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1.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 39(4): 733-744, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600634

RESUMO

Abdominal pain is one of the most common presenting complaints to the emergency department (ED). More often than not, some degree of laboratory testing is used to narrow the differential diagnosis based on the patient's history and examination. Ordering practices are often guided by evidence, habit, consulting services, and institutional/regional culture. This review highlights relevant laboratory studies that may be ordered in the ED, as well as commentary on indications and diagnostic value of these tests.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Líquido Ascítico/química , Biomarcadores/análise , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Creatina/sangue , Eletrólitos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Testes de Função Hepática , Testes de Função Pancreática , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue
2.
J Insect Sci ; 21(5)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536080

RESUMO

Varroa destructor is among the greatest biological threats to western honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) health worldwide. Beekeepers routinely use chemical treatments to control this parasite, though overuse and mismanagement of these treatments have led to widespread resistance in Varroa populations. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an ecologically based, sustainable approach to pest management that relies on a combination of control tactics that minimize environmental impacts. Herein, we provide an in-depth review of the components of IPM in a Varroa control context. These include determining economic thresholds for the mite, identification of and monitoring for Varroa, prevention strategies, and risk conscious treatments. Furthermore, we provide a detailed review of cultural, mechanical, biological, and chemical control strategies, both longstanding and emerging, used against Varroa globally. For each control type, we describe all available treatments, their efficacies against Varroa as described in the primary scientific literature, and the obstacles to their adoption. Unfortunately, reliable IPM protocols do not exist for Varroa due to the complex biology of the mite and strong reliance on chemical control by beekeepers. To encourage beekeeper adoption, a successful IPM approach to Varroa control in managed colonies must be an improvement over conventional control methods and include cost-effective treatments that can be employed readily by beekeepers. It is our intention to provide the most thorough review of Varroa control options available, ultimately framing our discussion within the context of IPM. We hope this article is a call-to-arms against the most damaging pest managed honey bee colonies face worldwide.


Assuntos
Criação de Abelhas/métodos , Abelhas/parasitologia , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Varroidae , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Ácaros/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Varroidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Varroidae/parasitologia , Varroidae/patogenicidade
3.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(4): 339-345, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a multiplex nucleic acid assay for rapid detection of Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus and E. shiquicus based on the recombinase-aided isothermal amplification assay (RAA) and to preliminarily assess its diagnostic efficiency. METHODS: The mitochondrial genomic sequences of E. multilocularis (GenBank accession number: NC_000928), E. granulosus (GenBank accession number: NC_044548) and E. shiquicus (GenBank accession number: NC_009460) were used as target sequences, and three pairs of primers were designed based on the RAA primer design principle and synthesized for the subsequent multiple RAA amplification. The genomic DNA of E. multilocularis, E. granulosus and E. shiquicus at different concentrations and the recombinant plasmids containing the target gene at various concentrations were amplified to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of the multiplex RAA assay, and the genomic DNA of E. multilocularis, E. granulosus, E. shiquicus, Taenia multiceps, T. saginata, T. asiatica, Dipylidium caninum, T. hydatigena, Toxocara canis, Fasciola hepatica, T. pisiformis, Mesocestoides lineatus and Cryptosporidiumn canis was detected using the multiplex RAA assay to evaluate its specificity. In addition, the reaction condition of the multiplex RAA assay was optimized, and was then employed to detect the tissues with echinococcosis lesions, simulated canine fecal samples and field captured fox fecal samples to examine its application values. RESULTS: The multiplex RAA assay was effective to specifically amplify the mitochondrial gene fragments of E. multilocularis, E. granulosus and E. shiquicus within 40 min at 39 °C, with sequence lengths of 540, 430 bp and 200 bp, respectively. This multiplex RAA assay showed the minimum detection limits of 2.0, 2.5 pg/µL and 3.1 pg/µL for detection of the genomic DNA of E. multilocularis, E. granulosus and E. shiquicus, and presented the minimum detection limit of 200 copies/µL for detection of the recombinant plasmids containing E. multilocularis, E. granulosus and E. shiquicus target genes. This multiplex RAA assay was effective to simultaneously detect single and multiple infections with E. multilocularis, E. granulosus and E. shiquicus, but failed to amplify the genomic DNA of T. multiceps, T. saginata, T. asiatica, D. caninum, T. hydatigena, T. canis, F. hepatica, T. pisiformis, M. lineatus and C. canis. In addition, the optimized multiplex RAA assay was effective to detect all positive samples from the tissue samples with echinococcosis lesions, simulated canine fecal samples and field captured fox fecal samples, which was fully consistent with the detection of the single PCR assay. CONCLUSIONS: A sensitive and specific multiplex nucleic acid assay for rapid detection of E. multilocularis, E. granulosus and E. shiquicus has been successfully established.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus multilocularis , Animais , Cães/parasitologia , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus multilocularis/isolamento & purificação , Raposas/parasitologia , Ácidos Nucleicos , Recombinases , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(38): 1332-1336, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555002

