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1.
Gene ; 808: 145963, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530086

RESUMO

As of July 2021, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has led to more than 200 million infections and more than 4.2 million deaths globally. Complications of severe COVID-19 include acute kidney injury, liver dysfunction, cardiomyopathy, and coagulation dysfunction. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify proteins and genetic factors associated with COVID-19 susceptibility and outcome. We comprehensively reviewed recent findings of host-SARS-CoV-2 interactome analyses. To identify genetic variants associated with COVID-19, we focused on the findings from genome and transcriptome wide association studies (GWAS and TWAS) and bioinformatics analysis. We described established human proteins including ACE2, TMPRSS2, 40S ribosomal subunit, ApoA1, TOM70, HLA-A, and PALS1 interacting with SARS-CoV-2 based on cryo-electron microscopy results. Furthermore, we described approximately 1000 human proteins showing evidence of interaction with SARS-CoV-2 and highlighted host cellular processes such as innate immune pathways affected by infection. We summarized the evidence on more than 20 identified candidate genes in COVID-19 severity. Predicted deleterious and disruptive genetic variants with possible effects on COVID-19 infectivity have been also summarized. These findings provide novel insights into SARS-CoV-2 biology and infection as well as potential strategies for development of novel COVID therapeutic targets and drug repurposing.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Proteínas/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
2.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 342-348, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528721

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The S protein is the key viral protein for associating with ACE2, the receptor for SARS-CoV-2. There are many kinds of posttranslational modifications in S protein. However, the detailed mechanism of palmitoylation of SARS-CoV-2 S remains to be elucidated. In our current study, we characterized the palmitoylation of SARS-CoV-2 S. Both the C15 and cytoplasmic tail of SARS-CoV-2 S were palmitoylated. Fatty acid synthase inhibitor C75 and zinc finger DHHC domain-containing palmitoyltransferase (ZDHHC) inhibitor 2-BP reduced the palmitoylation of S. Interestingly, palmitoylation of SARS-CoV-2 S was not required for plasma membrane targeting of S but was critical for S-mediated syncytia formation and SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus particle entry. Overexpression of ZDHHC2, ZDHHC3, ZDHHC4, ZDHHC5, ZDHHC8, ZDHHC9, ZDHHC11, ZDHHC14, ZDHHC16, ZDHHC19, and ZDHHC20 promoted the palmitoylation of S. Furthermore, those ZDHHCs were identified to associate with SARS-CoV-2 S. Our study not only reveals the mechanism of S palmitoylation but also will shed important light into the role of S palmitoylation in syncytia formation and virus entry.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Células Gigantes/metabolismo , Lipoilação/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , 4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , 4-Butirolactona/farmacologia , Aciltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , COVID-19/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/fisiologia
3.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 240-245, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460115

RESUMO

Many countries in the world are experiencing a recent surge in COVID-19 cases. This is mainly attributed to the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants. Genome sequencing is the only means to detect the evolving virus mutants and emerging variants. Cycle threshold values have an inverse relationship with viral load and lower Ct values are also found to be associated with increased infectivity. In this study, we propose to use Ct values as an early indicator for upcoming COVID-19 waves. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out to analyze the Ct values of positive samples reported during the first wave and second wave (April 2020-May 2021). Median Ct values of confirmatory genes were taken into consideration for comparison. Ct values below 25, >25-30, and >30 were categorized as high, moderate, and low viral load respectively. Our study found a significantly higher proportion of positive samples with a low Ct value (<25) across age groups and gender during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. A higher proportion of positive samples with a low Ct value (high viral load) may act as an early indicator of an upcoming surge.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
4.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108670, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509096

RESUMO

Feed efficiency was measured in thirty Pelibuey noncastrated male lambs using the residual feed intake (RFI) and residual intake and gain (RIG). The lambs were fattened for 92 d and then slaughtered, with the aim of identifying the interplay between feed efficiency indices (FEIs) and performance, rumen fermentation parameters, carcass characteristics and meat quality traits from the 15 intermediate and most extreme lambs for each FEI. The mean values of the classes were -0.09, 0.00, and 0.09 kg DM/d for low, medium and high RFI, respectively. The RIG indicators were 2.6, -0.1, and -2.7, for high, medium and low, respectively. The lambs with high-RIG had a higher (P ≤ 0.05) average daily gain and improved feed conversion. Lambs with low-RFI and high-RIG had higher (P < 0.05) values of meat cooking loss. Efficient lambs had improved feed utilization without affecting the carcass characteristics or meat quality (except for cooking loss).


