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2.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 1123, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer incidence is rising globally, while mortality rates show a geographical heterogenous pattern. Early detection and treatment have been proven to have a profound impact on breast cancer prognosis. The aim of his study was to compare breast cancer incidence, mortality, and survival rates in two contrasting corners of Europe, Sweden and Crete, to better understand cancer determinants with focus on disease burden and sociocultural factors. METHODS: Breast cancer data from Sweden and Crete was derived from registries. Incidence and mortality were expressed as Age-Standardized Incidence Rates (ASIR), Age-Standardized Mortality Rates (ASMR). FINDINGS: Breast cancer incidence has for decades risen in Sweden and on Crete. In 2019, ASIR was 217.5 in Sweden and 58.9 on Crete, (p < 0.001). Mortality rates showed opposite trends. ASMR in Sweden was reduced from 25.5 to 16.8 (2005-2019) while on Crete, ASMR increased from 22.1 to 25.3. A successive rise in survival rate in Sweden with a 5-year survival rate of 92% since 2015, but a converse development on Crete with 85% 5-year survival rate the same year. INTERPRETATION: The incidence of breast cancer is slowly rising in both studied regions, but mortality increases on Crete in contrast to Sweden with sinking mortality rates. The interpretation of these findings is that differences in health care systems and health policies including differences in early detection like screening programs and early treatment, as well as sociocultural factors in the two countries might play an important role on the differences found in breast cancer burden.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Incidência , Mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Taxa de Sobrevida , Suécia/epidemiologia , Grécia/epidemiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18555, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329070

RESUMO

Females are known to have a better survival rate than males in the general population, but previous studies have shown that this superior survival is diminished in patients on dialysis. This study aimed to investigate the risk of mortality in relation to sex among Korean patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). A total of 4994 patients with kidney failure who were receiving dialysis were included for a prospective nationwide cohort study. Cox multivariate proportional hazard models were used to determine the association between sex and the risk of cause-specific mortality according to dialysis modality. During a median follow-up of 5.8 years, the death rate per 100 person-years was 6.4 and 8.3 in females and males, respectively. The female-to-male mortality rate in patients on dialysis was 0.77, compared to 0.85 in the general population. In adjusted analyses, the risk of all-cause mortality was significantly lower for females than males in the entire population (hazard ratio [HR] 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71-0.87, P < 0.001). No significant differences in the risk of cardiovascular and infection-related deaths were observed according to sex. The risk of mortality due to sudden death, cancer, other, or unknown causes was significantly lower for females than males in the entire population (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.56-0.78, P < 0.001), in patients on HD (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.90, P = 0.003), and in patients on PD (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.34-0.70, P < 0.001). The survival advantage of females in the general population was maintained in Korean dialysis patients, which was attributed to a lower risk of noncardiovascular and noninfectious death.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00931970.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Coreia (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
JAMA ; 328(17): 1747-1765, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318128

