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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251970, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345559

RESUMO

Abstract In order to better understand the ossification processes in anurans our study was carried out on tadpoles and adults of Lithobates catesbeianus. In this sense, we characterized the kinetic properties of alkaline phosphatase with p-nitrophenylphosphatase (pNPP) and pyrophosphate (PPi) and evaluated the activities of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and acid phosphatase. The enzyme extracts were obtained from tadpoles and adult femurs, which were divided into epiphysis and diaphysis. After homogenization, the samples were submitted to differential centrifugation to obtain cell membranes and, further, to phospholipase C (PIPLC) treatment, to remove membrane-bound proteins anchored by phosphatidylinositol. The average of specific activity for pNPP hydrolysis (at pH 10.5) by alkaline phosphatase released by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC) from Bacillus cereus among different bone regions at different animal ages was 1,142.57 U.mg-1, while for PPi hydrolysis (at pH 8.0), it was 1,433.82 U.mg-1. Among the compounds tested for enzymatic activity, the one that influenced the most was EDTA, with approximately 67% of inhibition for pNPPase activity and 77% for PPase activity. In the case of kinetic parameters, the enzyme showed a "Michaelian" behavior for pNPP and PPi hydrolysis. The Km value was around 0.6mM for pNPPase activity and ranged from 0.01 to 0.11mM for PPase activity, indicating that the enzyme has a higher affinity for this substrate. The study of pNPP and PPi hydrolysis by the enzyme revealed that the optimum pH of actuation for pNPP was 10.5, while for PPi, which is considered the true substrate of alkaline phosphatase, was 8.0, close to the physiological value. The results show that regardless of the ossification type that occurs, the same enzyme or isoenzymes act on the different bone regions and different life stages of anurans. The similarity of the results of studies with other vertebrates shows that anurans can be considered excellent animal models for the study of biological calcification.


Resumo Para melhor compreender o processo de ossificação em anuros, nosso estudo foi conduzido em girinos e adultos de Lithobates catesbeianus. Nesse sentido, as propriedades cinéticas da fosfatase alcalina com p-nitrofenilfosfato (pNPP) e pirofosfato (PPi) foram caracterizadas, e as atividades enzimáticas das fosfatases ácida e ácida tartarato resistente foram avaliadas. Os extratos enzimáticos foram obtidos de fêmur de girinos e adultos, divididos em epífise e diáfise. Após a homogeneização as amostras foram submetidas à centrifugação diferencial para obter membrana celular e, em seguida, ao tratamento com fosfolipase C (PIPLC), para remover as proteínas de membrana ancoradas por fosfatidilinositol. A média da atividade específica da fosfatase alcalina, liberada pela PIPLC de Bacillus cereus, para a hidrólise de pNPP (pH 10,5) nas diferentes regiões do fêmur e idades dos animais foi de 1.142,57 U.mg-1, enquanto para a hidrólise do PPi (pH 8,0) foi de 1.433,82 U.mg-1. Entre os compostos testados para a atividade enzimática, o de maior influência foi o EDTA, inibindo aproximadamente 67% e 77% das atividades de pNPPase e PPase, respectivamente. Quanto aos parâmetros cinéticos, a enzima apresentou comportamento Michaeliano para a hidrólise dos dois substratos. O valor de Km foi de 0,6 mM para a atividade de pNPPase e variou de 0,01 a 0,11 para a atividade de PPase, indicando uma maior afinidade por esse substrato. O estudo da hidrólise de pNPP e PPi revelou que o pH ótimo aparente de atuação foi de 10,5 para o pNPP e 8,0 para o PPi, próximo ao fisiológico, sendo que esse é considerado o substrato natural da fosfatase alcalina. Os resultados demonstram que, apesar do tipo de ossificação que ocorre, a mesma enzima ou isoenzimas, atuam nos diferentes locais do osso e estágios de vida dos anuros. A similaridade dos estudos com os realizados com outros vertebrados apontam que os anuros podem ser considerados excelentes modelos animais para o estudo da calcificação biológica.