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Carne Vermelha/análise , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Composição Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Fermentação , Masculino , Rúmen/fisiologia
5.
Gene ; 807: 145934, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478820

RESUMO

Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measurement of feed efficiency, and is inversely correlated with feed efficiency. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with RFI vary substantially among studies, posing great challenges in finding the RFI-related marker genes. This study attempted to resolve this issue by integrating and comparing the multiple transcriptome sequencing data associated with RFI in the cattle liver, using differential, functional enrichment, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, weighted co-expression network (WGCNA), and gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) to identify the candidate genes and functional enrichment pathways that are closely associated with RFI. Four candidate genes namely SHC1, GPX4, ACADL, and IGF1 were identified and validated as the marker genes for RFI. Four functional enrichment pathways, namely the fatty acid metabolism, sugar metabolism, energy metabolism, and protein ubiquitination were also found to be closely related to RFI. This study identified several genes and signaling pathways with shared characteristics, which will provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms related to the regulation of feed efficiency, and provide basis for molecular markers related to feed efficiency in beef cattle.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/fisiologia , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína 1 de Transformação que Contém Domínio 2 de Homologia de Src/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Ubiquitinação/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
6.
Gene ; 807: 145952, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500049

RESUMO

Extreme temperature is one of the serious threats to crop production in present and future scenarios of global climate changes. Lentil (Lens culinaris) is an important crop, and there is a serious lack of genetic information regarding environmental and temperature stresses responses. This study is the first report of evaluation of key genes and molecular mechanisms related to temperature stresses in lentil using the RNA sequencing technique. De novo transcriptome assembly created 44,673 contigs and differential gene expression analysis revealed 7494 differentially expressed genes between the temperature stresses and control group. Basic annotation of generated transcriptome assembly in our study led to the identification of 2765 novel transcripts that have not been identified yet in lentil genome draft v1.2. In addition, several unigenes involved in mechanisms of temperature sensing, calcium and hormone signaling and DNA-binding transcription factor activity were identified. Also, common mechanisms in response to temperature stresses, including the proline biosynthesis, the photosynthetic light reactions balancing, chaperone activity and circadian rhythms, are determined by the hub genes through the protein-protein interaction networks analysis. Deciphering the mechanisms of extreme temperature tolerance would be a new way for developing crops with enhanced plasticity against climate change. In general, this study has identified set of mechanisms and various genes related to cold and heat stresses which will be useful in better understanding of the lentil's reaction to temperature stresses.


Assuntos
Lens (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lens (Planta)/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Mudança Climática , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Fotossíntese , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Temperatura , Transcriptoma/genética
7.
Gene ; 807: 145954, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500050