RESUMO

Importance: It is uncertain whether hormone therapy should be used for the primary prevention of chronic conditions such as heart disease, osteoporosis, or some types of cancers. Objective: To update evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force on the benefits and harms of hormone therapy in reducing risks for chronic conditions. Data Sources: PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and trial registries from January 1, 2016, through October 12, 2021; surveillance through July 2022. Study Selection: English-language randomized clinical trials and prospective cohort studies of fair or good quality. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Dual review of abstracts, full-text articles, and study quality; meta-analyses when at least 3 similar studies were available. Main Outcomes and Measures: Morbidity and mortality related to chronic conditions; health-related quality of life. Results: Twenty trials (N = 39 145) and 3 cohort studies (N = 1 155 410) were included. Participants using estrogen only compared with placebo had significantly lower risks for diabetes over 7.1 years (1050 vs 903 cases; 134 fewer [95% CI, 18-237]) and fractures over 7.2 years (1024 vs 1413 cases; 388 fewer [95% CI, 277-489]) per 10 000 persons. Risks per 10 000 persons were statistically significantly increased for gallbladder disease over 7.1 years (1113 vs 737 cases; 377 more [95% CI, 234-540]), stroke over 7.2 years (318 vs 239 cases; 79 more [95% CI, 15-159]), venous thromboembolism over 7.2 years (258 vs 181 cases; 77 more [95% CI, 19-153]), and urinary incontinence over 1 year (2331 vs 1446 cases; 885 more [95% CI, 659-1135]). Participants using estrogen plus progestin compared with placebo experienced significantly lower risks, per 10 000 persons, for colorectal cancer over 5.6 years (59 vs 93 cases; 34 fewer [95% CI, 9-51]), diabetes over 5.6 years (403 vs 482 cases; 78 fewer [95% CI, 15-133]), and fractures over 5 years (864 vs 1094 cases; 230 fewer [95% CI, 66-372]). Risks, per 10 000 persons, were significantly increased for invasive breast cancer (242 vs 191 cases; 51 more [95% CI, 6-106]), gallbladder disease (723 vs 463 cases; 260 more [95% CI, 169-364]), stroke (187 vs 135 cases; 52 more [95% CI, 12-104]), and venous thromboembolism (246 vs 126 cases; 120 more [95% CI, 68-185]) over 5.6 years; probable dementia (179 vs 91 cases; 88 more [95% CI, 15-212]) over 4.0 years; and urinary incontinence (1707 vs 1145 cases; 562 more [95% CI, 412-726]) over 1 year. Conclusions and Relevance: Use of hormone therapy in postmenopausal persons for the primary prevention of chronic conditions was associated with some benefits but also with an increased risk of harms.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Estrogênios , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Pós-Menopausa , Progestinas , Feminino , Humanos , Comitês Consultivos/normas , Comitês Consultivos/tendências , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Hormônios/efeitos adversos , Hormônios/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Primária , Progestinas/efeitos adversos , Progestinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos , Incontinência Urinária/induzido quimicamente , Tromboembolia Venosa/induzido quimicamente
7.
Science ; 378(6619): 459-461, 2022 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378986
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 981383, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36438301

RESUMO

Objective: Accessibility to quality healthcare, histopathology of tumor, tumor stage and geographical location influence survival rates. Comprehending the bases of these differences in cervical cancer survival rate, as well as the variables linked to poor prognosis, is critical to improving survival. We aimed to perform the first thorough meta-analysis and systematic review of cervical cancer survival times in Africa based on race, histopathology, geographical location and age. Methods and materials: Major electronic databases were searched for articles published about cervical cancer survival rate in Africa. The eligible studies involved studies which reported 1-year, 3-year or 5-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and/or locoregional recurrence (LRR) rate of cervical cancer patients living in Africa. Two reviewers independently chose the studies and evaluated the quality of the selected publications, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA-P). We used random effects analysis to pooled the survival rate across studies and heterogeneity was explored via sub-group and meta-regression analyses. A leave-one-out sensitivity analysis was undertaken, as well as the reporting bias assessment. Our findings were reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA-P). Results: A total of 16,122 women with cervical cancer were covered in the 45 articles (59 studies), with research sample sizes ranging from 22 to 1,059 (median = 187.5). The five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 40.9% (95% CI: 35.5-46.5%). The five-year OS rate ranged from 3.9% (95% CI: 1.9-8.0%) in Malawi to as high as 76.1% (95% CI: 66.3-83.7%) in Ghana. The five-year disease-free survival rate was 66.2% (95% CI: 44.2-82.8%) while the five-year locoregional rate survival was 57.0% (95% CI: 41.4-88.7%). Conclusion: To enhance cervical cancer survival, geographical and racial group health promotion measures, as well as prospective genetic investigations, are critically required.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Feminino , Humanos , Gana/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Nature ; 611(7937): 818-826, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385524

RESUMO

Immune-related adverse events, particularly severe toxicities such as myocarditis, are major challenges to the utility of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in anticancer therapy1. The pathogenesis of ICI-associated myocarditis (ICI-MC) is poorly understood. Pdcd1-/-Ctla4+/- mice recapitulate clinicopathological features of ICI-MC, including myocardial T cell infiltration2. Here, using single-cell RNA and T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing of cardiac immune infiltrates from Pdcd1-/-Ctla4+/- mice, we identify clonal effector CD8+ T cells as the dominant cell population. Treatment with anti-CD8-depleting, but not anti-CD4-depleting, antibodies improved the survival of Pdcd1-/-Ctla4+/- mice. Adoptive transfer of immune cells from mice with myocarditis induced fatal myocarditis in recipients, which required CD8+ T cells. The cardiac-specific protein α-myosin, which is absent from the thymus3,4, was identified as the cognate antigen source for three major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted TCRs derived from mice with fulminant myocarditis. Peripheral blood T cells from three patients with ICI-MC were expanded by α-myosin peptides. Moreover, these α-myosin-expanded T cells shared TCR clonotypes with diseased heart and skeletal muscle, which indicates that α-myosin may be a clinically important autoantigen in ICI-MC. These studies underscore the crucial role for cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, identify a candidate autoantigen in ICI-MC and yield new insights into the pathogenesis of ICI toxicity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Imunoterapia , Miocardite , Miosinas Ventriculares , Animais , Camundongos , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/deficiência , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Miocardite/induzido quimicamente , Miocardite/etiologia , Miocardite/mortalidade , Miocardite/patologia , Miosinas Ventriculares/imunologia
10.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 44(4): 68, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434291

