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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e246460, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350310

RESUMO

Abstract Field survey study was conducted season (2017). Soybeans and weeds were weekly sampled randomly. Thrips adults were identified and counted. Detection of the virus isolate and the natural incidence was determined using; Mechanical transmission, host range, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. The natural incidence thrips individuals was detected depending on the SVNV% in thrips individuals and weeds hosts. Ten thrips species were associated with soybean plants in the field. The most abundant species was T. tabaci, average 256.5 average no.of individuals, followed by F. occidentalis (142.5 average no. of individuals), then N. variabilis (86.6/ average no. of individuals). Fourteen thrips species occurred on 5 legumes field crops and 41 weed plant species within soybean field. The highest average number 40.6.of individuals were recorded on Ammi majus. While the lowest one 3.3 average no. of individuals were on Urtica urens. Only 21diagnostic plant species were susceptible to infection with SVNV. G. max and Vigna radiate, were the highest percentage of infection 80% followed by V. unguilata & N. benthamiana, 75%. Egyptian isolate of Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV) in this study showed a high degree of similarity and it is closely related to TSWV from Egypt (DQ479968) and TCSV from USA (KY820965) with nucleotide sequence identity of 78%. Four thrips species transmitted SVNV (F. fusca 4.0%, F. schultzei 4.3%, F. tritici 3.3% and N. variabilis 68.0% transmission). Both C. phaseoli and M. sjostedti can acquire the virus but unable to transmit it. The following species; T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis and T. palmi cannot acquire or transmit SVNV. The incidence of SVNV in the field started by the end of July then increased gradualy from 12.7 to 71.3% by the end of the season. In conclusion, few thrips individuals invaded soybean crops are enough to transmit high rate of SVNV within the crop. Furthermore, several vector species are also abundant on weeds, which are the major sources of soybean viruses transmitted to the crops. This information might be important for control and reduce the incidence of SVNV infection.


Resumo O estudo de pesquisa de campo foi realizado na temporada (2017). A soja e as ervas daninhas foram amostradas semanalmente de forma aleatória. Tripes adultos foram identificados e contados. A detecção do vírus isolado e a incidência natural foram determinadas usando transmissão mecânica, gama de hospedeiros, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. A incidência natural de tripes em indivíduos foi detectada dependendo da % de SVNV em tripes e hospedeiros infestantes. Dez espécies de tripes foram associadas a plantas de soja no campo. A espécie mais abundante foi T. tabaci, com média de 256,5 número médio de indivíduos, seguida por F. occidentalis (142,5) e N. variabilis (86,6 / número médio de indivíduos). Catorze espécies de tripes ocorreram em 5 culturas de leguminosas e 41 espécies de plantas daninhas dentro de campos de soja. O maior número médio de 40,6 indivíduos foi registrado em Ammi majus. Enquanto o mais baixo, 3,3 número médio de indivíduos, foi no Urtica urens. Apenas 21 espécies de plantas diagnosticadas foram suscetíveis à infecção com SVNV. G. max e Vigna radiate foram os maiores percentuais de infecção, 80%, seguidos por V. unguilata e N. benthamiana, 75%. O isolado egípcio neste estudo mostrou um alto grau de similaridade e está intimamente relacionado ao TSWV do Egito (DQ479968) e ao TCSV dos EUA (KY820965), com identidade de sequência de nucleotídeos de 78%. Quatro espécies de tripes transmitiram SVNV (F. fusca 4,0%, F. schultzei 4,3%, F. tritici 3,3% e N. variabilis 68,0% de transmissão). Tanto C. phaseoli quanto M. sjostedti podem adquirir o vírus, mas não podem transmiti-lo. As seguintes espécies, T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis e T. palmi não podem adquirir ou transmitir SVNV. A incidência de SVNV no campo, iniciada no final de julho, aumentou gradativamente de 12,7 para 71,3% no final da temporada. Em conclusão, poucos indivíduos de tripes invadiram a cultura da soja e são suficientes para transmitir alta taxa de SVNV dentro da cultura. Além disso, várias espécies de vetores também abundam em ervas daninhas, que são as principais fontes dos vírus da soja transmitidos às lavouras. Essas informações podem ser importantes para controlar e reduzir a incidência de infecção por SVNV.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tospovirus , Doenças das Plantas , Soja , Incidência , Urticaceae , Egito/epidemiologia , Plantas Daninhas , Necrose
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

