research model. Three-week-old female C3H/HeOuJ mice were intragastrically sensitized with whey protein and cholera toxin and randomly assigned to receive a control, low, medium or high Se diet. Acute allergic symptoms, allergen specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels and mast cell degranulation were determined upon whey challenge. Body temperature was significantly higher in mice that received the medium Se diet 60 min after the oral challenge with whey compared to the positive control group, which is indicative of impaired anaphylaxis. This was accompanied by reductions in antigen-specific immunoglobulins and reduced levels of mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1). This study demonstrates that oral Se supplementation may modulate allergic responses to whey by decreasing specific antibody responses and mMCP-1 release.


Assuntos
Dieta , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/dietoterapia , Selenometionina/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/imunologia , Anafilaxia/dietoterapia , Anafilaxia/imunologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Degranulação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Quimases/sangue , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/dietoterapia , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Mastócitos/imunologia , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/sangue , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
19.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444838

RESUMO

In the general population, an increased potassium (K) intake lowers blood pressure (BP). The effects of K have not been well-studied in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This randomized feeding trial with a 2-period crossover design compared the effects of diets containing 100 and 40 mmol K/day on BP in 29 adults with stage 3 CKD and treated or untreated systolic BP (SBP) 120-159 mmHg and diastolic BP (DBP) <100 mmHg. The primary outcome was 24 h ambulatory systolic BP. The higher-versus lower-K diet had no significant effect on 24 h SBP (-2.12 mm Hg; p = 0.16) and DBP (-0.70 mm Hg; p = 0.44). Corresponding differences in clinic BP were -4.21 mm Hg for SBP (p = 0.054) and -0.08 mm Hg for DBP (p = 0.94). On the higher-K diet, mean serum K increased by 0.21 mmol/L (p = 0.003) compared to the lower-K diet; two participants had confirmed hyperkalemia (serum K ≥ 5.5 mmol/L). In conclusion, a higher dietary intake of K did not lower 24 h SBP, while clinic SBP reduction was of borderline statistical significance. Additional trials are warranted to understand the health effects of increased K intake in individuals with CKD.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Potássio na Dieta/farmacologia , Potássio/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 4183-4196, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370300

RESUMO

As amajor by-product of mung bean processing, mung bean coat (MBC), which is rich in polyphenols and dietary fiber, is deemed to be mainly responsible for the health benefits of mung bean. However, its beneficial effects on the hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and gut microbiota composition in prediabetic mice is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of MBC in alleviating high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced prediabetes. Herein, compared with the model control, dietary supplementation with MBC (3%, w/w) for 12 weeks significantly decreased the fasting blood glucose (24.60%), total cholesterol (15.72%), triglyceride (14.41%), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (22.45%). Furthermore, the improvements in glucose tolerance were reflected in the reduction of the area under the curve (AUC) and incremental AUC by approximately 23.08% and 51.18%, respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of fecal microbiota suggested that MBC promoted the enrichment of beneficial bacteria (Roseburia and Bifidobacterium) and the production of short-chain fatty acids. All of the results from this study provided a scientific reference for avoiding the functional ingredients waste of MBC and expanding its application value.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lipídeos , Estado Pré-Diabético , Vigna , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estado Pré-Diabético/dietoterapia , Estado Pré-Diabético/prevenção & controle , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sementes/química , Vigna/química
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