RESUMO

Reducing tail fat deposition can increase the economic value of a carcass and improve feed efficiency. This study aimed to explore ELOVL5 and FASN polymorphisms associated with tail fat deposition and their expression levels of sheep. Association analysis showed that ELOVL5 synonymous mutation g.62534 C > T was associated with tail width, tail fat weight, and relative tail fat weight (P < 0.05). FASN synonymous mutation g.12694 A > G was associated with tail length and width (P < 0.05). Combined effect analyses indicated significant differences between the combined genotypes and tail fat deposition. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR indicated that the ELOVL5 and FASN expression levels were significantly higher in tail fat than in other tissues (P < 0.05). ELOVL5 expression levels in tail-fat tissue of big-tail sheep was significantly higher than that in small-tail sheep (P < 0.01). FASN expression levels were significantly higher in tail-fat tissue of small-tail sheep than in that of big-tail sheep (P < 0.05). During development, ELOVL5 tail fat expression increased significantly from 0 to 6 months old (P < 0.05), and FASN expression at 3 months old was significantly higher than that at 0 (minimum) and 6 months old (P < 0.05). Therefore, ELOVL5 and FASN polymorphisms could represent new candidate molecular markers and targets to reduce tail fat deposition in sheep.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Animais , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Genótipo , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Ovinos/genética , Cauda/metabolismo
8.
Gene ; 807: 145888, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a glucose intolerance condition encounters for the first time in a fraction of pregnant women. The role of different host inflammatory molecules in GDM etiology has been deciphered. Chemerin is a chemoattractant protein primarily associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the association of chemerin and its genetic variants with the predisposition of GDM is not clear, and our present study is aimed to address the issue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 703 Chinese women comprising of GDM (n = 303), glucose tolerant pregnant women (n = 211), and non-pregnant glucose tolerant controls (n = 189) were recruited in the present investigation. GDM was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization recommendation for diagnosis of gestational diabetes during pregnancy. Plasma levels of chemerin were quantified by an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Common variants in the chemerin gene (rs4721, rs17173617, rs7806429, and rs17173608) were genotyped by using TaqMan assay. RESULTS: Plasma chemerin level was found higher in subjects with GDM as compared to glucose tolerant pregnant and non-pregnant women. Further, a positive correlation between plasma chemerin and HOMA-IR index suggesting an essential role of chemerin in mediating insulin resistance. Variants of rs4721 and rs17173608 polymorphisms were associated with lower levels of plasma chemerin and low HOMA-IR index. Furthermore, mutants of rs4721 and rs17173608 polymorphisms were associated with protection against the development of GDM in the Chinese cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma chemerin is elevated in GDM patients. Genetic variation in chemerin gene associated with lower plasma levels of chemerin, HOMA-IR index and protects against the development of GDM in Chinese.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/genética , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Glicemia/genética , Quimiocinas/sangue , China , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/genética , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Gravidez
9.
Behav Brain Res ; 417: 113630, 2022 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656691

RESUMO

Social isolation gained discussion momentum due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Whereas many studies address the effects of long-term social isolation in post-weaning and adolescence and for periods ranging from 4 to 12 weeks, little is known about the repercussions of adult long-term social isolation in middle age. Thus, our aim was to investigate how long-term social isolation can influence metabolic, behavioural, and central nervous system-related areas in middle-aged mice. Adult male C57Bl/6 mice (4 months-old) were randomly divided into Social (2 cages, n = 5/cage) and Isolated (10 cages, n = 1/cage) housing groups, totalizing 30 weeks of social isolation, which ended concomitantly with the onset of middle age of mice. At the end of the trial, metabolic parameters, short-term memory, anxiety-like behaviour, and physical activity were assessed. Immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus (ΔFosB, BDNF, and 8OHDG) and hypothalamus (ΔFosB) was also performed. The Isolated group showed impaired memory along with a decrease in hippocampal ΔFosB at dentate gyrus and in BDNF at CA3. Food intake was also affected, but the direction depended on how it was measured in the Social group (individually or in the group) with no alteration in ΔFosB at the hypothalamus. Physical activity parameters increased with chronic isolation, but in the light cycle (inactive phase), with some evidence of anxiety-like behaviour. Future studies should better explore the timepoint at which the alterations found begin. In conclusion, long-term social isolation in adult mice contributes to alterations in feeding, physical activity pattern, and anxiety-like behaviour. Moreover, short-term memory deficit was associated with lower levels of hippocampal ΔFosB and BDNF in middle age.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , COVID-19 , Comportamento Alimentar , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Locomoção , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Isolamento Social , Fatores Etários , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo
10.
Oncol Rep ; 47(1)2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779496