RESUMO

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Brasil/epidemiologia , Incidência , Modelos Estatísticos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252952, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355913

RESUMO

Abstract The main purpose of this study was to find out a possible association between ABO blood groups or Rh and diabetes mellitus (DM) in the local population of eight (8) different towns of Karachi, Pakistan. For this purpose a survey was carried out in Karachi to have a practical observation of these towns during the period of 9 months from June 2019 to Feb. 2020. Out of eighteen (18) towns of Karachi, samples (N= 584) were collected from only eight (8) Towns of Karachi and gave a code-number to each town. Diabetic group sample was (n1=432) & pre-diabetes sample was (n2 =152). A standard Abbot Company Glucometer for Random Blood Sugar (RBS) and Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) tests, standard blood anti sera were used for ABO/Rh blood type. Health assessment techniques were performed ethically by taking informed consent from all registered subjects. Finally data was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. In our current study, the comparison of ABO blood groups frequencies between diabetic and pre-diabetic individuals were carried out. The percentage values of blood Group-B as given as: (32% in DM vs. 31% in pre-diabetics), followed by blood Group-O as: (18% in DM vs. 11% in pre-diabetics). Contrary to Group-"B" & "O", blood Group-A and Group-AB were distribution percentage higher pre-diabetic as compared to DM patients, as given as: Group-A (32% in pre-diabetics vs. 26% in DM) & Group-AB (26% in pre-diabetics vs. 24% in diabetic's patients). In addition, percentage distribution of Rh system was also calculated, in which Rh+ve Group was high and more common in DM patients as compared to pre-diabetics; numerically given as: Rh+ve Group (80% in DM vs. 72% in pre-diabetics). Different views and dimensions of the research topic were studied through literature support, some have found no any association and some established a positive association still some were not clear in making a solid conclusion. It is concluded that DM has a positive correlation with ABO blood groups, and people with Group-B have increased susceptibility to DM disease.


Resumo O objetivo principal deste estudo foi descobrir uma possível associação entre grupos sanguíneos ABO ou Rh e diabetes mellitus (DM) na população local de oito (8) diferentes cidades de Karachi, Paquistão. Para tanto, foi realizado um levantamento em Karachi para observação prática dessas cidades durante o período de 9 meses de junho de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020.De dezoito (18) cidades de Karachi, as amostras (N = 584) foram coletadas de apenas oito (8) cidades de Karachi e deram um número-código para cada cidade. A amostra do grupo de diabéticos foi (n1 = 432) e a amostra de pré-diabetes foi (n2 = 152). Um glicômetro padrão da Abbot Company para testes de açúcar no sangue aleatório (RBS) e açúcar no sangue em jejum (FBS), antissoros de sangue padrão foram usados ​​para o tipo de sangue ABO / Rh. As técnicas de avaliação de saúde foram realizadas de forma ética, tomando o consentimento informado de todos os indivíduos registrados. Finalmente, os dados foram analisados ​​pelo SPSS versão 20.0.No presente estudo, foi realizada a comparação das frequências dos grupos sanguíneos ABO entre diabéticos e pré-diabéticos. Os valores percentuais do sangue do Grupo-B são dados como: (32% em DM vs. 31% em pré-diabéticos), seguido pelo sangue do Grupo-O como: (18% em DM vs. 11% em pré-diabéticos). Ao contrário dos Grupos "B" e "O", sangue do Grupo-A e Grupo-AB tiveram distribuição percentual maior de pré-diabéticos em comparação com pacientes com DM, dado como: Grupo-A (32% em pré-diabéticos vs. 26% em DM) e Grupo AB (26% em pré-diabéticos vs. 24% em pacientes diabéticos). Além disso, também foi calculada a distribuição percentual do sistema Rh, no qual o Grupo Rh + ve foi elevado e mais comum em pacientes com DM em comparação aos pré-diabéticos; dados numericamente como: Grupo Rh + ve (80% em DM vs. 72% em pré-diabéticos). Diferentes visões e dimensões do tema de pesquisa foram estudadas com o suporte da literatura, alguns não encontraram nenhuma associação e alguns estabeleceram uma associação positiva, embora alguns não estivessem claros em fazer uma conclusão sólida. Conclui-se que o DM tem correlação positiva com os grupos sanguíneos ABO, e as pessoas com o Grupo B têm maior suscetibilidade à doença DM.