RESUMO

In 2003 and 2018 researchers discussed the perils of blind reliance on randomized controlled trials that have been substituted for medical experience and clinical acumen. Although these past articles do well to shed light on this issue, they neglect to discuss the topic of all-cause mortality in controlled trials. The current essay seeks to fill this void and expand the thought put into the appropriateness of all-cause mortality, especially when trials extend excessively far into the future. To do this effectively the current essay leans on trial data from statin research and evidence from cancer screening-where researchers have explicitly called for all-cause mortality to be used in lieu of cancer or cardiovascular specific mortality. The issue with such an endpoint is that it obfuscates the issue at hand, namely that a specific intervention is intended to have a specific effect, not that a specific intervention is supposed to have any kind of effect. The effect(s) of medical interventions ought to be relevant to their intended mechanism of action and not simply any positive effect that can be pulled from trial data.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Neoplasias , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Humanos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/mortalidade
11.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36423166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transmembrane serine protease type 2 (TMPRSS2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are the main molecules involved in the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells. Changes in TMPRSS2 expression levels caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may contribute to the outcome of COVID-19. The aim was to investigate the association between TMPRSS2 gene polymorphisms and the risk of death in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We included patients with confirmed COVID-19, recruited from two hospitals in northeastern Brazil from August 2020 to July 2021. Two functional polymorphisms (rs2070788 and rs12329760) in TMPRSS2 were evaluated by real-time PCR. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate death. The Cox's proportional hazards model was used to adjust for potentially confounding factors. RESULTS: A total of 402 patients were followed prospectively. Survival analysis demonstrated that older patients carrying the rs2070788 GG genotype had shorter survival times when compared to those with AG or AA genotypes (p = 0.009). In multivariable analysis, the GG genotype was a factor independently associated with the risk of death in older individuals (hazard ratio = 4.03, 95% confidence interval 1.49 to 10.84). CONCLUSIONS: The rs2070788 polymorphism in TMPRSS2 increases risk of death four-fold in older patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serina Endopeptidases , Idoso , Humanos , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/mortalidade , Genótipo , Hospitalização , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , SARS-CoV-2 , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
12.
Ann Saudi Med ; 42(6): 408-414, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36444927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disease severity scores are important tools for predicting mortality in intensive care units (ICUs), but conventional disease severity scores may not be suitable for predicting mortality in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients. OBJECTIVE: Compare conventional disease severity scores for discriminative power in ICU mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort SETTING: Intensive care unit in tertiary teaching and research hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: COVID-19 patients who were admitted to our ICU between 11 March 2020 and 31 December 2021 were included in the study. Patients who died within the first 24 hours were not included. SAPS II, APACHE II and APACHE 4 scores were calculated within the first 24 hours of ICU admission. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was performed for discriminative power of disease severity scores. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: ICU mortality SAMPLE SIZE AND CHARACTERISTICS: 510 subjects with median (interquartile percentiles) age of 65 (56-74) years. RESULTS: About half (n=250, 51%) died during ICU stay. Three disease severity scores had similar discriminative power, the area under the curve (AUC), SAPS II (AUC 0.79), APACHE II (AUC 0.76), APACHE 4 (AUC 0.78) (P<.001). Observed mortality was higher than predicted mortality according to conventional disease severity scores. CONCLUSION: Conventional disease severity scores are good indicators of COVID-19 severity. However, they may underestimate mortality in COVID-19. New scoring systems should be developed for mortality prediction in COVID-19. LIMITATION: A single-center study CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Humanos , COVID-19/mortalidade , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Turquia/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(166)2022 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is strongly age-dependent, we aimed to identify population subgroups at an elevated risk for adverse outcomes from COVID-19 using age-/gender-adjusted data from European cohort studies with the aim to identify populations that could potentially benefit from booster vaccinations. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to investigate the role of underlying medical conditions as prognostic factors for adverse outcomes due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), including death, hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation within three separate settings (community, hospital and ICU). Cohort studies that reported at least age and gender-adjusted data from Europe were identified through a search of peer-reviewed articles published until 11 June 2021 in Ovid Medline and Embase. Results are presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and absolute risk differences in deaths per 1000 COVID-19 patients. FINDINGS: We included 88 cohort studies with age-/gender-adjusted data from 6 653 207 SARS-CoV-2 patients from Europe. Hospital-based mortality was associated with high and moderate certainty evidence for solid organ tumours, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, arrhythmia, ischemic heart disease, liver disease and obesity, while a higher risk, albeit with low certainty, was noted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure. Community-based mortality was associated with a history of heart failure, stroke, diabetes and end-stage renal disease. Evidence of high/moderate certainty revealed a strong association between hospitalisation for COVID-19 and solid organ transplant recipients, sleep apnoea, diabetes, stroke and liver disease. INTERPRETATION: The results confirmed the strong association between specific prognostic factors and mortality and hospital admission. Prioritisation of booster vaccinations and the implementation of nonpharmaceutical protective measures for these populations may contribute to a reduction in COVID-19 mortality, ICU and hospital admissions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hospitalização , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino
14.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276774, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318528