Assuntos
Animais , Osteogênese , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Rana catesbeiana , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Cinética
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253696, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355862

RESUMO

Abstract Transplanting time and genotype contribute to improving crop yield and quality of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). A field experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of foliar applied of triacontanol (TRIA) and eggplant genotypes 25919, Nirala, 28389 and Pak-10927,transplanted on 1 March,15 March, and 1 April on exposure to high air temperature conditions. The experiment was performed according to Randomized Complete Block Design and the data was analyzed by using Tuckey,s test . The TRIA was applied at 10µM at flowering stage; distilled water was used as the control. Rate of photosynthesis and transpiration, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and effects on antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) were evaluated. The 10µM TRIA increased photosynthesis rate and water use efficiency and yield was improved in all genotypes transplanted at the different dates. Foliar application of 10µM TRIA increased antioxidative enzyme activities (SOD, POD & CAT) and improved physiological as well as biochemical attributes of eggplant genotypes exposed to high heat conditions. Highest activity of dismutase enzyme 5.41mg/1g FW was recorded in Nirala genotype in second transplantation. Whereas, lowest was noted in PAK-10927 (2.30mg/g FW). Maximum fruit yield was found in accession 25919 (1.725kg per plant) at 1st transplantation with Triacontanol, whereas accession PAK-10927 gave the lowest yield (0.285 kg per plant) at control treatment on 3rd transplantation. Genotype, transplanting date and application of TRIA improved growth, yield and quality attributes under of heat stress in eggplant.


Resumo O tempo de transplante e o genótipo contribuem para melhorar a produtividade e a qualidade da cultura da berinjela (Solanum melongena L.). Um experimento de campo foi conduzido para investigar o impacto da aplicação foliar de triacontanol (TRIA) e genótipos de berinjela 25919, Nirala, 28389 e Pak-10927, transplantados em 1 de março, 15 de março e 1 de abril de exposição a condições de alta temperatura do ar. O experimento foi realizado de acordo com o Randomized Complete Block Design e os dados foram analisados pelo teste de Tuckey. O TRIA foi aplicado a 10 µM na fase de floração; água destilada foi utilizada como controle. Taxa de fotossíntese e transpiração, condutância estomática, eficiência do uso da água e efeitos sobre as enzimas antioxidantes (superóxido dismutase, catalase e peroxidase) foram avaliados. O TRIA 10 µM aumentou a taxa de fotossíntese e a eficiência do uso da água e o rendimento foi melhorado em todos os genótipos transplantados nas diferentes datas. A aplicação foliar de TRIA 10µM aumentou as atividades das enzimas antioxidantes (SOD, POD e CAT) e melhorou os atributos fisiológicos e bioquímicos de genótipos de berinjela expostos a condições de alto calor. A atividade mais elevada da enzima dismutase 5,41mg / 1g FW foi registrada no genótipo Nirala no segundo transplante. Considerando que o mais baixo foi observado em PAK-10927 (2,30 mg / g FW). A produtividade máxima de frutos foi encontrada no acesso 25919 (1,725 ​​kg por planta) no 1º transplante com Triacontanol, enquanto o acesso PAK-10927 deu a menor produção (0,285 kg por planta) no tratamento de controle no 3º transplante. Genótipo, data de transplante e aplicação de TRIA, melhoramento do crescimento, rendimento e atributos de qualidade sob estresse térmico em berinjela.


