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1.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279546, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598920

RESUMO

Studying infant diet and feeding practices through stable isotope analysis provides direct insight into the life and health of vulnerable population groups in the past. Although the general diet in medieval and early modern Livonia has been reconstructed from written sources, little is known about childhood diet during this tumultuous period of Eastern European history. This study presents a comparative investigation of the staple non-adult diet in urban/rural communities during the 13th-17th centuries AD, with a special focus on feeding practices. We aim to reveal the impact of socio-economic circumstances on early childhood nutrition, which affects the physical development and overall survival of this susceptible population group. Bone collagen samples from 176 individuals between the fetal and the 7-15 age categories from four urban/rural South-Estonian cemeteries were cross-sectionally analyzed via EA-IRMS (Elemental Analysis with Isotope Ratio Mass Spectroscopy) for δ13C and δ15N. Results suggest that South-Estonian children had a staple terrestrial C3 diet integrated with animal proteins. Significant divergences were observed between urban and rural sites and slight variation occurred among rural subgroups, possibly resulting from a wider food choice available in towns, different consumption of C4 foods, and/or secular changes. This study provides the first data regarding infant feeding practices in medieval and early modern Livonia. These practices were similar among the different contexts, indicating comparable cultural traditions in child rearing. Breastfeeding was likely practiced for 1-2 years, with supplementary foods introduced around 1 year of age. The weaning process was probably concluded around the age of 3. The δ13C and δ15N values of older children are comparable to those of the adults from the same sites, indicating their diets became similar after weaning, when they started working and obtained a more mature social status.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , História Medieval , Estônia , Aleitamento Materno/história , Desmame , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Dieta , Alimentos Infantis
4.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 45(1): 1, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602640

RESUMO

Italian Life sciences in post-WWII faced important challenges: the reconstruction of a scientific panorama suffering heavily after two decades of Fascism and the damages of war. Modernization was not only a matter of recreating a favorable environment for research, by modernizing Italian biomedical institutions and connecting the Italian scientists with the new ideas coming from abroad. The introduction of new genetics required a new array of concepts and instruments, but also, the ability to connect to international networks and to become active members of a broader scientific community. Because of the several socio-cultural issues involved (eugenics, racism, religion, politics), human genetics is a good case study in order to analyze how Italian life sciences managed the transition towards a new research system, and the influences Italian human geneticists received. The paper focuses primarily on the development of the early career of Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, probably the most prominent scientist in post-WWII human genetics in Italy, and his friend and colleague Ruggero Ceppellini. In following their path, a healthy mix of local traditions and international stimuli emerges, allowing for the establishment-within and beyond national borders-of the discipline.


Assuntos
Pesquisa em Genética , Genética Humana , Humanos , História do Século XX , Genética Humana/história , Itália , II Guerra Mundial , Pesquisa em Genética/história , Mudança Social/história
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(4): e2209478119, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649404

RESUMO

Agriculture-specifically an intensification of the production of readily stored food and its distribution-has supported an increase in the global human population throughout the Holocene. Today, with greatly accelerated of growth during recent centuries, we have reached about 8 billion people. Human skeletal and archaeobotanical remains clarify what occurred over several millennia of profound societal and population change in small-scale societies once distributed across the North American midcontinent. Stepwise, not gradual, changes in the move toward an agriculturally based life, as indicated by plant remains, left a demographic signal reflecting age-independent ([Formula: see text]) mortality as estimated from skeletons. Designated the age-independent component of the Siler model, it is tracked through the juvenility index (JI), which is increasingly being used in studies of archaeological skeletons. Usually interpreted as a fertility indicator, the JI is more responsive to age-independent mortality in societies that dominated most of human existence. In the midcontinent, the JI increased as people transitioned to a more intensive form of food production that prominently featured maize. Several centuries later, the JI declined, along with a reversion to a somewhat more diverse diet and a reduction in overall population size. Changes in age-independent mortality coincided with previously recognized increases in intergroup conflict, group movement, and pathogen exposure. Similar rises and falls in JI values have been reported for other parts of the world during the emergence of agricultural systems.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fertilidade , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , América do Norte , Agricultura/história , Densidade Demográfica , Crescimento Demográfico , Países em Desenvolvimento
10.
J Helminthol ; 97: e2, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621869

RESUMO

The Journal of Helminthology (JHL) was first published in 1923 and was originally created as a house journal of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The JHL was devised by its first Editor, Robert Leiper, to allow for rapid publication of results from the Department of Helminthology and its offshoot the Institute of Agricultural Parasitology. From this initial narrow focus the JHL has subsequently become not only internationally recognized but also retained its original emphasis on morphological, taxonomic and life cycle studies while embracing the emergence of new fields and technological advancements. The present review covers the historical development of the JHL over the last century from 1923 to 2023.


