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1.
Gene ; 807: 145952, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500049

RESUMO

Extreme temperature is one of the serious threats to crop production in present and future scenarios of global climate changes. Lentil (Lens culinaris) is an important crop, and there is a serious lack of genetic information regarding environmental and temperature stresses responses. This study is the first report of evaluation of key genes and molecular mechanisms related to temperature stresses in lentil using the RNA sequencing technique. De novo transcriptome assembly created 44,673 contigs and differential gene expression analysis revealed 7494 differentially expressed genes between the temperature stresses and control group. Basic annotation of generated transcriptome assembly in our study led to the identification of 2765 novel transcripts that have not been identified yet in lentil genome draft v1.2. In addition, several unigenes involved in mechanisms of temperature sensing, calcium and hormone signaling and DNA-binding transcription factor activity were identified. Also, common mechanisms in response to temperature stresses, including the proline biosynthesis, the photosynthetic light reactions balancing, chaperone activity and circadian rhythms, are determined by the hub genes through the protein-protein interaction networks analysis. Deciphering the mechanisms of extreme temperature tolerance would be a new way for developing crops with enhanced plasticity against climate change. In general, this study has identified set of mechanisms and various genes related to cold and heat stresses which will be useful in better understanding of the lentil's reaction to temperature stresses.


Assuntos
Lens (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lens (Planta)/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Mudança Climática , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Fotossíntese , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Temperatura , Transcriptoma/genética
2.
Gene ; 807: 145954, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500050

RESUMO

Reducing tail fat deposition can increase the economic value of a carcass and improve feed efficiency. This study aimed to explore ELOVL5 and FASN polymorphisms associated with tail fat deposition and their expression levels of sheep. Association analysis showed that ELOVL5 synonymous mutation g.62534 C > T was associated with tail width, tail fat weight, and relative tail fat weight (P < 0.05). FASN synonymous mutation g.12694 A > G was associated with tail length and width (P < 0.05). Combined effect analyses indicated significant differences between the combined genotypes and tail fat deposition. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR indicated that the ELOVL5 and FASN expression levels were significantly higher in tail fat than in other tissues (P < 0.05). ELOVL5 expression levels in tail-fat tissue of big-tail sheep was significantly higher than that in small-tail sheep (P < 0.01). FASN expression levels were significantly higher in tail-fat tissue of small-tail sheep than in that of big-tail sheep (P < 0.05). During development, ELOVL5 tail fat expression increased significantly from 0 to 6 months old (P < 0.05), and FASN expression at 3 months old was significantly higher than that at 0 (minimum) and 6 months old (P < 0.05). Therefore, ELOVL5 and FASN polymorphisms could represent new candidate molecular markers and targets to reduce tail fat deposition in sheep.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Animais , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Genótipo , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Ovinos/genética , Cauda/metabolismo
3.
Gene ; 807: 145960, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509581

RESUMO

Opsin is a fellow of the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) superfamily. It can be divided into visual and non-visual opsin according to whether it is directly involved in visual imaging. Opsin plays an important role in visual image formation and the regulation of non-image forming functions such as circadian entrainment in the growth, development and evolution of fish. Crimson snapper belongs to Perciforme mainly found in the Indo-West Pacific and the South China Sea. It is one of the most influential economic fishes in the South China Sea. In order to study the existence and expression of opsin gene in Crimson snapper, we sequenced the genome and tissue sample transcriptome of Crimson snapper. In this study, 32 opsin genes were identified from the genome of Crimson snapper. The length of these genes ranged from 1061 bp to 86203 bp and were distributed on 15 different chromosomes. The analysis of opsin gene family of Crimson snapper showed that the sws2 had two extra copies as compared with that of Zebrafish. Domain and motif analysis revealed that all the 32 opsin genes have seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors (7TM receptors) each, and the opsin family contained 10 common motifs. The expression level of opsin gene, confirmed by RT-qPCR, was analyzed by using nine tissues transcriptome databases of Crimson snapper. The results showed that almost all opsin genes were highly expressed in the retina and brain, except opn7a and opn7b which were expressed in intestine and red skin, and almost no expression in other tissues. Our results provide a comprehensive basic knowledge for the opsin gene family of Crimson snapper, which has significance for the study of the function of opsin in Lutjanidaes.