Assuntos
Solanum melongena/genética , Solanum melongena/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Álcoois Graxos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257739, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355883

RESUMO

Abstract Under salt stress conditions, plant growth is reduced due to osmotic, nutritional and oxidative imbalance. However, salicylic acid acts in the mitigation of this abiotic stress by promoting an increase in growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, synthesis of osmoregulators and antioxidant enzymes. In this context, the objective was to evaluate the effect of salicylic acid doses on the growth and physiological changes of eggplant seedlings under salt stress. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, where the treatments were distributed in randomized blocks using a central composite matrix Box with five levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (CEw) (0.50; 1.08; 2.50; 3.92 and 4.50 dS m-1), associated with five doses of salicylic acid (SA) (0.00; 0.22; 0.75; 1.28 and 1.50 mM), with four repetitions and each plot composed of three plants. At 40 days after sowing, plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, electrolyte leakage, relative water content, and total dry mass were determined. ECw and SA application influenced the growth and physiological changes of eggplant seedlings. Increasing the ECw reduced growth in the absence of SA. Membrane damage with the use of SA remained stable up to 3.9 dS m-1 of ECw. The relative water content independent of the CEw increased with 1.0 mM of SA. The use of SA at the concentration of 1.0 mM mitigated the deleterious effect of salinity on seedling growth up to 2.50 dS m-1 of ECw.


Resumo Em condições de estresse salino, o crescimento das plantas é reduzido, em virtude, do desequilíbrio osmótico, nutricional e oxidativo. Contudo, o ácido salicílico atua na mitigação desse estresse abiótico por promover incremento no crescimento, fotossíntese, metabolismo do nitrogênio, síntese de osmorreguladores e enzimas antioxidantes. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de doses de ácido salicílico sobre o crescimento e alterações fisiológicas de mudas de berinjela sob estresse salino. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, onde os tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso utilizando uma matriz composta central Box com cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa) (0,50; 1,08; 2,50; 3,92 e 4,50 dS m-1), associada a cinco doses de ácido salicílico (AS) (0,00; 0,22; 0,75; 1,28 e 1,50 mM), com quatro repetições e cada parcela composta por três plantas. Aos 40 dias após a semeadura, foram determinados a altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, área foliar, vazamento de eletrólito, teor relativo de água e massa seca total. A CEa e a aplicação de AS influenciaram no crescimento e nas alterações fisiológicas das mudas de berinjela. O aumento da CEa reduziu o crescimento na ausência de AS. O dano de membrana com o uso de AS manteve-se estável até 3,9 dS m-1 de CEa. O conteúdo relativo de água independentemente da CEa aumentou com 1 mM de SA. O uso de AS na concentração de 1 mM mitigou o efeito deletério da salinidade no crescimento das mudas até 2,50 dS m-1 de CEa.


Assuntos
Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Solanum melongena/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Estresse Fisiológico , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal , Antioxidantes/metabolismo
4.
J Biomech Eng ; 145(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838328

RESUMO

Vesicle exocytosis is a promising pathway for brain drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier to treat neurodegenerative diseases. In vesicle exocytosis, the membrane fusion process is initiated by the calcium sensor protein named synaptotagmin-like protein4-a (Slp4-a). Understanding conformational changes of Slp4-a during the prefusion stage of exocytosis will help to develop vesicle-based drug delivery to the brain. In this work, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a hybrid force field coupling united-atom protein model with MARTINI coarse-grained (CG) solvent to capture the conformational changes of Slp4-a during the prefusion stage. These hybrid coarse-grained simulations are more efficient than all-atom MD simulations and can capture protein interactions and conformational changes. Our simulation results show that the calcium ions play critical roles during the prefusion stage. Only one calcium ion can remain in each calcium-binding pocket of Slp4-a C2 domains. The C2B domain of calcium-unbound Slp4-a remains parallel to the endothelial membrane, while the C2B domain of calcium-bound Slp4-a rotates perpendicular to the endothelial membrane to approach the vesicular membrane. For the calcium-bound case, three Slp4-a proteins can effectively bend lipid membranes at the prefusion stage, which could later trigger lipid stalk between membranes. This work provides a better understanding how C2 domains of Slp4-a operate during vesicle exocytosis from an endothelial cell.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica , Cálcio , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Exocitose , Lipídeos , Fusão de Membrana
5.
J Biomech Eng ; 145(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838329