RESUMO

Foodborne illnesses are a substantial and largely preventable public health problem; before 2020 the incidence of most infections transmitted commonly through food had not declined for many years. To evaluate progress toward prevention of foodborne illnesses in the United States, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program monitors the incidence of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by eight pathogens transmitted commonly through food reported by 10 U.S. sites.* FoodNet is a collaboration among CDC, 10 state health departments, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS), and the Food and Drug Administration. This report summarizes preliminary 2020 data and describes changes in incidence with those during 2017-2019. During 2020, observed incidences of infections caused by enteric pathogens decreased 26% compared with 2017-2019; infections associated with international travel decreased markedly. The extent to which these reductions reflect actual decreases in illness or decreases in case detection is unknown. On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. After the declaration, state and local officials implemented stay-at-home orders, restaurant closures, school and child care center closures, and other public health interventions to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). Federal travel restrictions were declared (1). These widespread interventions as well as other changes to daily life and hygiene behaviors, including increased handwashing, have likely changed exposures to foodborne pathogens. Other factors, such as changes in health care delivery, health care-seeking behaviors, and laboratory testing practices, might have decreased the detection of enteric infections. As the pandemic continues, surveillance of illness combined with data from other sources might help to elucidate the factors that led to the large changes in 2020; this understanding could lead to improved strategies to prevent illness. To reduce the incidence of these infections concerted efforts are needed, from farm to processing plant to restaurants and homes. Consumers can reduce their risk of foodborne illness by following safe food-handling and preparation recommendations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Parasitologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Conduta Expectante , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Nat Med ; 27(9): 1636-1645, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518679

RESUMO

The radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) vaccine provides protection against P. falciparum infection in malaria-naïve adults. Preclinical studies show that T cell-mediated immunity is required for protection and is readily induced in humans after vaccination. However, previous malaria exposure can limit immune responses and vaccine efficacy (VE) in adults. We hypothesized that infants with less previous exposure to malaria would have improved immunity and protection. We conducted a multi-arm, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 336 infants aged 5-12 months to determine the safety, tolerability, immunogenicity and efficacy of the PfSPZ Vaccine in infants in a high-transmission malaria setting in western Kenya ( NCT02687373 ). Groups of 84 infants each received 4.5 × 105, 9.0 × 105 or 1.8 × 106 PfSPZ Vaccine or saline three times at 8-week intervals. The vaccine was well tolerated; 52 (20.6%) children in the vaccine groups and 20 (23.8%) in the placebo group experienced related solicited adverse events (AEs) within 28 d postvaccination and most were mild. There was 1 grade 3-related solicited AE in the vaccine group (0.4%) and 2 in the placebo group (2.4%). Seizures were more common in the highest-dose group (14.3%) compared to 6.0% of controls, with most being attributed to malaria. There was no significant protection against P. falciparum infection in any dose group at 6 months (VE in the 9.0 × 105 dose group = -6.5%, P = 0.598, the primary statistical end point of the study). VE against clinical malaria 3 months after the last dose in the highest-dose group was 45.8% (P = 0.027), an exploratory end point. There was a dose-dependent increase in antibody responses that correlated with VE at 6 months in the lowest- and highest-dose groups. T cell responses were undetectable across all dose groups. Detection of Vδ2+Vγ9+ T cells, which have been correlated with induction of PfSPZ Vaccine T cell immunity and protection in adults, were infrequent. These data suggest that PfSPZ Vaccine-induced T cell immunity is age-dependent and may be influenced by Vδ2+Vγ9+ T cell frequency. Since there was no significant VE at 6 months in these infants, these vaccine regimens will likely not be pursued further in this age group.


