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1.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 36-46, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374347

RESUMO

Background: The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) represents a major clinical problem. Recently, the occurrence of CPE has increased globally, but epidemiological patterns vary across region. We report the trends in the genotypic distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of CPE isolated from rectal and clinical samples during a four-year period. Methods: Between January 2016 and December 2019, 1,254 nonduplicated CPE isolates were obtained from four university hospitals in Korea. Carbapenemase genotypes were determined by multiplex real-time PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility was profiled using the Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux, Hazelwood, MO, USA) or MicroScan Walkaway-96 system (Siemens West Sacramento, CA, USA). The proportions of carbapenemase genotypes and nonsusceptibility were analyzed using Pearson's chi-square test. Results: Among the 1,254 CPE isolates, 486 (38.8%), 371 (29.6%), 357 (28.5%), 8 (0.6%), 8 (0.6%), and 24 (1.9%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), oxacillinase (OXA)-48-like, New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM), imipenemase (IMP), Verona integron-encoded metallo-ß-lactamase (VIM), and multiple producers, respectively. The predominant species was K. pneumoniae (72.6%), followed by Escherichia coli (6.5%). More than 90% of the isolates harboring KPC, NDM, and OXA-48-like were nonsusceptible to cephalosporins, aztreonam, and carbapenems. Conclusions: The impact of CPE is primarily due to KPC-, NDM-, and OXA-48-like-producing K. pneumoniae isolates. Isolates carrying these carbapenemase are mostly multidrug-resistant. Control strategies based on these genotypic distributions and antimicrobial susceptibilities of CPE isolates are required.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , República da Coreia , beta-Lactamases/genética
2.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 24-35, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374346

RESUMO

Background: Laboratory parameter abnormalities are commonly observed in COVID-19 patients; however, their clinical significance remains controversial. We assessed the prevalence, characteristics, and clinical impact of laboratory parameters in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Daegu, Korea. Methods: We investigated the clinical and laboratory parameters of 1,952 COVID-19 patients on admission in nine hospitals in Daegu, Korea. The average patient age was 58.1 years, and 700 (35.9%) patients were men. The patients were classified into mild (N=1,612), moderate (N=294), and severe (N=46) disease groups based on clinical severity scores. We used chi-square test, multiple comparison analysis, and multinomial logistic regression to evaluate the correlation between laboratory parameters and disease severity. Results: Laboratory parameters on admission in the three disease groups were significantly different in terms of hematologic (Hb, Hct, white blood cell count, lymphocyte%, and platelet count), coagulation (prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time), biochemical (albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and electrolytes), inflammatory (C-reactive protein and procalcitonin), cardiac (creatinine kinase MB isoenzyme and troponin I), and molecular virologic (Ct value of SARS-CoV-2 RdRP gene) parameters. Relative lymphopenia, prothrombin time prolongation, and hypoalbuminemia were significant indicators of COVID-19 severity. Patients with both hypoalbuminemia and lymphopenia had a higher risk of severe COVID-19. Conclusions: Laboratory parameter abnormalities on admission are common, are significantly associated with clinical severity, and can serve as independent predictors of COVID-19 severity. Monitoring the laboratory parameters, including albumin and lymphocyte count, is crucial for timely treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Análise de Dados , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107090, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous tobacco consumption, and depression and anxiety symptoms are major predictors of women's tobacco consumption during pregnancy and the postpartum period. However, the joint effect of these predictors is still unexplored. This study aimed to analyse the effects of previous tobacco consumption, and depression and anxiety symptoms on women's tobacco consumption status and quantity from the 1st trimester of pregnancy to 7 months postpartum. METHOD: A sample of 803 Spanish women was assessed at the 1st and the 3rd trimester of pregnancy, and at 2 and 7 months postpartum. Previous tobacco consumption, and depression and anxiety symptoms were self-reported. Pregnancy and postpartum tobacco consumption were confirmed with biochemical tests. RESULTS: Women with more previous tobacco consumption or more anxiety symptoms presented a steeper decrease in the number of cigarettes smoked per week from the 1st trimester of pregnancy to the childbirth, although smoking more cigarettes than women with less previous tobacco consumption or less anxiety symptoms. Women with more depression symptoms showed a higher tendency to relapse smoking during the first 2 months postpartum. CONCLUSIONS: Previous tobacco consumption and anxiety symptoms were associated with higher smoking quantity during pregnancy, while depression symptoms were associated with consumption relapse during postpartum period.