Assuntos
Humanos , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Cidades
5.
Gene ; 849: 146916, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Transcriptional regulator PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homology (PR) domain containing protein-16 (PRDM16) has a fundamental function in maintaining energy homeostasis and regulating glucose and lipid metabolism, which are responsible for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the impact of genetic variation of PRDM16 gene on T2D risk remains to be investigated. Thus, we evaluated the possible association between genetic variants within PRDM16 region and T2D development in Chinese individuals. METHODS: A total of 427 T2D patients and 408 healthy controls were enrolled. Ten single-nucleotide variants across PRDM16 gene were screened with the SNaPshot assay. The effect of genotypes and alleles of different variant on the T2D risk was examined under diverse genetic models. The impact of genetic variant on promoter activity was determined using an in vitro luciferase reporter gene assay. RESULTS: Genotypic frequency of rs2297828 in the PRDM16 promoter region was significantly different between patients with T2D and controls (P = 0.004). The minor allele A of rs2297828 was potentially associated with a higher T2D susceptibility in a dominant model (AG + AA vs GG: OR = 1.54, 95 % CI: 1.12-1.12; P = 0.007), and the subjects with either an AA homozygote or an AG heterozygote displayed increased fasting blood levels of glucose and lipids. Reporter gene assays demonstrated that rs2297828 can influence the activity of the PRDM16 promoter. CONCLUSIONS: We firstly observed that PRDM16 variation might influence T2D occurrence, and rs2297828 might be a functional variant that can influence the expression of PRDM16.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Genótipo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Glucose , Nucleotídeos , Lipídeos , Frequência do Gene , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética
7.
Ann Lab Med ; 43(1): 45-54, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045056

RESUMO

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious pathogen causing various infections in humans. We evaluated the serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)13 in Korea and investigated the epidemiological characteristics of multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates. Methods: S. pneumoniae isolates causing IPD were collected from 16 hospitals in Korea between 2017 and 2019. Serotyping was performed using modified sequential multiplex PCR and the Quellung reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on MDR isolates for epidemiological investigations. Results: Among the 411 S. pneumoniae isolates analyzed, the most prevalent serotype was 3 (12.2%), followed by 10A (9.5%), 34 (7.3%), 19A (6.8%), 23A (6.3%), 22F (6.1%), 35B (5.8%), 11A (5.1%), and others (40.9%). The coverage rates of PCV7, PCV10, PCV13, and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)23 were 7.8%, 7.8%, 28.7%, and 59.4%, respectively. Resistance rates to penicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, and levofloxacin were 13.1%, 9.2%, 80.3%, and 4.1%, respectively. MDR isolates accounted for 23.4% of all isolates. Serotypes 23A, 11A, 19A, and 15B accounted for the highest proportions of total isolates at 18.8%, 16.7%, 14.6%, and 8.3%, respectively. Sequence type (ST)166 (43.8%) and ST320 (12.5%) were common among MDR isolates. Conclusions: Non-PCV13 serotypes are increasing among invasive S. pneumoniae strains causing IPD. Differences in antimicrobial resistance were found according to the specific serotype. Continuous monitoring of serotypes and antimicrobial resistance is necessary for the appropriate management of S. pneumoniae infections.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/farmacologia , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Vacinas Conjugadas/farmacologia
9.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107463, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36029722