Assuntos
Vacinas Antimaláricas/administração & dosagem , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Formação de Anticorpos/efeitos dos fármacos , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia/epidemiologia , Vacinas Antimaláricas/efeitos adversos , Malária Falciparum/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade , Esporozoítos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporozoítos/patogenicidade , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos
7.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 223: 112283, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In vitro and in vivo testing of new technology was performed to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of Photonic Multiphase Modulators (PMM) in cultures and in mice previously infected with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei parasites. METHODS: Cultures of P. falciparum infected-erythrocytes were exposed overnight to two generations of different APSE™ and BioPhoton-X™ PMM (C#1, R#1, R#2, D8 and D9). Growth of parasites was determined through flow cytometry or microscopy. Mice of the strain C57BL/6 were infected and treated with water exposed to second-generation APSE™ and BioPhoton-X™ PMM plus one previously untested first-generation PMM (AGN10). Parasitemia and weight loss were monitored throughout the infection until death or point of euthanasia was reached. After death, necropsy was performed on all animals and the number of days each survived was recorded. RESULTS: In vitro and in vivo testing using different APSE™- and BioPhoton-X™-designed PMM revealed an effect of D8 in lowering the growth of the parasite in vitro, while the best effect in mice was observed with D9 PMM, with a reduced weight loss and an increase in survival, although the results in lowering the parasitemia were inconclusive. D9 PMM did not generate ROS in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: APSE™ and BioPhoton-X™ optic circuit technologies can affect the growth of parasites and show protective effects in mice drinking from water treated with their PMM.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/química , Água/química , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óptica e Fotônica/métodos , Plasmodium berghei/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium berghei/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
9.
Exp Parasitol ; 229: 108154, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481863

RESUMO

The compound 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) is well-known and studies from several researchers have demonstrated its involvement in tumorigenesis. It is an analogue of pyruvic acid that inhibits ATP synthesis by inhibiting enzymes from the glycolytic pathway and oxidative phosphorylation. In this work, we investigated the effect of 3-BrPA on energy metabolism of L. amazonensis. In order to verify the effect of 3-BrPA on L. amazonensis glycolysis, we measured the activity level of three glycolytic enzymes located at different points of the pathway: (i) glucose kinases, step 1, (ii) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), step 6, and (iii) enolase, step 9. 3-BrPA, in a dose-dependent manner, significantly reduced the activity levels of all the enzymes. In addition, 3-BrPA treatment led to a reduction in the levels of phosphofruto-1-kinase (PFK) protein, suggesting that the mode of action of 3-BrPA involves the downregulation of some glycolytic enzymes. Measurement of ATP levels in promastigotes of L. amazonensis showed a significant reduction in ATP generation. The O2 consumption was also significantly inhibited in promastigotes, confirming the energy depletion effect of 3-BrPA. When 3-BrPA was added to the cells at the beginning of growth cycle, it significantly inhibited L. amazonensis proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the ability to infect macrophages was reduced by approximately 50% when promastigotes were treated with 3-BrPA. Taken together, these studies corroborate with previous reports which suggest 3-BrPA as a potential drug against pathogenic microorganisms that are reliant on glucose catabolism for ATP supply.