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) in patients with COVID-19 varies, as well as their risks of mortality. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of asthma, COPD, and ACO as comorbidities, and to determine their risks of mortality in patients with COVID-19 using a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically reviewed clinical studies that reported the comorbidities of asthma, COPD, and ACO in patients with COVID-19. We searched various databases including PubMed (from inception to 27 September 2021) for eligible studies written in English. A meta-analysis was performed using the random-effect model for measuring the prevalence of asthma, COPD, and ACO as comorbidities, and the mortality risk of asthma, COPD, and ACO in patients with COVID-19 was estimated. A stratified analysis was conducted according to country. RESULTS: One hundred one studies were eligible, and 1,229,434 patients with COVID-19 were identified. Among them, the estimated prevalence of asthma, COPD, and ACO using a meta-analysis was 10.04% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.79-11.30), 8.18% (95% CI, 7.01-9.35), and 3.70% (95% CI, 2.40-5.00), respectively. The odds ratio for mortality of pre-existing asthma in COVID-19 patients was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.55-1.4; p = 0.630), while that in pre-existing COPD in COVID-19 patients was 3.79 (95% CI, 2.74-5.24; p<0.001). France showed the highest prevalence of asthma followed by the UK, while that of COPD was highest in the Netherlands followed by India. CONCLUSION: Pre-existing asthma and COPD are associated with the incidence of COVID-19. Having COPD significantly increases the risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19. These differences appear to be influenced by the difference of locations of disease pathophysiology and by the daily diagnosis and treatment policy of each country.


Assuntos
Asma , COVID-19 , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Asma/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
15.
N Engl J Med ; 387(21): 1947-1956, 2022 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in defibrillation technology, shock-refractory ventricular fibrillation remains common during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Double sequential external defibrillation (DSED; rapid sequential shocks from two defibrillators) and vector-change (VC) defibrillation (switching defibrillation pads to an anterior-posterior position) have been proposed as defibrillation strategies to improve outcomes in patients with refractory ventricular fibrillation. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-randomized trial with crossover among six Canadian paramedic services to evaluate DSED and VC defibrillation as compared with standard defibrillation in adult patients with refractory ventricular fibrillation during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Patients were treated with one of these three techniques according to the strategy that was randomly assigned to the paramedic service. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included termination of ventricular fibrillation, return of spontaneous circulation, and a good neurologic outcome, defined as a modified Rankin scale score of 2 or lower (indicating no symptoms to slight disability) at hospital discharge. RESULTS: A total of 405 patients were enrolled before the data and safety monitoring board stopped the trial because of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. A total of 136 patients (33.6%) were assigned to receive standard defibrillation, 144 (35.6%) to receive VC defibrillation, and 125 (30.9%) to receive DSED. Survival to hospital discharge was more common in the DSED group than in the standard group (30.4% vs. 13.3%; relative risk, 2.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33 to 3.67) and more common in the VC group than in the standard group (21.7% vs. 13.3%; relative risk, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.01 to 2.88). DSED but not VC defibrillation was associated with a higher percentage of patients having a good neurologic outcome than standard defibrillation (relative risk, 2.21 [95% CI, 1.26 to 3.88] and 1.48 [95% CI, 0.81 to 2.71], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with refractory ventricular fibrillation, survival to hospital discharge occurred more frequently among those who received DSED or VC defibrillation than among those who received standard defibrillation. (Funded by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada; DOSE VF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04080986.).