Assuntos
Opsinas/genética , Perciformes/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases/genética , China , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Opsinas/metabolismo , Perciformes/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
4.
Gene ; 806: 145921, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454033

RESUMO

Maoto, a traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo), is widely used to treat upper respiratory tract infections, including influenza virus infection. Although maoto is known to inhibit pro-inflammatory responses in a rodent model of acute inflammation, its underlying mechanism remains to be determined. In this study, we investigated the involvement of immune responses and noradrenergic function in the inhibitory action of maoto. In a mouse model of polyI:C-induced acute inflammation, maoto was administered orally in conjunction with intraperitoneal injection of PolyI:C (6 mg/kg), and blood was collected after 2 h for measurement of plasma cytokines by ELISA. Maoto significantly decreased PolyI:C-induced TNF-α levels and increased IL-10 production. Neither pretreatment with IL-10 neutralizing antibodies nor T-cell deficiency using nude mice modified the inhibitory effect of maoto, indicating that the anti-inflammatory effects of maoto are independent of IL-10 and T cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of maoto on PolyI:C-induced TNF-α production were not observed in ex vivo splenocytes, suggesting that maoto does not act directly on inflammatory cells. Lastly, pretreatment with a ß-adrenergic receptor antagonist partially cancelled the anti-inflammatory effects of maoto. Collectively, these results suggest that maoto mediates its anti-inflammatory effects via ß-adrenergic receptors in vivo.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Interleucina-10/genética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/genética , Administração Oral , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Efedrina/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Interleucina-10/agonistas , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Japão , Masculino , Medicina Kampo/métodos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Poli I-C/administração & dosagem , Poli I-C/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
5.
Gene ; 806: 145920, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455026

RESUMO

Depression is deemed a mood disorder characterized by a high rate of relapse. Therefore, overcoming of the recurrent depression is globally expecting. Kososan, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, has been clinically used for mild depressive mood, and our previous studies have shown some evidence for its antidepressive-like efficacy in experimental animal models of depression. However, it remains unclear whether kososan has beneficial effects on recurrent depression. Here, we examined its effect using a mouse model of modified repeated social defeat stress (SDS) paradigm. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to a 5-min SDS from unfamiliar aggressive CD-1 mice for 5 days. Kososan extract (1.0 kg/kg/day) or an antidepressant milnacipran (60 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 26 days (days 7-32) to depression-like mice with social avoidant behaviors on day 6. Single 5 min of SDS was subjected to mice recovered from the social avoidance on day 31, and then the recurrence of depression-like behaviors was evaluated on day 32. Hippocampal gene expression patterns were also assayed by DNA microarray analysis. Water- or milnacipran-administered mice resulted in a recurrence of depression-like behaviors by re-exposure of single SDS, whereas kososan-administered mice did not recur depression-like behaviors. Distinct gene expression patterns were also found for treating kososan and milnacipran. Collectively, this finding suggests that kososan exerts a preventive effect on recurrent depression-like behaviors in mice. Pretreatment of kososan is more useful for recurrent depression than that of milnacipran.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Derrota Social , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Depressão/genética , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Japão , Masculino , Medicina Kampo/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Milnaciprano/farmacologia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/classificação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Recidiva , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
6.
Gene ; 808: 145963, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530086