Assuntos
Leishmania mexicana/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Tegumentar Difusa/parasitologia , Piruvatos/farmacologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Brasil , Cricetinae , Humanos , Leishmania mexicana/enzimologia , Leishmania mexicana/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leishmania mexicana/metabolismo , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Camundongos , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548400

RESUMO

The Plasmodium falciparum proteasome is a potential antimalarial drug target. We have identified a series of amino-amide boronates that are potent and specific inhibitors of the P. falciparum 20S proteasome (Pf20S) ß5 active site and that exhibit fast-acting antimalarial activity. They selectively inhibit the growth of P. falciparum compared with a human cell line and exhibit high potency against field isolates of P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax They have a low propensity for development of resistance and possess liver stage and transmission-blocking activity. Exemplar compounds, MPI-5 and MPI-13, show potent activity against P. falciparum infections in a SCID mouse model with an oral dosing regimen that is well tolerated. We show that MPI-5 binds more strongly to Pf20S than to human constitutive 20S (Hs20Sc). Comparison of the cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structures of Pf20S and Hs20Sc in complex with MPI-5 and Pf20S in complex with the clinically used anti-cancer agent, bortezomib, reveal differences in binding modes that help to explain the selectivity. Together, this work provides insights into the 20S proteasome in P. falciparum, underpinning the design of potent and selective antimalarial proteasome inhibitors.


Assuntos
Compostos de Boro/farmacologia , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/química , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Compostos de Boro/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Boro/química , Domínio Catalítico , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/enzimologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Modelos Moleculares , Plasmodium falciparum/enzimologia , Inibidores de Proteassoma/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteassoma/química
11.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516365

RESUMO

Introduction. The identification of enteropathogens is critical for the clinical management of patients with suspected gastrointestinal infection. The FLOW multiplex PCR system (FMPS) is a semi-automated platform (FLOW System, Roche) for multiplex real-time PCR analysis.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. FMPS has greater sensitivity for the detection of enteric pathogens than standard methods such as culture, biochemical identification, immunochromatography or microscopic examination.Aim.The diagnostic performance of the FMPS was evaluated and compared to that of traditional microbiological procedures.Methodology. A total of 10 659 samples were collected and analysed over a period of 7 years. From 2013 to 2018 (every July to September), samples were processed using standard microbiological culture methods. In 2019, the FMPS was implemented using real-time PCR to detect the following enteropathogens: Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis, Cryptosporidum spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, adenovirus, norovirus and rotavirus. Standard microbiological culture methods (2013-2018) included stool culture, microscopy and immunochromatography.Results. A total of 1078 stool samples were analysed prospectively using the FMPS from July to September (2019): bacterial, parasitic and viral pathogens were identified in 15.3, 9.71 and 5.29 % of cases, respectively. During the same period of 6 years (2013-2018), the proportion of positive identifications using standard microbiological methods from 2013 to 2018 was significantly lower. A major significant recovery improvement was observed for all bacteria species tested: Shigella spp./enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) (P <0.05), Salmonella spp. (P <0.05) and Campylobacter spp. (P <0.05). Marked differences were also observed for the parasites G. intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and D. fragilis.Conclusion. These results support the value of multiplex real-time PCR analysis for the detection of enteric pathogens in laboratory diagnosis with outstanding performance in identifying labile micro-organisms. The identification of unsuspected micro-organisms for less specific clinical presentations may also impact on clinical practice and help optimize patient management.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Blastocystis hominis/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Dientamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba histolytica/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Shigella/isolamento & purificação
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 92, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466194

RESUMO

We here report the case of a 4-year-old male child presenting with congenital umbilical bud that, recently, had begun to bleed. Physical examination showed pinkish umbilical bud with blood stains but without any fistula, measuring about 1,5 cm in diameter. Abdominal ultrasound was performed, which suggested urachal sinus. Surgery revealed umbilical bud communicating, in the abdominal portion, with hyperemic, inflammatory Meckel´s diverticulum placed 90 cm away from the ileocaecal angle in which many ascaris were detected. Anatomo-pathological examination of the surgical specimen showed diverticulitis. Thus, the diagnosis of Meckel´s diverticulitis by Ascaris was retained. Resection and anastomosis with bud excision were performed. The postoperative course was simple even after a 6-month follow-up period.