RESUMO

Hemodynamic factors have long been associated with clinical outcomes in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Computational studies of cerebral aneurysm hemodynamics have provided valuable estimates of the mechanical environment experienced by the endothelium in both the parent vessel and aneurysmal dome walls and have correlated them with disease state. These computational-clinical studies have recently been correlated with the response of endothelial cells (EC) using either idealized or patient-specific models. Here, we present a robust workflow for generating anatomic-scale aneurysm models, establishing luminal cultures of ECs at physiological relevant flow profiles, and comparing EC responses to curvature mediated flow. We show that flow patterns induced by parent vessel curvature produce changes in wall shear stress (WSS) and wall shear stress gradients (WSSG) that are correlated with differences in cell morphology and cellular protein localization. Cells in higher WSS regions align better with the flow and display strong Notch1-extracellular domain (ECD) polarization, while, under low WSS, differences in WSSG due to curvature change were associated with less alignment and attenuation of Notch1-ECD polarization in ECs of the corresponding regions. These proof-of-concept results highlight the use of engineered cellularized aneurysm models for connecting computational fluid dynamics to the underlying endothelial biology that mediates disease.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Intracraniano , Células Endoteliais , Endotélio/metabolismo , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Estresse Mecânico
6.
Dis Model Mech ; 16(5)2023 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35481478

RESUMO

Modifier genes contribute significantly to our understanding of pathophysiology in human diseases; however, effective approaches to identify modifier genes are still lacking. Here, we aim to develop a rapid F0-based genetic assay in adult zebrafish using the bag3 gene knockout (bag3e2/e2) cardiomyopathy model as a paradigm. First, by utilizing a classic genetic breeding approach, we identified dnajb6b as a deleterious modifier gene for bag3 cardiomyopathy. Next, we established an F0-based genetic assay in adult zebrafish through injection of predicted microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ)-inducing single guide RNA/Cas9 protein complex. We showed that effective gene knockdown is maintained in F0 adult fish, enabling recapitulation of both salutary modifying effects of the mtor haploinsufficiency and deleterious modifying effects of the dnajb6b gene on bag3 cardiomyopathy. We finally deployed the F0-based genetic assay to screen differentially expressed genes in the bag3 cardiomyopathy model. As a result, myh9b was identified as a novel modifier gene for bag3 cardiomyopathy. Together, these data prove the feasibility of an F0 adult zebrafish-based genetic assay that can be effectively used to discover modifier genes for inherited cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Peixe-Zebra , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Genes Modificadores , RNA Guia , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
7.
Med Gas Res ; 13(1): 33-38, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946221

RESUMO

In a previous study, in silico screening of the binding of almost all proteins in the Protein Data Bank to each of the five noble gases xenon, krypton, argon, neon, and helium was reported. This massive and rich data set requires analysis to identify the gas-protein interactions that have the best binding strengths, those where the binding of the noble gas occurs at a site that can modulate the function of the protein, and where this modulation might generate clinically relevant effects. Here, we report a preliminary analysis of this data set using a rational, heuristic score based on binding strength and location. We report a partial prioritized list of xenon protein targets and describe how these data can be analyzed, using arginase and carbonic anhydrase as examples. Our aim is to make the scientific community aware of this massive, rich data set and how it can be analyzed to accelerate future discoveries of xenon-induced biological activity and, ultimately, the development of new "atomic" drugs.


Assuntos
Proteoma , Xenônio , Criptônio/química , Criptônio/farmacologia , Neônio/farmacologia , Gases Nobres/química , Gases Nobres/metabolismo , Xenônio/química , Xenônio/farmacologia
8.
Food Chem ; 398: 133801, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961168

RESUMO

Effects of pectin, inulin, and their combination on the production of microbiota-derived indoles and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from different colon segments were investigated in a batch system inoculated with microbiota from proximal colon (PC) and distal colon (DC) compartments of the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem. Bacteria from DC compartment had a higher abundance of Firmicutes and a stronger capacity to produce indoles and SCFAs than bacteria from PC compartment. Fiber supplementation significantly increased the production of SCFAs, indole-3-propionic acid, and indole-3-lactic acid, but decreased the production of oxindole, tryptamine, and serotonin. Pectin specifically promoted the production of indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-aldehyde. Interestingly, supplementation of pectin or inulin increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes whereas supplementation of a mixture of two fibers decreased it. Overall, these results suggest that fiber supplementation and colon segment affect the composition of gut microbiota and the microbial catabolism of tryptophan.


