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1.
Urol Clin North Am ; 49(1): 23-38, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776052

RESUMO

Among the various robotic devices that exist for urologic surgery, the most common are synergistic telemanipulator systems. Several have achieved clinical feasibility and have been licensed for use in humans: the standard da Vinci, Avatera, Hinotori, Revo-i, Senhance, Versius, and Surgenius. Handheld and hands-on synergistic systems are also clinically relevant for use in urologic surgeries, including minimally invasive and endoscopic approaches. Future trends of robotic innovation include an exploration of more robust haptic systems that offer kinesthetic and tactile feedback; miniaturization and microrobotics; enhanced visual feedback with greater magnification and higher fidelity detail; and autonomous robots.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/instrumentação , Robótica/história , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/instrumentação , Retroalimentação , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/história , Terminologia como Assunto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/história , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/métodos
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 40, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795821

RESUMO

The post-independence era in Nigeria ushered in an array of fundamental structuring and development in all sectors of the Nigerian economy including medical education and training. This era saw the establishment of medical schools across the country which mirrored the medical curriculum of British universities. This paper dives into the general structure of undergraduate medical education in Nigeria, its historical background and how it compares with neighboring and distant countries. Since the undergraduate medical education curriculum has not seen significant modifications since conception, this paper presents the challenges of the existent structure to include biased admission process, emphasis on irrelevant pre-medical courses, paucity of of technologically-advanced teaching and learning aids, increased workloads of lecturers amongst others. Importantly, solutions and recommendations are prescribed in this paper, which if considered, may improve undergraduate medical training in Nigeria, and ultimately improve the standard of healthcare service provision in the country.


Assuntos
Currículo/normas , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Faculdades de Medicina/normas , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Nigéria , Faculdades de Medicina/história
4.
FEBS J ; 288(22): 6310-6314, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780116

RESUMO

In this special interview series, we profile members of The FEBS Journal editorial board to highlight their research focus, perspectives on the journal and future directions in their field. Eli Arama is an Associate Professor at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel. He has served as an editorial board member of The FEBS Journal since 2018.


Assuntos
Caspases/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Animais , Caspases/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
5.
Zootaxa ; 5051(1): 7-10, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810909

RESUMO

John Wells, who died at age 83 on 12 November 2018, was a research scientist, teacher, Professor of Zoology, Dean of Science at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, family man and community leader. He was a man of his time, surviving World War II, progressing to a career that stretched around the world.


Assuntos
Zoologia , Animais , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Masculino , Zoologia/história
12.
Psychiatr Hung ; 36(3): 417-424, 2021.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738533

RESUMO

David Lynch with his work 'Eraserhead' dove deep into the existential regions of the human psyche and brought back the product which he states to be 'his most spiritual film'. Three main factors (the psychobiography, the theories of psychoanalysis and the works of Lipot Szondi) helped me establish the theoretical fundament for the exploration of the trauma-induced state of coercion through the symbolism of the film. The established interrelations will give us a new perspective on Lynch's works and biography, and may give us a chance to take a closer look at the dynamics of the state coercion.


Assuntos
Coerção , Psicanálise , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Psicanálise/história , Psicoterapia
13.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(11)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738888

RESUMO

During the 1854 cholera outbreak in Florence, Italy, Filippo Pacini documented that the cause of the infection was a bacterium. This conclusion was also independently reached by John Snow during the 1854 cholera outbreak in London. By using an epidemiological method, Snow found that the infection spread through a polluted water network. Snow identified a water pump as the source of the disease. After removing the infected handle of this pump, the cases of cholera rapidly began to decrease. A microscopic examination of the water showed organic impurities but no bacteria. This discovery was ignored during Snow's lifetime. In contrast, through microscopy during the autopsies of cholera victims, Pacini observed that the disruption of their intestinal mucosa was closely associated with millions of the bacteria that he called Vibrio cholerae. Via histological techniques, Pacini detected that intestinal mucosa reabsorption dysfunction was the cause of debilitating diarrhoea, vomiting, severe dehydration and death. Nevertheless, his discovery of Vibrio cholerae was ignored during Pacini's lifetime. A survey of Pacini's autographic manuscripts suggests that Pacini and Snow may have shared mutual knowledge within their respective seminal papers. This survey also facilitates, for the first time, the creation of maps that illustrate the worldwide distribution of Pacini's cholera papers from 1854 to 1881. The consistent neglect of Pacini's discovery remains a true enigma.


Assuntos
Cólera , Surtos de Doenças/história , Vibrio cholerae/isolamento & purificação , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/história , Cólera/microbiologia , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Londres/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 603810, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744569

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the long-term trends of breast cancer incidence in Shanghai, Hong Kong, and Los Angeles (LA). Methods: Data were obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5plus) database. The average annual percent change (AAPC) was conducted by joinpoint regression analysis, and the age, period and cohort effects were estimated by age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. Results: The age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) in LA were higher than Shanghai and Hong Kong. During 1988-2012, the ASIRs significantly decreased in white women in LA (AAPC = -0.6%, 95% CI: -0.9% to -0.4%) while increased in Shanghai (2.5%: 2.1%-2.9%) and Hong Kong (2.2%: 2.0%-2.5%). The APC analysis revealed significantly increased effects of age and period, and decreased effect of birth cohort. Conclusion: Although age and cohort effects were relatively strong, the period effect may be the key factor affecting trends of incidence, which may be caused by increasing exposures to carcinogens and risk factors. Therefore, more effective measures should be carried out promptly to protect high-risk populations such as elder women, to avoid exposures to risk factors of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/história , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
Lancet ; 398(10313): 1837-1850, 2021 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774146