Assuntos
Ascaríase/diagnóstico , Ascaris/isolamento & purificação , Diverticulite/diagnóstico , Divertículo Ileal/diagnóstico , Animais , Ascaríase/parasitologia , Ascaríase/cirurgia , Pré-Escolar , Diverticulite/parasitologia , Diverticulite/cirurgia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Divertículo Ileal/parasitologia , Divertículo Ileal/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia
13.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(8-9): 747-754, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550513

RESUMO

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) induce systemic resistance (SR) in plants, decreasing the development of phytopathogens. The FZB42 strain of Bacillus velezensis is known to induce an SR against pathogens in various plant species. Previous studies suggested that it could also influence the interactions between plants and associated pests. However, insects have developed several strategies to counteract plant defenses, including salivary proteins that allow the insect escaping detection, manipulating defensive pathways to its advantage, deactivating early signaling processes, or detoxifying secondary metabolites. Because Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB) Halyomorpha halys is highly invasive and polyphagous, we hypothesized that it could detect the PGPR-induced systemic defenses in the plant, and efficiently adapt its salivary compounds to counteract them. Therefore, we inoculated a beneficial rhizobacterium on Vicia faba roots and soil, previous to plant infestation with BMSB. Salivary gland proteome of BMSB was analyzed by LC-MS/MS and a label-free quantitative proteomic method. Among the differentially expressed proteins, most were up-regulated in salivary glands of insects exposed to PGPR-treated plants for 24 h. We could confirm that BMSB was confronted with a stress during feeding on PGPR-treated plants. The to-be-confirmed defensive state of the plant would have been rapidly detected by the invasive H. halys pest, which consequently modified its salivary proteins. Among the up-regulated proteins, many could be associated with a role in plant defense counteraction, and more especially in allelochemicals detoxification or sequestration.


Assuntos
Bacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Heterópteros/metabolismo , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/análise , Vicia faba/microbiologia , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Heterópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Regulação para Cima , Vicia faba/química , Vicia faba/parasitologia
14.
FASEB J ; 35(10): e21901, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569665

RESUMO

Chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) is one of the main causes of heart failure and sudden death in Latin America. To date, there is no available medication to prevent or reverse the onset of cardiac symptoms. CCC occurs in a scenario of disrupted calcium dynamics and enhanced oxidative stress, which combined, may favor the hyper activation of calcium/calmodulin (Ca2+ /CaM)-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) (Ca2+ /CaM-CaMKII) pathway, which is fundamental for heart physiology and it is implicated in other cardiac diseases. Here, we evaluated the association between Ca2+ /CaM-CaMKII in the electro-mechanical (dys)function of the heart in the early stage of chronic experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection. We observed that in vitro and ex vivo inhibition of Ca2+ /CaM-CaMKII reversed the arrhythmic profile of isolated hearts and isolated left-ventricles cardiomyocytes. The benefits of the limited Ca2+ /CaM-CaMKII activation to cardiomyocytes' electrical properties are partially related to the restoration of Ca2+ dynamics in a damaged cellular environment created after T. cruzi infection. Moreover, Ca2+ /CaM-CaMKII inhibition prevented the onset of arrhythmic contractions on isolated heart preparations of chagasic mice and restored the responsiveness to the increase in the left-ventricle pre-load. Taken together, our data provide the first experimental evidence for the potential of targeting Ca2+ /CaM-CaMKII pathway as a novel therapeutic target to treat CCC.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/metabolismo , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/parasitologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/parasitologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6669742, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458370