Assuntos
Depressão , Complicações na Gravidez , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia
5.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107087, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit drug among college students, and there is a need to understand the social processes that contribute to young adults' marijuana use. Substance use behaviors tend to be more similar (homophilous) among individuals with social ties to one another. However, little is known about whether marijuana use homophily within young adult relationships is due to social selection (seeking out ties with similar marijuana use to one's own) or social influence (adopting similar marijuana use behaviors as one's ties), or both. METHODS: Students (N = 1,489; 54.6% female; Mage = 18.6 years) at one University completed online surveys in their first three semesters of college. Surveys assessed participant characteristics, marijuana use, and ties to up to 10 other students in the whole (sociocentric) network of first-year college students. Stochastic-actor oriented models (SAOMs) were used to analyze the co-evolution of marijuana use and social ties over time. RESULTS: Participants were more likely to select peers with similar past 30-day marijuana use as themselves. Concurrently, students' past 30-day marijuana use became more similar to their peers' use over time. DISCUSSION: Evidence for selection and influence effects were highly significant after controlling for network structure and other covariates indicating these processes may work in tandem to increase marijuana use homophily over the first year of college. This highlights the importance of relationships made early in the first-year of college, as these initial peer ties are likely to reinforce marijuana use behaviors that occur within these relationships.


Assuntos
Fumar Maconha , Uso da Maconha , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Grupo Associado , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
6.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107083, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464916

RESUMO

Student drinking during the college years can result in many adverse outcomes. Emotion-based decision-making (EBDM), or the use of emotional information to influence future plans and behavior, may lead to increased harmful consequences of alcohol. The current study examined both the number of types and total frequency of alcohol consequences as a function of EBDM. Undergraduate students from three large universities (n = 814) were assessed on EBDM and typical weekly drinking during their 2nd year of college, and alcohol-related consequences during their 2nd, 3rd, and 4th years. Alcohol-related consequences were operationalized both as unique types of consequences and total consequences experienced in the previous year. Latent growth modeling used EBDM in year 2 to predict unique and total alcohol consequences in years 2, 3, and 4. Students who endorsed higher levels of EBDM experienced a significantly increased total frequency of consequences over the three years, without differences in trajectory between students high and low on this construct. Participants with higher levels of EBDM experienced a significantly greater number of unique consequences at all time points, but these consequences increased at a significantly lower rate than individuals lower on this construct. Findings of this study indicate Emotion-Based Decision-Making may be a useful predictor of harmful consequences of student drinking over time.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Emoções , Humanos , Estudantes , Universidades
7.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107096, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469784

RESUMO

Research has demonstrated that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with internet-related problematic behaviors. However, studies have not explored the linkage between PTSD symptoms and internet gaming disorder (IGD) symptoms. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and IGD symptoms via network analysis. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 341 Chinese young adults directly exposed to a typhoon and examined the network structure of PTSS and IGD symptoms, along with bridge symptoms, to elucidate how they co-occur. Results indicated that 'avoiding external reminders' and 'anhedonia' were identified as the most central symptoms in the PTSD network, whereas 'preoccupation,' 'gaming despite harms', and 'loss of control' ranked highest on centrality in the IGD network. Two bridge symptoms emerged within the combined PTSD and IGD network model: 'concentration difficulties' and 'conflict due to gaming' from among the PTSS and IGD symptoms, respectively. These findings reveal novel associations between PTSS and IGD symptoms and provide an empirically-based hypothesis for how these two disorders may co-occur among individuals exposed to natural disasters.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Desastres , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Jogos de Vídeo , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Internet , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Gene ; 807: 145951, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500051