RESUMO

The devastating complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) result from the dysfunctional immune response of an individual following the initial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) infection. Multiple toxic stressors and behaviors contribute to underlying immune system dysfunction. SARS­CoV­2 exploits the dysfunctional immune system to trigger a chain of events, ultimately leading to COVID­19. The authors have previously identified a number of contributing factors (CFs) common to myriad chronic diseases. Based on these observations, it was hypothesized that there may be a significant overlap between CFs associated with COVID­19 and gastrointestinal cancer (GIC). Thus, in the present study, a streamlined dot­product approach was used initially to identify potential CFs that affect COVID­19 and GIC directly (i.e., the simultaneous occurrence of CFs and disease in the same article). The nascent character of the COVID­19 core literature (~1­year­old) did not allow sufficient time for the direct effects of numerous CFs on COVID­19 to emerge from laboratory experiments and epidemiological studies. Therefore, a literature­related discovery approach was used to augment the COVID­19 core literature­based 'direct impact' CFs with discovery­based 'indirect impact' CFs [CFs were identified in the non­COVID­19 biomedical literature that had the same biomarker impact pattern (e.g., hyperinflammation, hypercoagulation, hypoxia, etc.) as was shown in the COVID­19 literature]. Approximately 2,250 candidate direct impact CFs in common between GIC and COVID­19 were identified, albeit some being variants of the same concept. As commonality proof of concept, 75 potential CFs that appeared promising were selected, and 63 overlapping COVID­19/GIC potential/candidate CFs were validated with biological plausibility. In total, 42 of the 63 were overlapping direct impact COVID­19/GIC CFs, and the remaining 21 were candidate GIC CFs that overlapped with indirect impact COVID­19 CFs. On the whole, the present study demonstrates that COVID­19 and GIC share a number of common risk/CFs, including behaviors and toxic exposures, that impair immune function. A key component of immune system health is the removal of those factors that contribute to immune system dysfunction in the first place. This requires a paradigm shift from traditional Western medicine, which often focuses on treatment, rather than prevention.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , COVID-19/etiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/etiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/imunologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 99-109, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570905

RESUMO

A severe pandemic of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) has been sweeping the globe since 2019, and this time, it did not stop, with frequent mutations transforming into virulent strains, for instance, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and B.1.427. In recent months, a fungal infection, mucormycosis has emerged with more fatal responses and significantly increased mortality rate. To measure the severity and potential alternative approaches against black fungus coinfection in COVID-19 patients, PubMed, Google Scholar, World Health Organization (WHO) newsletters, and other online resources, based on the cases reported and retrospective observational analysis were searched from the years 2015-2021. The studies reporting mucormycosis with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) coinfection and/or demonstrating potential risk factors, such as a history of diabetes mellitus or suppressed immune system were included, and reports published in non-English language were excluded. More than 20 case reports and observational studies on black fungus coinfection in COVID-19 patients were eligible for inclusion. The results indicated that diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemic, and immunocompromised COVID-19 patients with mucormycosis were at a higher risk. We found that it was prudent to assess the potential risk factors and severity of invasive mycosis via standardized diagnostic and clinical settings. Large-scale studies need to be conducted to identify early biomarkers and optimization of diagnostic methods has to be established per population and geographical variation. This will not only help clinicians around the world to detect the coinfection in time but also will prepare them for future outbreaks of other potential pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Mucormicose/epidemiologia , Mucormicose/mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/fisiologia , Mucorales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mucorales/isolamento & purificação , Mucormicose/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102445, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481082

RESUMO

The present study describes Hoferellus jutubensis n. sp., a myxozoan parasite found in the urinary bladder of the driftwood catfish Ageneiosus inermis, captured on Jutuba Island in the state of Pará, northern Brazil. A total of 30 A. inermis specimens were examined, of which 26 (86.7%) had myxospores and polysporic plasmodia of varying shapes and sizes dispersed in the lumen of the urinary bladder, either floating freely or attached to the epithelium. In the apical view, the myxospores of Hoferellus jutubensis n. sp. are rounded, 6.1 ± 0.2 (5.7-6.3) µm long and 5.5 ± 0.3 (5.2-6.0) µm wide, with two sub-spherical polar capsules, equal in size and shape, 2.5 ± 0.2 (2.3-2.7) µm long and 1.7 ± 0.2 (1.4-2.2) µm wide. The phylogenetic analysis of a partial sequence of the SSU rDNA gene, indicated that the new species is the sister taxon of Hoferellus azevedoi, with these two species forming a Brazilian lineage of Hoferellus. The comparison of the morphological and molecular data with those of the existing members of the genus confirmed the species status of Hoferellus jutubensis n. sp., which adds one further Hoferellus taxon to the known myxosporean diversity of the Amazon basin.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Myxozoa/classificação , Animais , Brasil , Myxozoa/anatomia & histologia , Myxozoa/genética , Myxozoa/fisiologia
13.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 287-290, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487373