Assuntos
Inulina , Microbiota , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Humanos , Indóis/metabolismo , Inulina/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo
9.
Food Chem ; 398: 133832, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961170

RESUMO

The thermal-induced interaction between ß-conglycinin (7S) and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) on the bioaccessibility and antioxidant capacity of C3G was investigated. High ratio of 7S to C3G (1:100) led to a more ordered secondary structure of 7S. Thermal treatment promoted the formation of 7S-C3G complexes via hydrophobic and hydrogen bonds but did not induce the formation of 7S-C3G covalent products. Thermal treatment at 65 °C and 121 °C enhanced the binding affinity of 7S-C3G complexes by 46.19 % and 1203 % compared with 25 °C. The 7S-C3G interaction decreased C3G bioaccessibility by 4.37 %, 8.74 %, and 46.37 % at 25 °C, 65 °C, and 121 °C. Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ABTS antioxidant capacity assay indicated an antagonistic effect between 7S and C3G. The increased binding affinity of C3G to 7S limited the bioaccessibility of C3G and promoted the antagonism of antioxidant capacity between 7S and C3G. 7S addition was detrimental to the antioxidant capacity and bioaccessibility of C3G in vitro after thermal processing.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Globulinas , Antocianinas/química , Antígenos de Plantas , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Globulinas/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/química , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes , Proteínas de Soja
10.
Food Chem ; 398: 133868, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961171

RESUMO

Gametogenesis can significantly affect the biochemical composition of oysters, but little research on the difference between sexes. Therefore, we conducted the first in-depth study on the composition differences between males and females of three different Crassostrea sp.. The results showed that females had higher glycogen, lipid, Cu and Zn contents than males, while males had higher protein and taurine contents than females at maturity, which might be related to special meiosis pattern of eggs and less energy was required for female gametogenesis. In addition, both males and females had well-balanced essential amino acid compositions. The omega-3: omega-6 (n-3: n-6) ratio of males was significantly higher than that of females, indicating that the nutritional quality of males was higher. These results provide a reliable and refined theoretical and research basis for revealing the nutritional quality, extracting beneficial ingredients, and developing functional food of Crassostrea sp., and provide data support for the sex-regulated breeding of oysters.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Crassostrea/genética , Crassostrea/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Masculino , Metais/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Food Chem ; 398: 133834, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961174

RESUMO

Insoluble dietary fibre from citrus peels (CIDF) was found to have adsorption and inhibitory effect on the activity of pancreatic lipase (PL). CIDF-400 exhibited the greatest adsorption and activity inhibition effect on PL. The fluorescence quenching spectra indicated that CIDF could quench PL through a dynamic quenching process induced by the electrostatic interactions with only one binding site between them. The synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra showed that CIDF might combine with PL to induce the increase in hydrophobicity and the reduction in polarity of tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Try) residues, which further led to the conformational alternations of PL. Moreover, circular dichroism (CD) showed that CIDF altered the secondary structure of PL, decreased α-helical structure content, and increased ß-sheet structure content, potentially resulting in PL structure opening and its active site exposure. This study provides new perspectives for the application of CIDFs produced from agricultural waste in regulating lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Citrus , Lipase , Adsorção , Dicroísmo Circular , Citrus/química , Fibras na Dieta , Lipase/metabolismo , Pâncreas/metabolismo
12.
Food Chem ; 398: 133851, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963217