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to analyze the role of selected polymorphisms of SIRT3 and SIRT5 in gastric carcinogenesis. METHODS: For this study, 500 blood samples of GC patients and 500 blood samples of healthy individuals were collected. Six selected polymorphisms of mitochondrial sirtuins were analyzed for analysis using Tetra-Arms PCR followed by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Mutant allele frequencies of selected polymorphisms [rs3782116 (p < 0.0001), rs6598072 (p < 0.0001) and rs11246020 (p < 0.0001), rs938222 (p = 0.0136), rs3757261 (p = 0.0005) and rs2841511 (p = 0.0015)] were observed significant higher in GC patients vs controls. Haplotype analysis was performed, and 51 haplotypes were generated using haploview software. Among these haplotypes, eleven haplotypes were found associated with a significantly increased risk of GC. Furthermore, SNP-SNP interaction showed a significant correlation between studied SNPs and GC risk. Kaplan Meier analysis showed that mutant allele frequencies of selected polymorphisms are linked with a significant decrease in survival of GC patients CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that selected SNPs may be associated with enhanced risk of GC and hence can be potential prognostic markers for prognosis and predisposition of GC.


Assuntos
Sirtuína 3/genética , Sirtuínas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sirtuína 3/sangue , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo , Sirtuínas/sangue , Sirtuínas/metabolismo
9.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107084, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous literature finds an increase in depressive symptoms, substance use, and suicidal ideation following the COVID-19 pandemic in the US - suicides do not appear to increase. We examine whether 1) state lockdown policies in the US precede an increase in mental health symptoms; and 2) the extent to which using substances amplifies or attenuates the relation. METHODS: We specified, as our exposure variable, the timing of state-level lockdown orders. We used, as the outcome variable, the 4-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4) that measures anxiety and depression symptoms. We utilized the Understanding America Study (UAS), a nationally representative sample of 7,597 adults across 50 states in the US, surveyed biweekly between March 10, 2020 and November 11, 2020. Linear fixed effect analyses controlled for time-invariant individual factors, as well as employment status, household income, and previous mental health diagnosis. RESULTS: Regression results indicate an increase in PHQ-4 scores of approximately 1.70 during lockdown, relative to no lockdown (p < 0.05). Relative to no lockdown, an increase in alcohol use corresponds with a 0.08 unit decrease in PHQ-4 scores during lockdown (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: State lockdown policies precede greater mental health symptoms. Increases in consuming alcohol attenuates the relation between state lockdown policies and mental health symptoms. Results may portend greater addiction following the pandemic warranting further investigation into utilization of substance use treatment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Suicídio , Adulto , Ansiedade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107115, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loneliness is a widespread problem, with demonstrated negative health effects. However, prospective data on the relationship between loneliness and problematic substance use are lacking, and few studies have examined specific commonplace substances, such as alcohol and cannabis. This study used prospective data from a community sample of US adults with problematic alcohol or cannabis use to examine whether loneliness was a predictor of subsequent increased substance use. METHODS: Participants (N = 210) were recruited between 05/2016-06/2019 from a New York City medical center. At baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-ups, participants completed identical computerized questionnaires. We used generalized estimating equations to assess the average effect of past 2-week loneliness on subsequent number of days of alcohol or cannabis use, controlling for baseline days of use, demographic characteristics, and past 2-week DSM-5 depression. RESULTS: Compared with individuals who were never lonely, participants with moderate or severe loneliness had a significantly higher frequency of alcohol or cannabis use at the subsequent assessment (ß = 0.25 95% CI: 0.08-0.42). CONCLUSION: Individuals experiencing loneliness at least a few times in the past 2 weeks reported more days of subsequent alcohol or cannabis use compared with individuals who were not lonely. This is cause for concern, as national surveys of US adults indicate increasing rates of loneliness, depression and substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic. These results suggest the need for health care providers to screen for feelings of loneliness and potentially harmful coping behaviors such as substance use, and to offer healthier alternative coping strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Uso da Maconha , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Humanos , Solidão , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Med Gas Res ; 12(2): 44-50, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677151