RESUMO

Intestinal parasites are responsible for one of the major health problems like food contamination with socioeconomic effects in the world with a prevalence rate of 30-60%, in developing countries that lie within tropical and subtropical areas. They pose a reasonable public health burden, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, including Ethiopia. Globally, due to intestinal parasitic infections, around 3.5 billion people are affected and more than 200,000 deaths are reported annually. Around 50000 deaths yearly are caused by intestinal parasites in Ethiopia. As such, intestinal parasites perceived global and local burdens to various countries. The risk of food contamination depends largely on the health status of the food handlers, their hygiene, knowledge, and practice of food hygiene. Food handlers with poor personal hygiene and sanitation conditions are the major potential sources of intestinal helminthes and protozoa worldwide. The proposed study was aimed at evaluating prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and their associated factors among food handlers working in selected catering establishments. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bule Hora Town from March to April 2020. A total of 136 catering establishments were selected using a systematic sampling technique. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in this study was 46.3%. Entamoeba histolytica was the most predominant parasite (33.3%, i.e., 21/63) while Giardia lamblia was the least (11.1%, i.e., 7/63). Consumption of vended or borehole water and hygienic practices such as hand washing before eating, after using toilet, before cooking and trimming of finger nail and wearing proper working clothes and shoes were statistically significant with intestinal parasitic infection (P < 0.05). Generally, the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in this study was high and contributed by low socioeconomic status and poor environmental and personal hygiene. Measures including education on personal hygiene, environmental sanitation, drinking water supply, regular medical checkups, and treatment should be taken into account to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasites.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Entamoeba histolytica/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/complicações , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/complicações , Giardíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Higiene , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/economia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/economia , Exposição Ocupacional , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361721

RESUMO

To improve the proinsecticidal activity and phloem mobility of amino acid-tralopyril conjugates further, nine conjugates were designed and synthesized by introducing glutamic acid to tralopyril, and the length of the linker between glutamic acid and tralopyril ranged from 2 atoms to 10 atoms. The results of insecticidal activity against the third-instar larvae of P. xylostella showed that conjugates 42, 43, 44,and 45 (straight-chain containing 2-5 atoms) exhibited good insecticidal activity, and their LC50 values were 0.2397 ± 0.0366, 0.4413 ± 0.0647, 0.4400 ± 0.0624, and 0.4602 ± 0.0655 mM, respectively. The concentrations of conjugates 43-45 were higher than that of conjugate 42 in the phloem sap at 2 h, and conjugate 43 showed the highest concentration. The introduction of glutamic acid can improve phloem mobility. The in vivo metabolism of conjugates 42 and 43 was investigated in P. xylostella, and the parent compound tralopyril was detected at concentrations of 0.5950 and 0.3172 nmol/kg, respectively. According to the above results, conjugates 42 and 43 were potential phloem mobile pro-insecticide candidates.


Assuntos
Ácido Glutâmico/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Biotransformação , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Inseticidas/síntese química , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/metabolismo , Floema/metabolismo , Floema/parasitologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/parasitologia , Pró-Fármacos/síntese química , Pró-Fármacos/metabolismo , Piretrinas/metabolismo , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/síntese química , Pirróis/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
Acta Trop ; 223: 106069, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339668

RESUMO

Balantioides coli is a protozoan that infects different hosts species, including humans, with zoonotic transmission. The parasite, which lives in the large intestine and in other organs, can lead to serious infections that may culminate in death. Information about human balantidiasis is generally still very scanty. In view of the above, the purpose of this study was to analyze the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics of human balantidiasis based on a systematic review and meta-analysis. The scientific articles were retrieved from various databases and were subjected to descriptive analyses, chi-squared tests, and summarized on a forest plot and the heterogeneity index (I2). A total of 103 articles were eligible and included in this review. Out of these 103 articles, 75 were clinical case reports and 28 were epidemiological studies, indicating a frequency of 997 (3.98%) people potentially infected with B. coli. The publication dates of the analyzed articles ranged from 1910 to 2020, but the majority (68.9%) were published between 1998 and 2020. A considerable number of these articles were published in South America and Asia, mostly in Brazil and India, respectively. However, in Africa, Ethiopia, was observed the higher number of infected people (47.5%). A significant association (p < 0.05) was identified between proximity to pigs and positivity for B. coli, since more than 16% infected people were in proximity with pigs and/or their excreta. Infection by the protozoan was classified mainly as intestinal, and the predominant symptom was dysentery. Extraintestinal infections were found in 27 individuals, with colonization of the genitourinary tract frequently highlighted. Direct examination (17.2%), followed by an association of direct examination and sedimentation (45.7%), were the most commonly performed parasitological techniques, and the most frequently diagnosed form was trophozoites, corresponding to 22.5% of cases. The most common treatment for parasitized individuals (11.8%) was an association of tetracycline drugs with nitroimidazole derivatives. The articles retrieved, mainly epidemiological ones, used in meta-analysis showed high heterogeneity (I2> 50%, p < 0.05), impairing the retrieval and comparison of results. Some articles were found to provide incomplete information, making it difficult to retrieve and analyze variables. However, this review enabled us to compile and restate factors that appear to be associated with cases of human balantidiasis.