Assuntos
Parasitologia , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Medicina Tropical , Animais , Parasitologia/história , Instituições Acadêmicas , Medicina Tropical/história , Editoração
11.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 61, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624123

RESUMO

Between the sixteenth and nineteenth century, British agriculture underwent a 'revolutionary' transformation. Yet despite over a century of research and the recognised centrality of agricultural developments to industrialisation and population growth, the character or chronology of any 'revolution' during this period remains contentious. Enquiry has been hampered by the fragmented and locally specific nature of historic accounts and the broad dating of early-modern zooarchaeological assemblages. To address this, we conducted stable isotope analysis on 658 legal documents written on sheepskin parchment; a unique biological resource that records the day, month and year of use (AD 1499 to 1969). We find these provide a high temporal resolution analysis of changing agricultural practices and episodes of disease. Most significantly, they suggest that if an 'Agricultural Revolution' occurred in livestock management, it did so from the mid-nineteenth century, in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Gado , Animais , Agricultura/história , Crescimento Demográfico
12.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 72(1): 2-13, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36628589

RESUMO

The Child Oriented FamilyTherapy (COF) is a new therapeutic method aiming towards infants in the playing age group and their families. COF is - originally invented in Scandinavia - spreading over Germany since the beginning of the 21st century. The prevalence for psychiatric disorders in toddlers, preschoolers and young infants in Germany lies between 14 and 22 %. Treatment in an outpatients' clinic with partial hospitalization is indicated whenever the psychosocial resources are too low or the symptoms are too severe to be treated in an ambulant environment. The outpatients' department for pediatric psychiatry in Gelsenkirchen is the first institution in its field to use COF as one module to treat their young patients and their families. Due to the setting adjustments of the original method are necessary, for example a conceptualization of disease, the use of COF as a diagnostic method and the embedding of COF in an underlying treatment plan.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria Infantil , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Psicoterapia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Hospital Dia , Alemanha , Psiquiatria Infantil/história
13.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(suppl 1): 47-59, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629670

RESUMO

During the first half of the twentieth century, Western psychiatry was quickly absorbed in Japan, particularly the versions from Germany and Austria. By 1940, over 130 psychiatric hospitals were caring for approximately thirty thousand patients in cities, while in rural areas about sixty thousand people still depended on family members for care. Japan's empire expanded during this same period, and many immigrants came to the country. Growth in immigration from Korea was particularly important. Korean immigrants encountered Japanese psychiatric hospitals during the second quarter of the twentieth century, and this paper examines the complex nature of their hospital stays.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Psiquiatria , Humanos , História do Século XX , Tóquio , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Japão , Psiquiatria/história , República da Coreia
14.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(suppl 1): 61-78, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629671

RESUMO

William Alanson White's views on the function and conceptualization of psychoanalysis shaped the practice of the analytic method in the hospital setting in the United States. Here I explore White's original work and maintain that his understanding of transference, the unconscious, symbolism, language, and defense mechanisms were rooted in both traditional intrapsychic and individualistically oriented conceptions and influenced by his orientation toward social psychiatry. In line with Progressive Era ideals, White considered the new science of psychoanalysis important for healing both the individual as well as society; this mutual influence helped shape the evolution of psychoanalytic principles and informed the treatment of patients undergoing psychoanalysis at St. Elizabeths Hospital.


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Humanos , Psicanálise/história , Hospitais
15.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(suppl 1): 109-121, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629674

RESUMO

The paper attempts to illustrate how refusing an interpretation can lead to very different consequences within Freudian, Jungian, and other psychotherapeutic models. In some cases, a "no" may refute the model of reference, while in others it may have less radical meanings. Refusing an interpretation (if it is consistent with the model and the patient's history) within a Freudian environment can also challenge the validity of the model. From a Jungian perspective, a refusal may simply lead the therapist to change the model of reference, since no single model is considered universally valid. Other examples are also provided from the psychoanalytic, cognitive-behavior, and family therapy research traditions.