RESUMO

In the 10th month of the pandemic, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination was given first to healthcare workers in Turkey after receiving emergency use approval from the Ministry of Health. This study, which was performed at the COVID-19 reference center in Ankara (the capital of Turkey) aimed to evaluate the seroconversion rate of the CoronaVac vaccine. The anti-spike immunoglobulin G response to the two-dose vaccination was retrospectively examined in healthcare workers who had no previous history of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The postvaccine seroconversion rate was investigated by measuring the antibody levels of healthcare workers who had received CoronaVac. Vaccination was administered as 600 SU in 28-day intervals. The healthcare workers' anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G levels were used to determine the seroconversion rate 2 months after the second dose of the vaccine. Of the healthcare workers, 22.9% (n = 155) were seronegative. The younger the age of the participant, the higher the level of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G. Furthermore, anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G levels were much higher in women than men.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunização Secundária/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Soroconversão/fisiologia , Turquia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 132-138, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human tongue is important in the oral processing of food and in sensory perception. Tongue topography could influence delicate differences in sensory perception. It is hypothesized that tongue surface roughness could alter oral lubrication status and affect perception of smoothness. Fifteen participants with varying levels of tongue surface roughness were recruited and tested. Participants' in situ oral lubrication status without and after consumption of fluid food (milk with varying fat content and maltodextrin solutions with different shear viscosities) was measured. Participants' smoothness sensory scores were also recorded. RESULTS: The in situ friction coefficient (0.299-1.505) was significantly positively correlated with tongue-surface roughness (54.6-140.0 µm) in all types of test fluid samples across participants. Oral lubrication was significantly decreased when participants consumed the test fluid samples compared with no liquid food consumption, for all test fluid sample types (P < 0.05). No significant differences in in situ friction coefficient were found after participants consumed different test fluid samples, and this was mainly attributed to the limited quantities of fluid residuals in the oral cavity after expectoration. Participants whose tongue surface roughness differed did not exhibit significant differences in smoothness perception with different test fluid samples. CONCLUSION: Tongue surface roughness has a strong impact on in situ oral lubrication, and fluid food intake reduces in situ oral lubrication significantly. Saliva film and tongue surface roughness might play greater roles in oral lubrication and smoothness sensory perception if fluid is expectorated after consumption. The association between oral physiology and texture perception still needs further elucidation. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Percepção Gustatória , Língua/química , Adulto , Animais , Gorduras/química , Gorduras/metabolismo , Feminino , Fricção , Humanos , Lubrificação , Masculino , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Saliva/fisiologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Língua/fisiologia , Viscosidade , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 161-172, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415583

RESUMO

Detailed information on intrahost viral evolution in SARS-CoV-2 with and without treatment is limited. Sequential viral loads and deep sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 from the upper respiratory tract of nine hospitalized children, three of whom were treated with remdesivir, revealed that remdesivir treatment suppressed viral load in one patient but not in a second infected with an identical strain without any evidence of drug resistance found. Reduced levels of subgenomic RNA during treatment of the second patient, suggest an additional effect of remdesivir on viral replication. Haplotype reconstruction uncovered persistent SARS-CoV-2 variant genotypes in four patients. These likely arose from within-host evolution, although superinfection cannot be excluded in one case. Although our dataset is small, observed sample-to-sample heterogeneity in variant frequencies across four of nine patients suggests the presence of discrete viral populations in the lung with incomplete population sampling in diagnostic swabs. Such compartmentalization could compromise the penetration of remdesivir into the lung, limiting the drugs in vivo efficacy, as has been observed in other lung infections.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Evolução Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Viral , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Lactente , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 92(2): e210, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1278303