Assuntos
Cardioversão Elétrica , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Fibrilação Ventricular , Adulto , Humanos , Canadá , Desfibriladores , Cardioversão Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Cardioversão Elétrica/instrumentação , Cardioversão Elétrica/métodos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Fibrilação Ventricular/mortalidade , Fibrilação Ventricular/terapia , Estudos Cross-Over , Análise por Conglomerados
16.
JAMA ; 328(18): 1849-1861, 2022 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346411

RESUMO

Importance: Hypertension, defined as persistent systolic blood pressure (SBP) at least 130 mm Hg or diastolic BP (DBP) at least 80 mm Hg, affects approximately 116 million adults in the US and more than 1 billion adults worldwide. Hypertension is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (coronary heart disease, heart failure, and stroke) and death. Observations: First-line therapy for hypertension is lifestyle modification, including weight loss, healthy dietary pattern that includes low sodium and high potassium intake, physical activity, and moderation or elimination of alcohol consumption. The BP-lowering effects of individual lifestyle components are partially additive and enhance the efficacy of pharmacologic therapy. The decision to initiate antihypertensive medication should be based on the level of BP and the presence of high atherosclerotic CVD risk. First-line drug therapy for hypertension consists of a thiazide or thiazidelike diuretic such as hydrochlorothiazide or chlorthalidone, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker such as enalapril or candesartan, and a calcium channel blocker such as amlodipine and should be titrated according to office and home SBP/DBP levels to achieve in most people an SBP/DBP target (<130/80 mm Hg for adults <65 years and SBP <130 mm Hg in adults ≥65 years). Randomized clinical trials have established the efficacy of BP lowering to reduce the risk of CVD morbidity and mortality. An SBP reduction of 10 mm Hg decreases risk of CVD events by approximately 20% to 30%. Despite the benefits of BP control, only 44% of US adults with hypertension have their SBP/DBP controlled to less than 140/90 mm Hg. Conclusions and Relevance: Hypertension affects approximately 116 million adults in the US and more than 1 billion adults worldwide and is a leading cause of CVD morbidity and mortality. First-line therapy for hypertension is lifestyle modification, consisting of weight loss, dietary sodium reduction and potassium supplementation, healthy dietary pattern, physical activity, and limited alcohol consumption. When drug therapy is required, first-line therapies are thiazide or thiazidelike diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blockers, and calcium channel blockers.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Adulto , Humanos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Hidroclorotiazida/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Hipertensão/terapia , Potássio/uso terapêutico , Redução de Peso
17.
Physiol Rep ; 10(22): e15512, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397298

RESUMO

Previous studies suggested that ongoing treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor drugs may alter the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection and promote the development of more severe forms of the disease. The authors conducted a comparative, observational study to retrospectively analyze data collected from 394 patients admitted to ICU due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. The primary aim of the study was to establish an association between the use of RAAS inhibitor drugs and mortality in the ICU. The secondary aims of the study were to establish an association between the use of RAAS inhibitor drugs and clinical severity at ICU admission, the need for tracheal intubation, total days of mechanical ventilation, and the ICU length of stay. The authors found no statistically significant difference in ICU mortality between patients on RAAS inhibitor drugs at admission and those who were not (31.3% versus 26.2% mortality, p-value 0.3). However, the group of patients taking RAAS inhibitor drugs appeared to be more critical at ICU admission, and this difference became statistically significant in the subgroup of non-hypertensive patients. ICU mortality in the subgroup of non-hypertensive patients treated with RAAS inhibitor drugs also tended to be higher. Overexpression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in human cells, induced by RAAS inhibitor drugs, promotes viral entry-replication of SARS-CoV-2 and alters the basal balance of the RAAS, which may explain the findings observed in the present study. These phenomena may be amplified in non-hypertensive patients treated with RAAS inhibitor therapy.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , COVID-19 , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Humanos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Hospitalização
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20048, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414650