Assuntos
Balantidíase , Balantidium , Animais , Balantidíase/epidemiologia , Brasil , Etiópia , Humanos , Índia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
19.
Acta Trop ; 223: 106079, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363777

RESUMO

Parasitic infections caused by Opisthorchis viverrini and Strongyloides stercoralis remain a major public health threat in the Greater Mekong Sub-region. An understanding of climate and other environmental influences on the geographical distribution and emergence of parasitic diseases is a crucial step to guide targeted control and prevention programs. A parasitological survey was conducted from 2008 to 2013 and included 12,554 individuals (age between 20 and 60 years) from 142 villages in five districts in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand. Geographical information systems, remote sensing technologies and a Bayesian geostatistical framework were used to develop models for O. viverrini and S. stercoralis mono- and co-infections in areas where both parasites are known to co-occur. The results indicate that male sex, increased age, altitude, precipitation, and land surface temperature have influenced the infection rate and geographical distribution of mono- and co-infections of O. viverrini and S. stercoralis in this area. Males were 6.69 times (95% CrI: 5.26-8.58) more likely to have O. viverrini - S. stercoralis co-infection. We observed that O. viverrini and S. stercoralis mono-infections display distinct spatial pattern, while co-infection is predicted in the center and southeast of the study area. The observed spatial clustering of O. viverrini and S. stercoralis provides valuable information for the spatial targeting of prevention interventions in this area.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Opistorquíase , Estrongiloidíase , Adulto , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Opistorquíase/complicações , Opistorquíase/epidemiologia , Opisthorchis , Prevalência , Strongyloides stercoralis , Estrongiloidíase/complicações , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Acta Trop ; 223: 106083, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364896

RESUMO

Dirofilariosis by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens is endemic in dogs from countries of the Mediterranean basin. Both species may infect humans, with most of the infected patients remaining asymptomatic. Based on the recent description of the southernmost hyperendemic European focus of heartworm disease in dogs from the Pelagie archipelagos, we performed a serological and molecular survey in human population of that area. Human blood samples were collected in the islands of Linosa (n=101) and Lampedusa (n=296) and tested by ELISA and molecular test for the detection of D. immitis and D. repens. Samples were also screened for filarioid-associated endosymbionts, Wolbachia sp. The seroprevalence of D. immitis and D. repens was, respectively, 7.9% and 3.96% in Linosa, and 7.77% and 19.93% in Lampedusa. Out of 397 human blood samples tested molecularly, 4 scored positive (1%) for Dirofilaria spp. by qPCR (i.e., three for D. immitis and one for D. repens) and 6 (1.5%) for Wolbachia. Of the qPCR positive for Dirofilaria spp., only D. repens was amplified by cPCR and was positive for Wolbachia. In the phylogenetic analysis, the sequence of Wolbachia detected in D. repens positive samples clustered along with other C supergroup filarioids. Our results overlap with the recent prevalence data collected on dogs from the same area, where D. immitis is prevalent in Linosa and D. repens prevails in Lampedusa. Molecular detection of D. immitis in human blood is quite unusual considering that humans are dead-end hosts for dirofilarial infection and most of the human cases described so far in Europe were ascribed to D. repens. An integrative diagnostic approach using serum analysis and Wolbachia detection is also presented. In endemic areas for canine dirofilarioses humans are exposed to the infection, suggesting the importance of One Health approach in diagnosing, treating and controlling this zoonotic parasitosis.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilaria repens , Dirofilariose , Zoonoses , Animais , Dirofilaria immitis/genética , Dirofilaria repens/genética , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Ilhas , Itália , Filogenia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/parasitologia
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