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess whether associations between alcohol availability and consumption, drinking to drunkenness, and negative drinking consequences vary among individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. METHODS: 10,482 current drinkers in 2005-2015 National Alcohol Surveys (50.0% female; 74.4% White, 8.7% Black, 11.1% Hispanic). Elevated depressive symptoms was defined as having symptoms suggestive of major depressive disorder (above CES-D8/PHQ-2 cut-offs) versus no/sub-threshold symptoms (below cut-offs). Inverse probability of treatment weighted and covariate adjusted Poisson models with robust standard errors estimated associations of ZIP-code bar density and off-premise outlet density (locations/1,000 residents), elevated depressive symptoms, and their interaction with past-year volume consumed, monthly drinking to drunkenness, and negative drinking consequences. Models were then stratified by sex and race and ethnicity. RESULTS: Overall, 13.7% of respondents had elevated depressive symptoms. Regarding density, the only statistically significant association observed was between off-premise density and volume consumed (rate ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.0, 1.7). Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with higher volume consumed, prevalence of drinking to drunkenness, and prevalence of negative consequences when controlling for off-premise density or bar density. However, there was no evidence of interaction between symptoms and density in the full sample nor among subgroups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that, while elevated depressive symptoms do not alter associations between alcohol availability and alcohol use and problems, they remain associated with these outcomes among past-year drinkers in a U.S. general population sample even when accounting for differential availability. Addressing depressive symptoms should be considered along with other policies to reduce population-level drinking and alcohol problems.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107464, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As daily engagement with social networking sites (SNS) increases globally, identifying and understanding the risk factors associated with problematic SNS use is of utmost importance. Researchers are interested in understanding internalizing symptoms as both a risk factor and a negative consequence of problematic SNS use. Prior research has proposed rumination alongside internalizing symptoms as a risk factor, though limited research has examined these associations across different cultures. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the indirect associations between internalizing symptoms (specifically depressive and social anxiety symptoms) and problematic SNS use via rumination among a cross-cultural sample. METHOD: Participants were 8,912 (70.8 % female; Mean age = 20.25, SD = 3.95) college students recruited across seven countries (U.S., Canada, Spain, England, Argentina, Uruguay, and South Africa) who completed measures of internalizing symptoms, rumination, weekly SNS use, and problematic SNS use. RESULTS: We found that higher internalizing symptoms were associated with more problematic SNS use via higher ruminative thinking. Specifically, problem-focused thoughts (a rumination subtype) uniquely accounted for 22.89% and 28.15% of the total effect of depressive and social anxiety symptoms on problematic SNS use, respectively. Other rumination subtypes (i.e., anticipatory thoughts and repetitive thinking) also demonstrated significant indirect effects, though weaker effects than for problem-focused thoughts. Findings were invariant across countries. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide support for further exploring the role rumination plays in determining and comparing problematic SNS use cross-culturally in longitudinal and experimental work.


Assuntos
Rede Social , Estudantes , Adulto , Argentina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha , Uruguai/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107472, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067637

RESUMO

Previous research has shown a reliable association between social media (SM) use and drinking among college students. However, most studies have investigated SM behaviors (e.g., time spent on a platform, posting frequency) in isolation and on a single site. While some have studied multiple SM behaviors across platforms using person-centered approaches (e.g., latent profile analysis [LPA]), these studies have failed to take alcohol-related SM behaviors into account. This longitudinal study addressed this gap in the literature by using LPA to identify subpopulations of SM users during the college transition (N = 319; 62.1% female) using general (frequency of checking, time spent on, and frequency of posting to Instagram/Facebook/Snapchat; Finstagram ownership) and alcohol-related SM behaviors (posting alcohol, partying, and marijuana content). LPA results revealed three SM user profiles at baseline: low general use with low alcohol-related posting (LGU + LAP), high general use with low alcohol-related posting (HGU + LAP), and high general use with high alcohol-related posting (HGU + HAP). Prospective analyses revealed that HGU + HAP membership was associated with greater descriptive peer drinking norms, alcohol use, and consequences relative to HGU + LAP and LGU + LAP membership. Results suggest that there are distinct patterns of general and alcohol-related SM use during the college transition associated with risky drinking that can inform interventions combating SM-related alcohol risks. These findings illustrate the importance of investigating SM use holistically and suggests studying alcohol-related SM behaviors may reveal differences in individuals' alcohol risk that general SM behaviors might not capture.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade , Mídias Sociais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Universidades
12.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107474, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084415