RESUMO

Antecedentes: la nutrición durante el embarazo impacta en la salud del recién nacido, con efectos a nivel epigenético determinando consecuencias neurológicas a largo plazo. Las necesidades de hierro durante el embarazo se estiman en 27 mg/día. El hierro hemo que se absorbe mejor se encuentra en la carne. La determinación de ferritina en sangre de cordón umbilical permite evaluar los depósitos de hierro alcanzados durante la etapa fetal. Sus niveles se asociaron con efectos a largo plazo sobre el desarrollo infantil. Objetivos: el objetivo de este estudio de carácter exploratorio es determinar la relación entre el consumo de carnes rojas durante el tercer trimestre de gestación y el nivel de ferritina en el cordón umbilical. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo con datos recolectados prospectivamente durante un año en el Departamento de Neonatología del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell (CHPR) en Montevideo, Uruguay. Un total de 188 pacientes cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Se extrajo sangre del cordón umbilical después de un pinzamiento estricto del cordón pasado un minuto de vida. La ferritina se midió utilizando el método de quimioinmunofluorescencia. Se aplicó una encuesta nutricional materna (cualitativo-cuantitativa) que midió la frecuencia de consumo de alimentos con fuente de hierro y las cantidades aproximadas consumidas durante el último trimestre del embarazo. Esta encuesta se centró en el consumo materno de carne vacuna como principal fuente de hierro hemínico en Uruguay. Se analizó la relación entre estas variables. Resultados: el déficit latente de hierro (ferritina en el cordón umbilical <100 ng/ml) se asoció con un menor consumo de carne vacuna durante el embarazo. Valor p de Fisher: 0,0133, OR: 3,71, IC del 95% (1,25-11,05). Conclusiones: este estudio considera adecuada la evidencia que relaciona que los niveles bajos de consumo total de hierro y de carne vacuna durante el tercer trimestre de gestación determinarán un mayor riesgo de déficit latente de hierro y de ferritina medido en el cordón umbilical. Los niveles descendidos de ferritina en cordón umbilical se asocian con un mayor riesgo de efectos adversos a largo plazo sobre la mielinización y el desarrollo neurocognitivo.


Background: nutrition during pregnancy impacts the foetus and the newborn health, it has consequences at the epigenetic level and determines long-term neurological consequences. Iron requirements during pregnancy are estimated at 27 mg/day. Iron is blood absorption from is most efficient from beef. Umbilical cord blood ferritin levels can be used to assess iron deposits reached during the foetal stage. Ferritin levels are linked to the child's long-term development. Objective: this exploratory study's objective is to determine the relationship between beef consumption during the first quarter of pregnancy and ferritin levels in the umbilical cord. Methods: we carried out a descriptive, observational study with prospectively collected data for one-year at the Neonatology Department of the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center (CHPR) in Montevideo, Uruguay. A total of 188 patients met the inclusion criteria. We extracted umbilical cord blood after a strict cord clamping after one minute of life. Ferritin was measured using the chemoimmunofluorescence method. We carried out a maternal nutritional survey using a qualitative-quantitative method and measured the frequency and approximate quantity of iron source food consumption during the last quarter of pregnancy. This survey was focused on maternal beef consumption as the major heme iron source in Uruguay. We analyzed the relationship between these variables. Results: latent iron deficiency (ferritin in the umbilical cord <100 ng / ml) was associated with lower beef consumption during pregnancy. Fisher p-value: 0.0133, OR: 3.71, 95% CI (1.25 - 11.05). Conclusions: this study agrees with the evidence that shows that low levels of total iron and beef consumption during pregnancy determine an increased risk of latent iron deficiency and lower levels of ferritin in newborns, and therefore, greater risk of long-term adverse effects on myelination and neurocognitive development.