RESUMO

Modulating the size and surface charge of nanocarriers provides an efficacious strategy to enhance bioavailability of encapsulated cargos through increased mucus penetration. In this study, mucus-permHeable soy protein nanoparticles (SPNPs) were successfully fabricated via gastrointestinal proteolysis coupled with heating and pH-shifting treatment. Results showed that treatment at 65 °C and 75 °C after proteolysis induced the assembly of α, ά, and ß subunits, forming a relatively loose structure. This facilitated further assembly upon pH-shifting, forming smaller-sized and less electronegative nanoparticles, which showed enhanced mucus permeability. However, treatment at 85 °C and 95 °C promoted stronger hydrophobic interactions and induced disulfide bond cross-linking between B and ß subunits, forming compact macro-aggregates with high ß-sheet structure. These larger-sized aggregates were less influenced by pH-shifting treatment, demonstrating limited mucus diffusion. This study provides a potential alternative to fabricate mucus-permeable nanoparticles, and established a relationship between protein subunit assembly behavior and its mucus permeability.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Proteínas de Soja , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Muco/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Proteínas de Soja/química
13.
Food Chem ; 398: 133796, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963221

RESUMO

Mechanism on texture change of Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) muscle during live transportation was explored by UPLC-QTOF-MS. The shear force (hardness) of fish muscle decreased gradually as the transportation time was extended from 3 to 24 h, with a maximum decrease of 43.49 %. With the extension of the time, the cellular and ultrastructure of fish muscle fiber were gradually disrupted. There was a significant difference between metabolites of the samples after transporting for 6, 12, 24 h versus 3 h, with organic acids and their derivatives upregulated while nucleotide metabolites downregulated. The texture deterioration might be related to metabolism of amino acids, purine, histidine, and choline. The results showed that the deterioration of Wuchang bream texture during live transportation might be mainly related to the changes of the above metabolic pathways caused by oxidative stress, which resulting in the destruction of the muscle cells and fibers.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Animais , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Músculos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
14.
Food Chem ; 398: 133866, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964561

RESUMO

Seaweeds are a rich source of nutritional and functional compounds, but they also accumulate heavy metals. Here, the chemical composition (crude protein, total lipids, Nitrogen Free Extract and fiber) and the presence of minerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Se) and unwanted elements (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al) were determined in eleven seaweeds from Chile. Depending on the species, a good contribution to the Recommended Dietary Allowance for K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Se was observed, and low Na/K ratios (<1.0) as well. The health risk assessment indicated low hazard due to intake of seaweed meal. The mean values of As, Hg, and Pb were below the maximum limits set for food supplements and feed ingredients. The seaweeds studied have a suitable chemical composition for their uses as food and feed ingredients, although Cd levels should be monitoring especially in brown seaweeds.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Alga Marinha , Cádmio/metabolismo , Chile , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chumbo/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Alga Marinha/química
15.
Food Chem ; 398: 133909, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964568

RESUMO

Carotenoids are important secondary metabolites that may participate in response to extreme environments. Fruit color changes were observed in peaches growing at altitude on the Tibetan Plateau. Here, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed 43 kinds of carotenoids in 96 Tibetan peach and 12 cultivated peach fruit samples. Comparative analysis revealed that 25 kinds of carotenoids accumulated at significantly different levels between Tibetan peaches and cultivated peaches. Based on a population structure analysis, the carotenoid levels of Tibetan peaches were divided into two groups, which are mainly affected by the environmental factors light and temperature. The correlation analysis implied that the levels of 9 carotenoids were significantly correlated with altitude. qRT-PCR results showed that PSY, CCD4 and BCH were significantly differently expressed between the low and high altitude Tibetan peaches. In summary, this study showed that the abundant variation in carotenoids was highly associated with high-altitude adaptations in Tibetan peach fruit.