RESUMO

High levels of alcohol consumption are common among college students and associated with endorsing negative alcohol-related consequences. Research suggests both drinking norms and location are strong predictors of drinking behavior in college students. Yet, normative perceptions of consequences, and whether they are location-specific, are less well-studied. We tested the hypotheses that college students who drink would have the highest levels of descriptive and injunctive norms for negative consequences, and would self-report the greatest number of negative consequences, at large gatherings/parties relative to someone's home/dorm and/or bars/clubs. Additionally, we explored whether specific acute consequences were more likely in some drinking locations versus others. Participants were 96 full-time undergraduate students who engaged in high-risk drinking. At baseline, participants reported descriptive and injunctive norms for negative consequences in three locations (home/dorm, large gathering/party, bar/club). Over a 28-day period, participants self-reported daily experiences of five alcohol-related consequences in these same locations. With repeated measures analyses of variance, we found that participants perceived their peers experienced more negative consequences and were more approving of negative consequences at large gatherings/parties and small gatherings at someone's home/dorm relative to bars/clubs. Likewise, nonparametric analyses demonstrated that the total number of consequences over the 28-day assessment period also differed by location, with participants reporting more consequences at home/dorm and large gathering/party locations than at bars/clubs. Future research is needed to better understand how the impact of norms on behavior differs across drinking location, and whether location-specific intervention content (e.g., normative correction) would be useful.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Etanol , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Estudantes , Universidades
13.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107484, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite increasing college campus prevention efforts, and identification of effective strategies to reduce drinking, reducing alcohol related negative consequences (ARNC, e.g., regrets, blackouts, self- and other- injury, law enforcement exposure, sexual assault, and considering suicide) continues to be a challenge. While college students with a history of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) are at greater risk for alcohol misuse, research regarding the association between ACE and ARNC remains limited. METHODS: Data are responses of currently drinking students on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA II) and College Student Health Survey (CSHS), administered in 2018 to students in California and Minnesota (N = 6,667). RESULTS: On average, students reported one ARNC (SD = 1.30) although 13 % experienced three or more different types of ARNC in the past year. Every ACE was associated with a 19 % to 41 % increase in the IRR of ARNC. Students with 1-3 ACE experienced significantly more types of ARNC events (IRR 1.55, 95 % CI: 1.44-1.67) than students with no ACE and students with ≥ 4 ACE experienced statistically significantly more types of ARNC events (IRR 2.04, 95 % CI: 1.82-2.31) than their peers with 1-3 or no ACE. The ACE-ARNC relationship did not vary by drinking frequency or binge drinking. CONCLUSIONS: The consistent ACE - ARNC relationship across drinking behaviors suggests alcohol consumption does not fully explain the association between ACE and ARNC and that early adversity heightens vulnerability for ARNC. Implications for future prevention and intervention efforts are discussed.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Etanol , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Estudantes , Universidades
14.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107488, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088786

RESUMO

The short-term consequences of drinking events may be positive or negative. Most studies have considered only one outcome, but people may experience different alcohol outcomes on different occasions, depending on the circumstances. The present study sought to identify predictors of drinking events that resulted in couple intimacy, conflict, or neither outcome using existing data from a 30-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study. Participants were a community sample of partnered, moderately drinking adults with a recent history of verbal or physical partner aggression (N = 249 couples). They provided reports of drinking events, intimacy and conflict events, and ratings of relationship harmony and discord in three randomly signaled reports each day. Mixed-effects multinomial analyses were used to compare predictors of drinking events that, within three hours, resulted in intimacy, conflict, or neither outcome. Consistent with previous research, characteristics of the drinker (individual tendencies to experience intimacy or conflict) and characteristics of the drinking event (alcohol quantity, drinking companions) both predicted drinking outcomes. Moreover, the pre-drinking relationship context predicted post-drinking relationship outcomes, consistent with the idea that alcohol focuses attention on salient contextual cues. Specifically, greater pre-drinking relationship harmony predicted greater likelihood of experiencing intimacy after drinking, whereas greater pre-drinking relationship discord predicted greater likelihood of experiencing conflict after drinking. In summary, characteristics of the drinker, the drinking event, and the pre-drinking relationship context contribute to the likelihood that a given drinking event will have short-term positive or negative relationship outcomes.