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused an urgent need for investigating potential treatments. Traditional medicine offers many potential remedies that have been historically used and have the advantage of bypassing the cultural obstacles in the practice of medicine. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of Zufa syrup in the treatment of suspected patients with mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19. This triple-blind randomized controlled trial recruited patients with evidence of COVID-19 on chest computed tomography without an indication of hospital admission from March 2020 until April 2020. Participants were assessed by a physician and completed a pre-specified form to assess the duration and severity of symptoms. Patients were randomized to receive Zufa syrup (a combination of herbal medicines: Nepetabracteata, Ziziphus jujube, Glycyrrhizaglabra, Ficuscarica, Cordia myxa, Papaver somniferum, Fennel, Adiantumcapillus-veneris, Viola, Viper's-buglosses, Lavender, Iris, and sugar) or identical-looking placebo syrup at a dose of 7.5 mL (one tablespoon) every 4 hours for 10 days. After applying the eligibility criteria, 116 patients (49.1% male) were randomized to trial arms with a mean age of 44.3. During the follow-up, Cough, dyspnea, headache, myalgia, anorexia, anxiety, and insomnia improved gradually in both groups, and showed no difference between Zufa syrup and placebo. Oxygen saturation and pulse rate had stable trends throughout the follow-up and were similar between study arms. No patient required hospital admission or supplemental oxygen therapy during the study period. To conclude, in patients with mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19, Zufa syrup did not show any difference in symptomatology over a 10 days' period when compared with placebo. Due to potential effects of medicinal plants in the treatment of respiratory infections, further studies are warranted to clarify their role in COVID-19. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Qom University of Medical Science (Ethics committee reference number IR.MUQ.REC.1398.165) on March 10, 2020 and was registered in Iranian Clinical Trial Center (approval ID: IRCT20200404046934N1) on April 13, 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Oxigênio , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int Braz J Urol ; 48(1): 101-109, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735086

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It has been more than a year since the first case of Covid-19 was diagnosed in Brazil, and its most problematic feature is the oversaturation of the healthcare system capacity. Urolithiasis is a disease that requires timely and appropriate management. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of the pandemic in hospital admissions for urolithiasis in the Brazilian public healthcare system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, hospital admissions were obtained from the Brazilian Public Health Information system. All hospital admissions associated with urolithiasis diagnosis (ICD-10 N20) between March 2017 and February 2021 were analyzed. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 outbreak, there was a significant decrease in hospital admissions (p<0.0001). More than 20.000 patients probably did not have the opportunity to undergo their surgeries. The impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on women's admissions was significantly more intense than for men, reducing from 48.91% to 48.36% of the total (p=0.0281). The extremes of age seemed to be more affected, with patients younger than 20 years and older than 60 years having a significant reduction in access to hospital services (p=0.033). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we have noticed a considerable reduction in overall admissions for the treatment of urolithiasis in the Brazilian public healthcare system during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic. Women and individuals older than 60 years were especially affected. In contrast, we noted a rise in urgent procedures, comparing with the average of the corresponding period of the three previous years. Recovery plans will be needed while returning to activities to handle the impounded surgical volume.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Urolitíase , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Urolitíase/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149859, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464800