RESUMO

As of July 2021, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has led to more than 200 million infections and more than 4.2 million deaths globally. Complications of severe COVID-19 include acute kidney injury, liver dysfunction, cardiomyopathy, and coagulation dysfunction. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify proteins and genetic factors associated with COVID-19 susceptibility and outcome. We comprehensively reviewed recent findings of host-SARS-CoV-2 interactome analyses. To identify genetic variants associated with COVID-19, we focused on the findings from genome and transcriptome wide association studies (GWAS and TWAS) and bioinformatics analysis. We described established human proteins including ACE2, TMPRSS2, 40S ribosomal subunit, ApoA1, TOM70, HLA-A, and PALS1 interacting with SARS-CoV-2 based on cryo-electron microscopy results. Furthermore, we described approximately 1000 human proteins showing evidence of interaction with SARS-CoV-2 and highlighted host cellular processes such as innate immune pathways affected by infection. We summarized the evidence on more than 20 identified candidate genes in COVID-19 severity. Predicted deleterious and disruptive genetic variants with possible effects on COVID-19 infectivity have been also summarized. These findings provide novel insights into SARS-CoV-2 biology and infection as well as potential strategies for development of novel COVID therapeutic targets and drug repurposing.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Proteínas/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 396-406, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitrogen and water are two major factors in rice production. Due to the lack of ample evidence and much uncertainty in field experiments, the coupling effects of water and nitrogen in paddy fields have remained debatable over recent years. RESULTS: A fine-calibrated ORYZA (v3) model was applied to simulate rice growth and development under different nitrogen (N) rates and irrigation regimes for a double rice-cropping system in South China. We designed a numerical experiment of 504 treatments, consisting of seven nitrogen rates (0-300 kg ha-1 ), eight irrigation thresholds (30-100%, presented as the percentage of saturated soil water content) and nine irrigation quotas (20-100 mm), and each treatment was simulated for 30 years. Yield varied greatly with different water-nitrogen conditions, particularly in the scenario of frequently alternate wetting and drying irrigation and low-N rates. The coupling effects had a negligible influence on water input and water loss, which were found to be sensitive only to the irrigation regime and rainfall distribution. Based on the results, the N fertilizer for early rice growing in the wet season is suggested as 150-200 kg ha-1 , and 200-250 kg ha-1 for late rice growing in the dry season. The irrigating threshold and irrigation quota for early rice are suggested as lower than 70% and 30-40 mm, respectively, and, for late rice, 70-80% and 40-60 mm. CONCLUSION: Remarkable water-nitrogen coupling effects were found in the paddy field, and integrative water-nitrogen management strategies were suggested for both early rice and late rice in South China. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Solo/química , Água/análise
8.
Urol Clin North Am ; 49(1): 129-152, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776047

RESUMO

Organ sparing approaches for the management of localized prostate cancer were developed in part to overcome the morbidity associated with standard, whole gland treatment options. The first description of focal therapy was now over two decades ago and since that time much has changed. The evolution of patient selection, the approach to ablation, and surveillance after focal therapy have mirrored the technologic advancements in the field as well as the improved understanding of the biology of low-grade, low-risk prostate cancer. This review presents the evidence for the basis of focal therapy from the past to the present and future endeavors.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação/métodos , Seleção de Pacientes , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Técnicas de Ablação/tendências , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Masculino , Imagem Multimodal , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica , Gradação de Tumores , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Ultrassonografia
9.
Urol Clin North Am ; 49(1): 23-38, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776052

RESUMO

Among the various robotic devices that exist for urologic surgery, the most common are synergistic telemanipulator systems. Several have achieved clinical feasibility and have been licensed for use in humans: the standard da Vinci, Avatera, Hinotori, Revo-i, Senhance, Versius, and Surgenius. Handheld and hands-on synergistic systems are also clinically relevant for use in urologic surgeries, including minimally invasive and endoscopic approaches. Future trends of robotic innovation include an exploration of more robust haptic systems that offer kinesthetic and tactile feedback; miniaturization and microrobotics; enhanced visual feedback with greater magnification and higher fidelity detail; and autonomous robots.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/instrumentação , Robótica/história , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/instrumentação , Retroalimentação , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/história , Terminologia como Assunto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/história , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/métodos
10.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 40(1): 135-148, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782084

RESUMO

Immunotherapy is a treatment modality that has a broad and rapidly growing range of applications to treat both chronic and acute diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn disease, cancer, and COVID-19. Emergency physicians must be aware of the breadth of applications and be able to consider the effects of immunotherapies when patients on these treatments present to the hospital. This article provides a review of the mechanisms of action, indications for use, and potential complications of immunotherapy treatments that are relevant in the emergency care setting.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência/tendências , Imunoterapia/métodos , Medicina de Emergência/métodos , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/tendências , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
11.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 40(1): 19-32, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782088