Assuntos
Teoria Junguiana , Psicanálise , Humanos , Teoria Freudiana/história , Teoria Junguiana/história , Psicanálise/história
16.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(suppl 1): 79-92, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629672

RESUMO

As it spread across Italy, psychoanalysis captured the interest of Italian psychologists, namely Vittorio Benussi (1878-1927) and Cesare Musatti (1897-1989). Benussi, who was trained as an experimental psychologist according to the Gegenstandstheorie School of Graz in 1919, came to Italy and became a full professor of experimental psychology in Padua. He undertook a program of study called "psychological reality" that comprised hypnosuggestion and psychoanalysis. This article shows that Benussi's hypnosuggestion experiments and Musatti's theorization of the reality of fantasy were attempts to upgrade the study of psychological phenomena to the level of physical phenomena in a theoretical context in which psychoanalysis was considered part of a general psychology.


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Psicanálise/história , Itália , Instituições Acadêmicas , Laboratórios , Psicologia/história
17.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(suppl 1): 93-108, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629673

RESUMO

This article analyzes how psychopharmacology transformed the relationship between art and psychiatry. It outlines a novel genealogy of art therapy, repositioning its origins in the context of evolving clinical practices and discourses on mind-altering drugs. Evaluating the use of psychotropic drugs in connection with psychopathology of art in the first half of the twentieth century, the article then focuses on two post-Second World War experiments involving psilocybin conducted by psychiatrist Alfred Bader and pharmacologist Roland Fischer. Illustrating how consciousness was foregrounded in discussions about mental health and illness, the examples showcase how psychotherapists increasingly sought to articulate art brut and modernist aesthetics in a neurobiological fashion to define madness as a social disease.


Assuntos
Arteterapia , Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Humanos , História do Século XX , Arteterapia/história , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/história , Saúde Mental , Psiquiatria/história
18.
JAMA ; 329(3): 207-208, 2023 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36648461

RESUMO

This viewpoint reviews the anatomical body procurement used in Nazi Germany, notes the continued use of those images, and calls for disclosure of the biographical history of the people whose bodies and tissues are now studied.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Socialismo Nacional , Anatomia/história , Anatomia/tendências , Dissecação/história , Dissecação/tendências , Alemanha , História do Século XX
19.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(suppl 1): 123-142, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629675

RESUMO

This essay situates the history of "the relationship" as a therapeutic technology within the broader context of changing social relations in the twentieth-century United States. More specifically, it outlines the emergence and subsequent diffusion of practices that aim to cultivate a social bond between therapist and patient that may serve as a psychotherapeutic tool. The article highlights the transformations of this technology as its institutional and epistemic foundations became challenged. Initially conceived as an "artificial" social relation designed to help with "personal adjustment," the therapeutic relationship was soon also deployed by non-experts and became a model for more healthful social relations. More recently, it has been fashioned as collaborative and combined with a range of other methods.


Assuntos
Psicoterapia , Tecnologia , Humanos , Tecnologia/história , Estados Unidos
20.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 102(2): 166-168, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634239

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In the April 1930 issue of the journal, Founding Editor-in-Chief William Rush Dunton, Jr, MD, initiated a new series: Museum Meanderings. Eleven installments of the series ran intermittently until December 1931. Here, a 12th installment, an e-museum "tour" of paintings by the great American artist Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000) relevant to rehabilitation medicine, is offered. In particular, his Occupational Therapy No. 1 (1949) is a most thought-provoking and inspiring masterpiece. The painting depicts five women performing various sewing activities with space in the painting brilliantly divided. The painting has been discussed by art critics, but it has not been appreciated that all the women appear actually to be the same person! Thus, the painting shows the stages or cycle of rehabilitation. Echoing Rush Dunton's thoughts in 1930, we invite further contributions to the series.


Assuntos
Medicina , Terapia Ocupacional , Pinturas , Humanos , Feminino , Museus , Pinturas/história
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