RESUMO

The global emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among pathogens is a major public health crisis that might soon lead to a post-antibiotic era. Klebsiella pneumoniae, included in the World Health Organization list of critical priority pathogens, is an emerging threat to global health owing to the rapid rise of convergent AMR and hypervirulent strains. Comprehensive epidemiology of AMR-hypervirulent determinants in K. pneumoniae from Low-and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) is still lacking. As part of rapid risk assessment, an in-silico approach was employed to characterize the AMR and hypervirulence determinants in K. pneumoniae from LMICs. Genomic data of 2432 K. pneumoniae strains were obtained from 33 LMICs representing 4 continents; Asia (n = 12), Africa (n = 18), N. America (n = 2) and Europe (n = 1). All the analysed strains were multiple-drug resistant and 13.6% of them were hypervirulent as well. The co-existence of antibiotic resistant genes conferring concomitant resistance towards life-saving drugs (carbapenems, colistin, fluoroquinolones and fosfomycin) were also observed among the strains, thereby challenging the efficacy of current treatment strategies. The emergence of convergent strains of K. pneumoniae carrying both multi-drug resistance and hypervirulence-associated genes in 12 LMICs is highlighted in this study. Asian region was identified as the major hotspot for convergent strains, especially being confined to 3 countries (India, Pakistan and Vietnam), further exacerbating the situation. This represents a major challenge to disease treatment and public health management in the LMICs. Regular surveillance for emergence of convergence and necessary interventions in the high-risk regions are strongly recommended.


Assuntos
Infecções por Klebsiella , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Paquistão , Virulência
14.
Ann Ig ; 34(1): 45-53, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698761

RESUMO

Background: Tobacco products represent a major health risk factor and a potent way to help transmission of COVID-19. Current data regarding consumption of these products in the region are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns of cigarette, hookah and other tobacco products consumption among undergraduate students from the University of Sarajevo before the COVID-19 outbreak in the country. Methods: This cross-sectional study based on a National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) was conducted among undergraduate students from the University of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Hercegovina via an online questionnaire from 22nd to 26th of January 2020. Results: Out of 605 students involved in the study, most of them were female (N=429, 70.9%); 363 (60.0%) were enrolled in medical sciences; 159 (26.3%) were attending the 3rd year of their curriculum; 224 (37%) were original from Canton Sarajevo and 514 (84.9%) were living in urban environment. Two hundred thirty five students out of 605 (38.8%) were current smokers and 117 (19.3%) hookah smokers. Being female (OR=0.539, 95% CI 0.368-0.790, p=0.002), in the 1st or 2nd year of study (OR=0.805, 95% CI 0.667-0.972, p=0.024) and living in a rural environment (OR=0.335, 95% CI 0.191-0.585, p<0.001) were associated with reduced risk of cigarette consumption, while older age (22+ years) (OR=1.287, 95% CI 1.122-1.476, p<0.001) increased the same risk. On the other side, being female (OR=0.595, 95% CI 0.380-0.930, p=0.023), of younger age (18-21 years) (OR=0.832, 95% CI 0.743-0.932, p=0.001) and medical science student (OR=0.567, 95% CI 0.328-0.978, p=0.041) were associated with decreased risk of consuming hookah. Conclusions: This study provides an insight in prevalence of smoking among students at the University of Sarajevo. More antismoking efforts are needed, especially in urban environments; and a follow-up study, to be planned in the near future, should determine whether COVID-19 pandemic (and all the modifications of lifestyles connected with it) have eventually changed tobacco consumption patterns among undergraduate students.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cachimbos de Água , Estudantes de Medicina , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hábitos , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ann Ig ; 34(1): 27-44, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779676