RESUMO

Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening, multisystem allergic reaction that can cause airway, breathing, or circulatory compromise. Intramuscular epinephrine is the immediate treatment of all patients. Intravenous epinephrine should be used in patients in shock, either as a bolus or infusion, along with fluid resuscitation. Airway obstruction must be recognized, and early intubation may be necessary. For shock that is refractory to epinephrine, additional vasopressors may be needed. Disposition depends on patient presentation and response to treatment. Mandatory observation periods are not necessary, because biphasic reactions are difficult to predict and may occur outside of typical observation periods.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/terapia , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Anafilaxia/classificação , Anafilaxia/fisiopatologia , Medicina de Emergência/métodos , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Hidratação , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
12.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 40(1): 57-67, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782091

RESUMO

Food allergies are a common and serious cause of illness, accounting for an increasing number of emergency department visits annually. Although definite diagnosis lays outside of an emergency department visit, the clinical management of the most serious food allergies highlights emergency care. The staple of acute care remains epinephrine in association with antihistamines and steroids. The greatest threat remains undertreatment for this group of disorders and underutilization of epinephrine. Those who have been treated for a food allergy need a follow-up allergist evaluation, guidance of food avoidance, and avoidance of foods with cross-sensitivities as well as ready access to epinephrine.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Medicina de Emergência/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/complicações , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Humanos
13.
Orthop Clin North Am ; 53(1): 105-112, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799016

RESUMO

Patients with advanced pyogenic spondylodiscitis can present with neurologic deficits. However, the prevalence, severity, and outcome of the neurologic deficits are not well known. A systematic review was performed to improve the knowledge of this commonly encountered clinical scenario. The considerable number of severe neurologic deficits in addition to their poor recovery, even after surgical intervention, demonstrates that the early diagnosis of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is crucial. Prompt surgical intervention is likely associated with a greater chance of improvement of neurologic status than nonsurgical treatment.


Assuntos
Discite/complicações , Discite/cirurgia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/cirurgia , Humanos , Osteomielite/complicações , Osteomielite/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
14.
Orthop Clin North Am ; 53(1): 43-50, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799021

RESUMO

High-energy tibial plateau fractures carry a high risk of associated acute compartment syndrome. Clinicians should be familiar with several demographic, clinical, and radiographic factors that are associated with compartment syndrome development after tibial plateau fracture. Once the diagnosis of compartment syndrome is made, emergent decompressive fasciotomies are needed. Fracture fixation complicates the treatment course and elements of postoperative management. Deep surgical site infection is a common complication, and controversy remains regarding the ideal timing of fixation and soft tissue closure for these complex injuries.


Assuntos
Síndromes Compartimentais/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia , Síndromes Compartimentais/terapia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Humanos , Redução Aberta/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Fatores de Risco
15.
Orthop Clin North Am ; 53(1): 69-76, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799024

RESUMO

Acute, traumatic rotator cuff tears typically occur in younger patients with a fall on an outstretched hand, grabbing an object to catch oneself when falling, or a glenohumeral dislocation. These tears are best evaluated with MRI. Partial-thickness tears may be managed nonoperatively with physical therapy, NSAIDs, and injections. Full-thickness tears in most patients should be managed with surgical repair as soon as possible, with better outcomes shown when repaired within 4 months of injury.


Assuntos
Lesões do Manguito Rotador/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/terapia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos
16.
Orthop Clin North Am ; 53(1): 77-81, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799025

RESUMO

Scapulothoracic dissociation is a rare and devastating injury that is considered an orthopedic emergency. It is critical to recognize this injury early based on mechanism, physical examination, and radiographic parameters. Initial management should be focused on resuscitation and evaluation for potential limb-threatening ischemia.