Contexto: a nutrição durante a gravidez tem impacto sobre a saúde do recém-nascido, com efeitos no nível epigenético, determinando consequências neurológicas a longo prazo. As necessidades de ferro durante a gravidez são estimadas em 27 mg / dia. O ferro heme de melhor absorção e aquele encontrado na carne vacuna. A determinação da ferritina no sangue do cordão umbilical permite avaliar os depósitos de ferro atingidos na fase fetal. Seus níveis foram associados a efeitos de longo prazo no desenvolvimento das crianças. Objetivos: o objetivo deste estudo exploratório é determinar a relação entre o consumo de carne vermelha durante o terceiro trimestre de gestação e o nível de ferritina no cordão umbilical. Métodos: foi realizado um estudo observacional descritivo com dados coletados prospectivamente durante um ano no Departamento de Neonatologia do Centro Hospitalar Pereira Rossell (CHPR) em Montevidéu, Uruguai. Um total de 188 pacientes cumpriram os critérios de inclusão. O sangue do cordão umbilical foi coletado após clampeamento estrito do cordão após um minuto de vida da criança. A ferritina foi medida pelo método de quimioimunofluorescência. Aplicamos um inquérito nutricional materno (qualitativo-quantitativo) que mediu a frequência de consumo de alimentos com fonte de ferro e as quantidades aproximadas consumidas durante o último trimestre da gravidez. Esta pesquisa enfocou o consumo materno de carne bovina como principal fonte de ferro heme no Uruguai. A relação entre essas variáveis foi analisada. Resultados: a deficiência latente de ferro (ferritina no cordão umbilical <100 mg / ml) foi associada ao menor consumo de carne bovina durante a gestação. Valor de p de Fisher: 0,0133, OR: 3,71, IC 95% (1,25-11,05). Conclusões: este estudo concorda com as evidências que relacionam que os baixos níveis de ferro total e consumo de carne bovina durante o terceiro trimestre de gestação determinam um maior risco de déficit de ferro latente e ferritina mensurado no cordão umbilical. A redução dos níveis de ferritina no cordão umbilical está associada a um risco aumentado de efeitos adversos de longo prazo na mielinização e no desenvolvimento neurocognitivo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Hemoglobinas/análise , Nutrição Parenteral , Ferritinas/sangue , Sangue Fetal , Carne Vermelha , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Uruguai , Deficiência de Ferro/complicações , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Epidemiologia Descritiva
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20201677, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730742

RESUMO

The current study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the high physical capacity of rowing athletes may not reverse the influence of age on cardiac autonomic control decline estimated by heart rate variability (HRV). Forty-four male subjects divided in four groups: 11 young athletes (YA; 18 ±1 year), 11 young non-athletes (YNA; 20 ±1 year), 11 middle age athletes (MAA; 43 ±6 years) and 11 middle age non-athletes (MNA; 44 ±8 years) participated in the study. Heart rate (HR) was recorded beat-by-beat for 10 minutes in supine (SUP) and 10 min in orthostatic (ORT) positions. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain to obtain the spectral power in the high (HF) and low frequency (LF) bands, and the changes to ORT (%∆HRV) were calculated (ORT - SUP / SUP). During SUP, HF was lower in MNA and MA compared to YA and YNA, while LF was lower in MNA than YA. For %ΔHRV, %ΔHF was higher in YA than YNA, MA and MNA. The %ΔLF was not different among groups. In conclusion, aging seems to overcome the influence of physical fitness on neural regulation of the heart, as highlighted by the HRV response to active standing.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Frequência Cardíaca , Aptidão Física , Esportes Aquáticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Posição Ortostática , Decúbito Dorsal , Adulto Jovem
18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(6): 531, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734335

RESUMO

Raising sheep and goats in the gulf region is a large entrepreneurial business. This is, of course, derived from the big demands of lamb and goat meats for citizens and expatriates. There is a major population living in the rural desert areas whose main income steps from rising local sheep and goats. Despite large number of farmers into sheep production, the country still imports from foreign countries to meet augment local demand. Thus, improving local sheep production is a means to reduce the importation of sheep from foreign land. The low twinning rates in the main two indigenous breeds (i.e., Najdi and Noemi) in the region motivated the researchers to pursue an avenue for maximizing the neonatal outcomes is a contributing factor to low level of sheep proliferation in the region. Thus, pursuing an avenue for maximizing the neonatal outcome per female is a good strategy. Application of hormonal induction protocol support reproductive efficiency by improving viable twin birth in single-bearing ewes. By applying this method, several sheep raisers could retain their business more effectively.