RESUMO

Introduction: The Coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19) was first identified in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, China, and later caused a severe health crisis, causing massive disruptions to most healthcare sy-stems worldwide. The Covid-19 health emergency has seen healthcare workers in the front line facing all the difficulties related to the care burden. One of the most significant and probably underinvestigated aspects is the psychological stress of the healthcare staff managing the emergency. The aim of the paper is to analyze the literature on the impact of the Covid-19 crisis on the psychological well-being of health professionals. Methodology: We conducted a systematic review of articles published on this topic during the months from January 2020 to December 2020, searching on Pub Med, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Results: Most of the issues can be summarized into five conceptual categories: Stress, Depression and Infec-tion Anxiety, Anguish, Insomnia, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Suicide. The literature identifies many factors contributing to the onset of anxiety, depression, and stress, like the fear of contracting the disease and transmitting it to family members and friends, stressful shifts, and little rest among several others. The literature highlights the needs for adequate measures, including proper psychological support. Conclusion: The conducted review suggests that the behaviours of healthcare professionals during the emer-gency phase of the Covid-19 pandemic show psychological disorders that can compromise mental health. Therefore, there is a call for those in chief like hospital managers and policymakers to take action, promoting measures like surveillance, monitoring, and psychological support among others, to increase the resilience of healthcare workers, limiting stress and anxiety and allowing them to keep their performance at work.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
16.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131545, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293563

RESUMO

Several studies have reported exposure of humans to various endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) worldwide. However, there is a lack of data regarding EDC exposures in humans living in Southeast Asian countries, such as the Philippines. Hence, this study measured levels of 41 EDCs in women residing in the Greater Manila Area, home to the second largest city in Southeast Asia. Urine samples from women with versus without breast cancer were analyzed for 11 phthalate metabolites, 8 environmental phenols, and 10 bisphenols, while serum samples were analyzed for 12 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Out of the four groups of EDCs analyzed, PFAS were significantly associated with breast cancer (adjusted OR = 13.63, 95% CI: 3.24-94.88 p-trend = 0.001 for PFDoA; adjusted OR = 9.26, 95% CI 2.54-45.10, p-trend = 0.002 for PFDA; and adjusted OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 0.95-7.66, p-trend = 0.004 for PFHxA). Long-chain PFAS levels were positively correlated with age and were significantly higher in women from Region IV-A, a heavily industrialized region, than from the National Capital Region. Overall, this study showed baseline information regarding the level of EDCs in Filipinas, providing a glimpse of EDC exposure in women living in a megalopolis city in Southeast Asia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Filipinas
17.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131495, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293567

RESUMO

Certain endocrine disruptor chemicals are involved in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a hormonal disease related to infertility in women. Phthalates are the most common plasticizers found in several consumer products. Experimental and epidemiologic evidence suggests that some phthalates disrupt endocrine functions in reproductive mechanisms and development. We previously measured the levels of eight phthalate metabolites in the urine of 599 Saudi women who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and were enrolled in a prospective study (2015-2017). The current nested case-control study aimed to determine the association between urinary levels of phthalate metabolites and PCOS. Overall, 441 women from the IVF study were identified as eligible for this study. Women in the case group included those diagnosed with PCOS (N = 82). The control group comprised those unable to conceive due to male azoospermia or who underwent preimplantation genetic diagnosis (N = 359). Most urinary phthalate metabolite levels were several-fold higher than those reported in national surveys from other countries. The ratio of luteinizing hormone to follicle-stimulating hormone, an index of PCOS, was significantly higher in the case than in the control group, with no indication of its association with phthalate metabolites. The logistic regression model was applied after adjusting for confounders to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each metabolite modeled as a natural logarithm (ln). For each ln-unit increase in the sum of the four di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (∑4DEHP) metabolites as well as two individual metabolites, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate, the odds of PCOS increased by 40.5% [OR = 1.405 (95% CI: 1.025, 1.925)], 41.1% [OR = 1.055 (95% CI: 1.055, 1.885)], and 38.6% [OR = 1.386 (95% CI: 1.033, 1.86)], respectively. In contrast, the % odds of PCOS decreased marginally significantly by 44% [OR = 0.560 (95% CI: 0.313, 1.002)] with an ln-unit increase of %MEHP4, the ratio of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate to ∑4DEHP. These findings suggest that DEHP may contribute to PCOS, and further investigation is required to understand the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Masculino , Ácidos Ftálicos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 110-118, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387886