Assuntos
Amor , Peçonhas , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Violência
15.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107473, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099715

RESUMO

Gaming disorder (i.e., gaming addiction) is a relatively common mental health disorder with a worldwide prevalence rate of 3.05%. In the present research, we examined whether emotion dysregulation mediates the relation between adverse childhood experiences and problematic gaming in two samples of current video game players. The first sample consisted of 1,262 students recruited from five universities across Canada. The second sample comprised 417 community adults residing in Canada. Both samples of participants completed an online survey which included measures of adverse childhood experiences, problematic gaming, and emotion dysregulation. A total of 45.64% (n = 576) in the university sample and 49.76% (n = 205) in the community sample met the threshold for problematic gaming. In the student sample, adverse childhood experiences were positively associated with problematic gaming. In contrast, there was no significant association between adverse childhood experiences and problematic gaming in the community sample. In both samples, adverse childhood experiences were positively associated with emotion dysregulation, and emotion dysregulation was positively associated with problematic gaming. Importantly for the present research, emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and problematic gaming in both the university and community sample. Although adverse childhood experiences are distal and static risk factors for problematic gaming, emotion dysregulation is a more proximal and modifiable risk factor. The results suggest that increasing adaptive emotion regulation skills may decrease the risk of problematic gaming among individuals who have experienced an adverse childhood experience.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Comportamento Aditivo , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Emoções , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
16.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107491, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115085

RESUMO

Problematic substance use during adolescence predicts numerous adverse outcomes, including increased risk of substance use disorders in adulthood. Adolescents often use substances to cope with stress, particularly adolescents who have experienced environmental stress in childhood (e.g., low-income environments), but research indicates stress-related substance use disorders may develop differently across gender. This highlights a need to identify coping resources for stress-related substance use and understand whether these coping resources are differentially effective across gender. Mindfulness has garnered evidence as a coping resource for stress-related problematic substance use; however, there is limited research on how specific mindfulness facets (e.g., nonjudgment) may buffer against stress-related substance use among adolescents. This study examined whether overall mindfulness and specific facets buffered the association between stress and substance use differentially across gender in a predominantly low-income, racially-diverse (42 % Black, 24 % White, 15 % Hispanic/Latinx, 13 % Asian, 3 % American Indian/Alaskan Native, and 3 % multiracial) sample of adolescents (n = 212) using moderated moderation models. Girls with lower levels of two mindfulness facets (i.e., acceptance/nonjudgement, decentering/nonreactivity), relative to girls with higher levels, demonstrated a greater probability of substance use with increased stress. Conversely, boys with higher levels of acceptance/nonjudgement and decentering/nonreactivity, relative to boys with lower levels, reported a greater probability of substance use with increased stress. Results suggest that acceptance/nonjudgment and decentering/nonreactivity may be protective against stress-related substance use for girls and potentially contraindicated for boys, indicating that adolescent substance use prevention and intervention efforts may need to be tailored by gender.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atenção Plena/métodos , Pobreza , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
17.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107495, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156453

RESUMO

The opioid epidemic is a significant public health concern, and opioid consumption rates and opioid-related deaths are on the rise. Chronic pain acceptance, or willingness to experience pain and pain-related distress, is one pain-related psychological mechanism that may reduce maladaptive attempts to avoid or control pain using opioids among individuals with chronic lower back pain (CLBP). However, little work has examined chronic pain acceptance as it relates to opioid use and motives for use among adults with CLBP. The current investigation sought to explore the effects of chronic pain acceptance on opioid misuse and motives for opioid use (i.e., pain management and coping motives) among adults with CLBP. Participants were 291 adults (69.1 % female, Mage = 45.77 years, SD = 11.22) self-reporting current mild to severe CLBP and current opioid use who were recruited via an online survey. Results indicated that higher acceptance of pain was related to lower levels of opioid misuse and lower motivation to use opioids to cope with pain. Contrary to hypotheses, chronic pain acceptance did not predict motivation to use opioids to cope with emotional distress (i.e., coping motives). The current findings provide support for chronic pain acceptance as a potential protective mechanism in terms of opioid misuse and motivation to use opioids to manage pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Dor Lombar , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Motivação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Manejo da Dor , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/psicologia
18.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107496, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174423