Assuntos
Plexo Braquial/lesões , Plexo Braquial/cirurgia , Escápula/lesões , Escápula/cirurgia , Articulação do Ombro/lesões , Articulação do Ombro/cirurgia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/cirurgia , Plexo Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Escápula/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Orthop Clin North Am ; 53(1): 83-93, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799026

RESUMO

Foot compartment syndrome is an uncommon condition that should be recognized by all orthopedic surgeons. The clinical presentation is often less clear than other limb compartment syndromes and requires high clinical suspicion with a low threshold for direct measurement of compartment pressure. Controversy exists regarding the number of anatomic compartments and the most effective treatment. Both acute surgical intervention and delayed management can result in significant morbidity and long-term sequelae.


Assuntos
Síndromes Compartimentais/etiologia , Síndromes Compartimentais/cirurgia , Traumatismos do Pé/complicações , Traumatismos do Pé/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Humanos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos
18.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 413-416, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515998

RESUMO

In December 2020, Italy experienced the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.7 lineage. In January 2021, we identified 21 cases of this variant in Corzano, defining the first outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 lineage in Italy. The high transmissibility of the B.1.1.7 variant represented an important benefit for the virus, which became rapidly dominant on the territory. Containment measures induced the epidemic curve onto a decreasing trajectory underlining the importance of appropriate control and surveillance for restraint of virus spread. Highlights The first Italian outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 lineage occurred in Lombardy in January 2021. The outbreak originated by a single introduction of the B.1.1.7 lineage. The genomic sequencing revealed, for the first time, the presence of the V551F mutation in the B.1.1.7 lineage in Italy. Surveillance, prompt sequencing and tracing efforts were fundamental to identify and to quickly contain the outbreak.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/transmissão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Genoma Viral/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 327-334, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524690

RESUMO

Genomic surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) plays an important role in COVID-19 pandemic control and elimination efforts, especially by elucidating its global transmission network and illustrating its viral evolution. The deployment of multiplex PCR assays that target SARS-CoV-2 followed by either massively parallel or nanopore sequencing is a widely-used strategy to obtain genome sequences from primary samples. However, multiplex PCR-based sequencing carries an inherent bias of sequencing depth among different amplicons, which may cause uneven coverage. Here we developed a two-pool, long-amplicon 36-plex PCR primer panel with ~1000-bp amplicon lengths for full-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2. We validated the panel by assessing nasopharyngeal swab samples with a <30 quantitative reverse transcription PCR cycle threshold value and found that ≥90% of viral genomes could be covered with high sequencing depths (≥20% mean depth). In comparison, the widely-used ARTIC panel yielded 79%-88% high-depth genome regions. We estimated that ~5 Mbp nanopore sequencing data may ensure a >95% viral genome coverage with a ≥10-fold depth and may generate reliable genomes at consensus sequence levels. Nanopore sequencing yielded false-positive variations with frequencies of supporting reads <0.8, and the sequencing errors mostly occurred on the 5' or 3' ends of reads. Thus, nanopore sequencing could not elucidate intra-host viral diversity.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , COVID-19 , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Nasofaringe/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
20.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 335-341, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524695

RESUMO

Fully automated immunoassays for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies that are strongly correlated with neutralization antibodies (nAbs) are clinically important because they enable the assessment of humoral immunity after infection and vaccination. Access SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) II antibody tests are semi-quantitative, fully automated immunoassays that detect anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibodies and might reflect nAb levels in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, no studies have investigated the clinical utility of these tests in association with nAbs to date. To evaluate the clinical utility of Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG II antibody tests and their correlation with the SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) that measures nAbs in patients with COVID-19, we analyzed 54 convalescent serum samples from COVID-19 patients and 89 serum samples from non-COVID-19 patients. The presence of anti-RBD antibodies was detected using Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG II antibody tests, while nAbs were measured by sVNT. The sensitivity and specificity of sVNT were 94.4% and 98.9%, respectively. There were strong positive correlations between the inhibition values of sVNT and the results of the Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM (R = 0.95, R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001) and IgG II antibody tests (R = 0.96, R2 = 0.92, p < 0.001). In terms of the presence of nAbs, the sensitivity and specificity were 98.1% and 98.9% in the IgM assay and 100.0% and 100.0% in the IgG II assay, respectively. The Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG II antibody tests showed high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of nAbs in COVID-19 patients and might be alternatives for measuring nAbs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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