Assuntos
Reprodução , Ovinos , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Ovinos/fisiologia
19.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(14): 1, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724540

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the extension of collateral vessels on the outcomes of eyes affected by central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional case series. Patients affected by CRVO and BRVO were progressively recruited, along with an age- and sex-matched control group of healthy subjects. Structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA; 4.5 × 4.5 mm and 9.0 × 9.0 mm acquisitions) were performed on all participants in order to assess the relationship between the presence of collateral vessels and final anatomical outcomes - central macular thickness (CMT), foveal avascular zone - and functional outcomes - best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Results: Fifty-six eyes affected by CRVO and 47 eyes affected by BRVO were included. Baseline LogMAR BCVA was 0.41 ± 0.33 LogMAR in CRVO, and 0.39 ± 0.25 LogMAR in BRVO (P < 0.01), improving to 0.20 ± 0.26 LogMAR in CRVO (P < 0.01), and 0.19 ± 0.22 LogMAR in BRVO (P < 0.01). Baseline CMT was 511 ± 214 µm in CRVO and 482 ± 178 µm in BRVO (P > 0.05), decreasing to 328 ± 105 µm (P < 0.01) and 321 ± 78 µm in CRVO and BRVO, respectively (P < 0.01). Collateral vessels were detected in 16 of 56 eyes (29%) in CRVO and in 47 of 47 eyes (100%) in BRVO. Their extension was correlated with worse anatomic and visual outcomes. Remarkably, no correlation was found with peripheral capillary nonperfusion and vessel density impairment. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that collateral vessel extension is associated with worse anatomic and functional outcomes in patients affected by CRVO and BRVO.


Assuntos
Circulação Colateral/fisiologia , Disco Óptico/irrigação sanguínea , Retina/patologia , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Vasos Retinianos/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Injeções Intravítreas , Edema Macular/diagnóstico , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Edema Macular/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ranibizumab/uso terapêutico , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/diagnóstico , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Microscopia com Lâmpada de Fenda , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Tonometria Ocular , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores
20.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(14): 6, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730791

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the biometric differences of anterior segment parameters between fellow eyes of acute primary angle closure (F-APAC) and chronic primary angle closure glaucoma (F-CPACG) to get information about differences between APAC and CPAC. Methods: Patients with F-APAC and F-CPACG without prior treatment were enrolled from glaucoma clinics. Parameters were measured on ultrasound biomicroscopy images, including pupil diameter, lens vault (LV), anterior chamber depth, anterior chamber width, iris area, iris thickness (IT 750 and 2000), angle-opening distance (AOD 500 and 750), trabecular-iris space area (TISA 500 and 750), trabecular iris angle (TIA 500 and 750), trabecular-ciliary angle, and ciliary process area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the most important parameters associated with F-APAC compared with F-CPACG. Results: Fifty-five patients with APAC and 55 patients with CPACG were examined. The anterior chamber depth, IT 750, AOD 750, trabecular iris angle 750, and trabecular-ciliary angle were smaller, and LV and ciliary process area were greater in F-APAC as compared with F-CPACG (P ≤ 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression showed that thinner IT 750, smaller AOD 750, and larger LV were significantly associated with F-APAC (P < 0.01). IT 750 (area under the curve, 0.703) performed relatively better than AOD 750 (area under the curve, 0.696) in distinguishing F-APAC from F-CPACG, with the best cutoff of 0.404 mm and 0.126 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Compared with F-CPACG, F-APAC had thinner peripheral iris, narrower anterior chamber angle, shallower anterior chamber depth, greater LV, larger and anteriorly positioned ciliary body. IT 750, AOD 750, and LV played important roles in distinguishing eyes predisposed to APAC or CPAC.


Assuntos
Segmento Anterior do Olho/patologia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/patologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Segmento Anterior do Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Crônica , Corpo Ciliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Ciliar/patologia , Feminino , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/diagnóstico por imagem , Gonioscopia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Iris/diagnóstico por imagem , Iris/patologia , Masculino , Microscopia Acústica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tonometria Ocular , Malha Trabecular/diagnóstico por imagem , Malha Trabecular/patologia
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