RESUMO

There is some uncertainty on how to best conceptualise and measure problem gambling and debate as to whether it is helpful to differentiate the behavioral features of problematic gambling from the negative consequences of gambling. The current study explores this issue by examining the factor structure of a commonly-used problem gambling measure, the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), as administered to respondents in the 2018 Northern Territory Gambling Prevalence and Wellbeing Survey (n = 3,740 gamblers). Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a two-factor solution offered significant improvement in fit over the one-factor model. Further, the two factors explained unique variance in the number of gambling-related harms experienced by respondents. Although the two factors were highly correlated, the current findings indicate problem gambling behaviors are related to the negative consequences of gambling, but these are not necessarily synonymous. This suggests isolating behavioral and consequential elements of gambling may have utility in public health interventions for gambling that, while concerning, falls below a clinically-significant threshold. Similarly, clinically-oriented research may benefit by measuring the behavioral features, as these components are important targets for individual-level interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogo de Azar , Comportamento Problema , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Análise Fatorial , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107504, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The volatile and 24/7 nature of the cryptocurrency market allows traders to engage in speculative trading patterns closely resembling gambling. Its potential for harm and financial loss warrant investigation from a public health perspective. Therefore, we summarized the emerging literature on cryptocurrency trading and its link to problematic gambling and other mental health outcomes such as depression and anxiety. We also examined demographic or psychological factors associated with cryptocurrency trading. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Embase for published, original studies investigating associations with cryptocurrency trading behavior. We also conducted supplementary searches using Google Scholar. RESULTS: Eight papers were included after eligibility screening. Our scoping review revealed associations between problem gambling symptoms and cryptocurrency trading engagement and intensity. Furthermore, we found cryptocurrency traders share similar demographic and personality characteristics with share-traders and problem gamblers. Studies on cryptocurrency trading and mental health produced mixed results. DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our scoping review indicates a likely relationship between problem gambling and cryptocurrency trading. Findings also suggest overlap with high-risk stock traders, with similarities in gambling behaviors, demographics, and personality traits. These findings justify further research into problem cryptocurrency trading behaviors and their potential for harm, especially concerning mental health. To assess what behaviors are problematic, future research should also look to explore differences between long-term investors and short-term traders of cryptocurrency.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental
20.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107501, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis (SAC) use is associated with more negative consequences than independent use of alcohol or cannabis. Contextual characteristics of drinking episodes are associated with the quantity of alcohol consumed and related risk. This study examined whether drinking contexts may also be associated with SAC use. METHODS: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2010-2019 data from past 30-day drinkers aged 12-20 (n = 39,456) were used. A weighted multivariable logistic regression model examined associations between contextual characteristics (alcohol source, number of people, drinking location) and SAC use during their most recent drinking occasion. Models adjusted for survey year, heavy episodic drinking, age, sex, race/ethnicity, student status, and metropolitan area status. RESULTS: More than one-in-five drinkers reported SAC use. Compared to getting alcohol from parents/family, those who took it from a home (OR = 1.51,95 %CI = 1.24,1.84), got it for free another way (OR = 2.30,95 %CI = 2.05,2.59), paid someone else for it (OR = 2.83,95 %CI = 2.46,3.25), or purchased it themselves (OR = 3.12,95 %CI = 2.66,3.67) had higher odds of SAC use. Compared to drinking alone, drinking with more than one person was associated with higher odds of SAC use (OR = 1.36,95 %CI = 1.12,1.66). Compared to drinking in their home, drinking in a bar (OR = 0.51,95 %CI = 0.41,0.64) had lower odds of SAC use, whereas drinking in someone else's home (OR = 1.12,95 %CI = 1.02,1.22), a car (OR = 1.36,95 %CI = 1.04,1.77), or multiple locations (OR = 1.29,95 %CI = 1.09,1.53) had higher odds of SAC use. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that alcohol-related contextual characteristics are associated with SAC use among underage drinkers. Laws addressing underage alcohol consumption, including social host liability and sales to minors laws, may also decrease simultaneous cannabis use.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Consumo de Álcool por Menores , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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