Assuntos
Prunus persica , Altitude , Carotenoides/análise , Frutas/química , Prunus persica/genética , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Tibet
16.
Food Chem ; 398: 133899, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964571

RESUMO

Earlier studies revealed that cadmium (Cd) concentrations in cacao nibs can decrease by a factor up to 1.3 during fermentation. Here, fermentation was mimicked by incubating beans at different temperatures, and acetic acid and ethanol concentrations in the incubation media. Nib Cd concentrations decreased during incubation by mobilisation in the nibs and subsequent outward migration to the testa and the incubation solution. This was most pronounced when high concentrations of acetic acid were combined with high temperature, while ethanol had no statistically significant effect. Incubation under typical fermentation conditions (45 °C and 20.0 g acetic acid L-1) reduced the nib Cd concentration by a factor 1.3. This factor increased to 1.6 under more extreme conditions, i.e. 65 °C and 40 g acetic acid L-1. The final nib Cd concentrations correlated well to nib phytate concentrations (R2 = 0.56), suggesting hydrolysis of phytate and mobilisation of the associated Cd2+.


Assuntos
Cacau , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Cacau/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo
17.
Food Chem ; 398: 133875, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964573

RESUMO

The effects of radio frequency (RF) heating on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) activity and its structure were investigated in this paper. The HRP was heated to 50 °C, 70 °C and 90 °C at different electrode gaps (100, 110 and 120 mm). The relative enzyme activity was 105.33 %-113.73 % at 50 °C, 91.11 %-93.05 % at 70 °C and 47.05 %-68.17 % at 90 °C. Ultraviolet-visible, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra were used to monitor the variation in secondary and tertiary structure. The results showed that RF heating at the electrode gaps of 120 mm contributed to more severe enzyme inactivation and conformational destruction, which can be explained by the changes in Soret band, secondary structure content and tryptophan fluorescence intensity. This study revealed that enzyme inactivation by RF heating was associated with loss of helical structure, unfolding of enzyme protein and ejection of heme group.


Assuntos
Calefação , Ondas de Rádio , Dicroísmo Circular , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/metabolismo , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
18.
Food Chem ; 398: 133876, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969990

RESUMO

Terasi is a fermented shrimp paste in Indonesia. We examined the effect of the Terasi manufacturing process on the abundance of the allergen tropomyosin (TM) and its IgG/IgE-binding ability. Terasi was produced from three shrimps, Akiami (Acetes japonicus), Okiami (Euphausia pacifica), and Isazaami (Neomysis awatchensis). Protein degradation and TM IgE-binding activity were examined by immunoblotting using anti-TM rabbit IgG and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using shrimp-allergic patients' sera. The processing caused TM degradation, and the IgG-specific response in Akiami meat disappeared at the second fermentation step but remained in both Okiami and Isazaami Terasi. In contrast, TM IgE-binding in all meats decreased gradually during manufacturing and nearly completely disappeared in Akiami Terasi. Conclusively, Terasi production is an effective manufacturing process to reduce the IgE-binding ability of TM, and Terasi can be recognized as a low allergenic seafood when produced under an appropriate manufacturing condition.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Alimentos Fermentados , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Penaeidae , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Animais , Crustáceos/metabolismo , Decápodes/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Indonésia , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Coelhos , Alimentos Marinhos , Tropomiosina/metabolismo
19.
Food Chem ; 398: 133905, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969991

RESUMO

Maillard reaction products (MRPs) play pivotal roles in gut health by affecting the microbiome-host interactions. This study aimed at investigating the effects of MRPs derived from bighead carp meat hydrolysates with galactose and galacto-oligosaccharides on intestinal microbial composition and metabolic profile by in vitro pig fecal fermentation. The pH decreased sharply in the first 12 h and the highest production of butyric acid was observed in GM (glycated BCH with galacto-oligosaccharide) treatment with 64.7 µmoL/10 mL (p < 0.05) at 48 h. Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus were dominant in the GM treatment, while Escherichia-Shigella was predominant in LgM (glycated BCH with galactose) treatment at 12 h. The up-regulated metabolites indicated that GM and LgM might participate in the fatty acids synthesis and modulate lipid metabolism, respectively. Overall, GM will be more beneficial for gut health by promoting the production of butyric acid and fatty acids synthesis.


Assuntos
Carpas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Ácido Butírico , Carpas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fermentação , Galactose/análise , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Carne , Metaboloma , Oligossacarídeos/química , Suínos
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