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes is on the rise globally; however, the burden of mortality remains disproportionate in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). As 2021 marks 100 years since the discovery of insulin, we revisit progress, global burden of type 1 diabetes trends, and understanding of the pathogenesis and management practices related to the disease. Despite much progress, inequities in access and availability of insulin formulations persist and are reflected in differences in survival and morbidity patterns related to the disease. Some of these inequities have also been exacerbated by health-system challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a clear opportunity to improve access to insulin and related essential technologies for improved management of type 1 diabetes in LMICs, especially as a part of universal health coverage. These improvements will require concerted action and investments in human resources, community engagement, and education for the timely diagnosis and management of type 1 diabetes, as well as adequate health-care financing. Further research in LMICs, especially those in Africa, is needed to improve our understanding of the burden, risk factors, and implementation strategies for managing type 1 diabetes.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Carga Global da Doença/tendências , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Gerenciamento Clínico , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Hipoglicemiantes/história , Insulina/economia , Insulina/história , Expectativa de Vida , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde
16.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257368, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613997

RESUMO

Cremation 168 from the second half of the 8th century BCE (Pithekoussai's necropolis, Ischia Island, Italy), better known as the Tomb of Nestor's Cup, is widely considered as one of the most intriguing discoveries in the Mediterranean Pre-Classic archaeology. A drinking cup, from which the Tomb's name derives, bears one of the earliest surviving examples of written Greek, representing the oldest Homeric poetry ever recovered. According to previous osteological analyses, the Cup is associated with the cremated remains of a juvenile, aged approximately 10-14 years at death. Since then, a vast body of literature has attempted to explain the unique association between the exceptionality of the grave good complex, the symposiac and erotic evocation of the Nestor's Cup inscription with the young age of the individual buried with it. This paper reconsiders previous assessments of the remains by combining gross morphology with qualitative histology and histomorphometric analyses of the burnt bone fragments. This work reveals the commingled nature of the bone assemblage, identifying for the first time, more than one human individual mixed with faunal remains. These outcomes dramatically change previous reconstructions of the cremation deposit, rewriting the answer to the question: who was buried with Nestor's Cup?.


Assuntos
Cremação/história , Adolescente , Arqueologia/história , Restos Mortais/anatomia & histologia , Restos Mortais/ultraestrutura , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Osso e Ossos/ultraestrutura , Criança , História Antiga , Humanos , Itália
17.
Pediatrics ; 148(5)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706902

RESUMO

American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) land rights, sovereignty conflicts, and health outcomes have been significantly influenced by settler colonialism. This principle has driven the numerous relocations and forced assimilation of AI/AN children as well as the claiming of AI/AN lands across the United States. As tribes across the country begin to reclaim these lands and others continue to struggle for sovereignty, it is imperative to recognize that land rights are a determinant of health in AI/AN children. Aside from the demonstrated biological risks of environmental health injustices including exposure to air pollution, heavy metals, and lack of running water, AI/AN children must also face the challenges of historical trauma, the Missing and Murdered Indigenous Peoples crisis, and health care inequity based on land allocation. Although there is an undeniable relationship between land rights and the health of AI/AN children, there is a need for extensive research into the impacts of land rights and recognition of sovereignty on the health of AI/AN children. In this article we aim to summarize existing evidence describing the impact of these factors on the health of AI/AN children and provide strateg ies that can help pediatricians care and advocate for this population.


Assuntos
Nativos do Alasca , Nativos Estadunidenses , Colonialismo , Trauma Histórico , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Aculturação , Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Nativos do Alasca/psicologia , Nativos Estadunidenses/psicologia , Criança , Mudança Climática , Saúde Ambiental , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Trauma Histórico/história , Trauma Histórico/psicologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Homicídio/psicologia , Tráfico de Pessoas/psicologia , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Justiça Social
20.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685505

RESUMO

The objective of this review is to describe the evolution of lung tissue-derived diploid progenitor cell applications, ranging from historical biotechnological substrate functions for vaccine production and testing to current investigations around potential therapeutic use in respiratory tract regenerative medicine. Such cell types (e.g., MRC-5 or WI-38 sources) were extensively studied since the 1960s and have been continuously used over five decades as safe and sustainable industrial vaccine substrates. Recent research and development efforts around diploid progenitor lung cells (e.g., FE002-Lu or Walvax-2 sources) consist in qualification for potential use as optimal and renewed vaccine production substrates and, alternatively, for potential therapeutic applications in respiratory tract regenerative medicine. Potentially effective, safe, and sustainable cell therapy approaches for the management of inflammatory lung diseases or affections and related symptoms (e.g., COVID-19 patients and burn patient severe inhalation syndrome) using local homologous allogeneic cell-based or cell-derived product administrations are considered. Overall, lung tissue-derived progenitor cells isolated and produced under good manufacturing practices (GMP) may be used with high versatility. They can either act as key industrial platforms optimally conforming to specific pharmacopoeial requirements or as active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) for potentially effective promotion of lung tissue repair or regeneration.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Diploide , Pulmão/citologia , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Animais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Linhagem Celular , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Regeneração , Medicina Regenerativa/história , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Células-Tronco/citologia , Transplante Homólogo
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