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) can be asymptomatic or lead to a wide symptom spectrum, including multi-organ damage and death. Here, we explored the potential of microRNAs in delineating patient condition and predicting clinical outcome. Plasma microRNA profiling of hospitalized COVID-19 patients showed that miR-144-3p was dynamically regulated in response to COVID-19. Thus, we further investigated the biomarker potential of miR-144-3p measured at admission in 179 COVID-19 patients and 29 healthy controls recruited in three centers. In hospitalized patients, circulating miR-144-3p levels discriminated between non-critical and critical illness (AUCmiR-144-3p = 0.71; p = 0.0006), acting also as mortality predictor (AUCmiR-144-3p = 0.67; p = 0.004). In non-hospitalized patients, plasma miR-144-3p levels discriminated mild from moderate disease (AUCmiR-144-3p = 0.67; p = 0.03). Uncontrolled release of pro-inflammatory cytokines can lead to clinical deterioration. Thus, we explored the added value of a miR-144/cytokine combined analysis in the assessment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. A miR-144-3p/Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) combined score discriminated between non-critical and critical hospitalized patients (AUCmiR-144-3p/EGF = 0.81; p < 0.0001); moreover, a miR-144-3p/Interleukin-10 (IL-10) score discriminated survivors from nonsurvivors (AUCmiR-144-3p/IL-10 = 0.83; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, circulating miR-144-3p, possibly in combination with IL-10 or EGF, emerges as a noninvasive tool for early risk-based stratification and mortality prediction in COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico , Interleucina-10 , MicroRNAs/sangue
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20050, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414767

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common postoperative disorder that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Although the role of AKI as an independent risk factor for mortality has been well characterized in major surgeries, its effect on postoperative outcomes in plastic and reconstructive surgery has not been evaluated. This study explored the association between postoperative AKI and mortality in patients undergoing plastic and reconstructive surgery. Consecutive adult patients who underwent plastic and reconstructive surgery without end-stage renal disease (n = 7059) at our institution from January 2011 to July 2019 were identified. The patients were divided into two groups according to occurrence of postoperative AKI: 7000 patients (99.2%) in the no AKI group and 59 patients (0.8%) in the AKI group. The primary outcome was mortality during the first year, and overall mortality and 30-days mortality were also compared. After inverse probability weighting, mortality during the first year after plastic and reconstructive surgery was significantly increased in the AKI group (1.9% vs. 18.6%; hazard ratio, 6.69; 95% confidence interval, 2.65-16.85; p < 0.001). In this study, overall and 30-day mortalities were shown to be higher in the AKI group, and further studies are needed on postoperative AKI in plastic and reconstructive surgery.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Adulto , Humanos , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Incidência , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 449, 2022 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that moderate coffee and tea consumption are associated with lower risk of mortality. However, the association between the combination of coffee and tea consumption with the risk of mortality remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the separate and combined associations of coffee and tea consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 498,158 participants (37-73 years) from the UK Biobank between 2006 and 2010. Coffee and tea consumption were assessed at baseline using a self-reported questionnaire. All-cause and cause-specific mortalities, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease, and digestive disease mortality, were obtained from the national death registries. Cox regression analyses were conducted to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 12.1 years, 34,699 deaths were identified. The associations of coffee and tea consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality attributable to CVD, respiratory disease, and digestive disease were nonlinear (all P nonlinear < 0.001). The association between separate coffee consumption and the risk of all-cause mortality was J-shaped, whereas that of separate tea consumption was reverse J-shaped. Drinking one cup of coffee or three cups of tea per day seemed to link with the lowest risk of mortality. In joint analyses, compared to neither coffee nor tea consumption, the combination of < 1-2 cups/day of coffee and 2-4 cups/day of tea had lower mortality risks for all-cause (HR, 0.78; 95% CI: 0.73-0.85), CVD (HR, 0.76; 95% CI: 0.64-0.91), and respiratory disease (HR, 0.69; 95% CI: 0.57-0.83) mortality. Nevertheless, the lowest HR (95% CI) of drinking both < 1-2 cup/day of coffee and ≥ 5 cups/day of tea for digestive disease mortality was 0.42 (0.34-0.53). CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective study, separate and combined coffee and tea consumption were inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality.


Assuntos
Café , Mortalidade , Chá , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/mortalidade , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Reino Unido
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