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a strong impact on healthcare workers (HCWs), affecting their physical and mental health. In Italy, HCWs have been among the first exposed to unprecedented pressure, dealing with large numbers of infections during the first pandemic wave. However, the severe psychological consequences on HCWs find little evidence in the literature, especially in terms of comparison to the status quo ante pandemic. The aim of this study was to provide an assessment of the mental health burden in a cohort of Italian HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic, comparing their condition with that before the emergency, to direct the promotion of mental well-being among HCWs worldwide. In this retrospective study, we included physicians, physical therapists, and nurses working in the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit, Neurology Unit, and Rehabilitation Unit from a Southern Italy University Hospital. All study participants underwent a battery of psychological tests, aimed at verifying their state of mental health during the COVID-19 emergency and before it. Depressive, anxiety, and burnout symptoms were assessed using the following questionnaires: Maslach Burnout Inventory, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and General Anxiety Disorder-7. Depressive, anxiety, and burnout clinical relevance symptoms were present in HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic more than those before the emergency. Fifty percent of the HCWs obtained a score clinically significant during the emergency. Moreover, a depersonalization factor showed a statistically significant increase in average scores (p < 0.0001). The PHQ-9 scale showed that 47.1% of the operators reported depressive state presence. The number of operators scoring above the cut-off for the anxiety scale tripled during the emergency (p < 0.0001). The female gender conferred greater risks for depression. Taken together, the findings of this study showed that our sample of Italian HCWs showed a greater risk for depression, anxiety, and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. These data might be a starting point to plan mental health monitoring and prevention programs for HCWs, thus ensuring patients receive the best possible care performances even during healthcare crises such as the current pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estresse Psicológico
19.
Clin Plast Surg ; 49(1): 179-189, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782135

RESUMO

Rhinoplasty is widely regarded as one of the more technically challenging surgeries, owing in part to the many possible short- and long-term complications that can arise. Although severe complications are uncommon, unforeseen complications can lead to esthetic and functional compromise, patient dissatisfaction, and need for revision surgery. The rhinoplasty surgeon must be prepared to counsel patients and identify and manage the range of complications that may result from this procedure. This article reviews some of the most frequently encountered complications related to rhinoplasty and their management approaches.


Assuntos
Rinoplastia , Estética , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Reoperação , Rinoplastia/efeitos adversos
20.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 67-75, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634366

RESUMO

Hypertension (HT) is an important risk factor for mortality and morbidity. Previous studies showed that cadmium (Cd) was associated with increased blood pressures and the prevalence of HT. This study hypothesized that Cd, regardless of its level, may increase blood pressures/HT. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between a low level of serum Cd concentration and blood pressures/HT among a general population in the Iwaki area, Japan. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the Aomori prefecture with 1144 volunteers aged over 19 years old, who were participants of the Iwaki health check-up in 2014. The study assessed questionnaire survey, body composition, and serum Cd concentrations. Median serum Cd concentration was 0.06 ng/mL (interquartile range 0.05-0.08 ng/mL) among our study population. Compared to the lowest quintile of serum Cd concentration group, the highest quintile of serum Cd concentration group had 4.9 mmHg higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.53-8.31, p < 0.01) and 2.4 mmHg higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (95% CI 0.36-4.34, p < 0.05), compared to the lowest quintile group. Similarly, the highest quintile of serum Cd concentration group had 1.7 times higher prevalence of HT (95% CI 1.10-2.51, p < 0.05) than the lowest quintile group. This study identified that higher serum Cd concentration was significantly, positively, associated with SBP and DBP and HT prevalence. This study provided evidence for the associations between environmental exposure to Cd and blood pressures/HT which should be considered for future preventive measures.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Hipertensão , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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