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1.
J Helminthol ; 96: e59, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924599

RESUMO

Gastropod-associated nematodes have been previously studied and documented worldwide, with some species forming host-specific association as obligate parasites of molluscs while others form intermediate and temporary association. Philippinella moellendorffi from Imelda, Zamboanga Sibugay, Philippines, were collected, washed and maintained in the laboratory until death. Cadavers were placed on nutrient agar to allow nematode proliferation. Nematode pure culture was obtained using one gravid female for propagation. Morphology and molecular analyses (18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rDNA) were employed as diagnostic tools in identifying the nematode species isolated from P. moellendorffi. The newly isolated nematode was identified as Caenorhabditis brenneri, thus designated as C. brenneri strain IZSP from the Philippines. This is the first record of C. brenneri isolated from the terrestrial slug P. moellendorffi.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis , Gastrópodes , Nematoides , Rabditídios , Animais , Cadáver , Caenorhabditis/genética , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Gastrópodes/parasitologia , Filipinas , Filogenia , Rabditídios/anatomia & histologia
2.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 150: 125-130, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924796

RESUMO

The release of ornamental pets outside their native range can directly or indirectly impact the recipient community, e.g. via the co-introduction of associated pathogens. However, studies on parasites associated with non-native species, in particular freshwater decapods, have focused mainly on a limited set of pathogens. Here we provide data for the first time on microsporidian parasites of the non-native ornamental shrimp Neocaridina davidi, collected in a stream in Germany. Furthermore, we confirm an ongoing range expansion of the warm-adapted N. davidi from thermally polluted colder water. In the investigated shrimps, the microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei and an unknown microsporidian isolate were detected, raising concerns about their transmission potential and pathogenicity on native crustacean species.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Enterocytozoon , Microsporídios , Penaeidae , Animais , Enterocytozoon/genética , Penaeidae/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Rios
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(3): e006522, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920469

RESUMO

Parasitism of Colossoma macropomum is of particular concern because it is the most commonly farmed native fish species in Brazil. Nevertheless, the parasitic fauna of this species in the state of Acre has been little studied. For this reason, an evaluation was made of the parasitic fauna of farmed C. macropomum in the municipality of Rio Branco in southwestern Amazon. Four monogenean species were found in the 122 fish examined: Anacanthorus spathulatus, Linguadactyloides brinkmanni, Notozothecium janauachensis and Mymarothecium boegeri. The most prevalent species was A. spathulatus (50%), followed by N. janauachensis (44.3%), M. boegeri (20.5%) and L. brinkmanni (9.0%). These results are the first data on the ecological indices of monogeneans in tambaqui in the state of Acre and will be useful for future comparisons of the influence of environmental factors on the parasite-host relationship.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Doenças dos Peixes , Trematódeos , Animais , Brasil , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(3): e007122, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920470

RESUMO

Monogeneans Pricea multae naturally infested 42 of the 120 (35%) mackerel fish (Scomberomorus commerson) examined. For the first time, an infestation was discovered off the coast of Jubil in the Arabian Gulf of Saudi Arabia. Based on the structure clarified through light and electron microscopy of mounted specimens and molecular analysis of rDNA and measurements of this monogenean parasite was identified as P. multae. The tegumental surface of the parasite was characterized by tegumental ridges running transversally, generating folds in both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the body at regular intervals. The study clarified the importance and function of the micro-structures, such as tegumental folds, perforations, sensory ganglia present on the parasite's surface, and the larger hamulus supported by a relatively unmodified internal spine. This monogenean parasite has adapted to its host infestation site uniquely.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Trematódeos , Animais , Peixes/parasitologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Arábia Saudita
5.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(3): e007222, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920471

RESUMO

Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic zoonosis in Brazil. Dogs are the main hosts in urban environments. The treatment has gained popularity since the Brazilian government authorized miltefosine for canine treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and parasitological impact of short-term treatment with miltefosine and allopurinol, alone and in combination. We evaluated the ability of pharmacotherapy to reduce clinical signs of disease, antibody levels using the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and skin parasite load via qPCR after 28 days of treatment. The therapeutic protocols promoted a significant decline in clinical signs and in the skin parasite load in dogs (p < 0.01). We observed a moderate correlation between the skin parasite load and the clinical score in all three treatment groups (r > 0.5) Antibody levels did not decrease in this short period. It was concluded that the treatment with allopurinol reduced the number of parasites in the skin of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis in the short term. However, its efficiency is potentiated when associated with miltefosine.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Doenças do Cão , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral , Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados
6.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271640, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913975

RESUMO

Entamoeba are amoeboid extracellular parasites that represent an important group of organisms for which the regulatory networks must be examined to better understand how genes and functional processes are interrelated. In this work, we inferred the gene regulatory networks (GRNs) in four Entamoeba species, E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. nuttalli, and E. invadens, and the GRN topological properties and the corresponding biological functions were evaluated. From these analyses, we determined that transcription factors (TFs) of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. nuttalli are associated mainly with the LIM family, while the TFs in E. invadens are associated with the RRM_1 family. In addition, we identified that EHI_044890 regulates 121 genes in E. histolytica, EDI_297980 regulates 284 genes in E. dispar, ENU1_120230 regulates 195 genes in E. nuttalli, and EIN_249270 regulates 257 genes in E. invadens. Finally, we identified that three types of processes, Macromolecule metabolic process, Cellular macromolecule metabolic process, and Cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, are the main biological processes for each network. The results described in this work can be used as a basis for the study of gene regulation in these organisms.


Assuntos
Entamoeba histolytica , Entamoeba , Entamebíase , Parasitos , Animais , Entamoeba/genética , Entamoeba histolytica/genética , Entamebíase/genética , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 274, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection of Neospora caninum, an important obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, causes reproductive dysfunctions (e.g. abortions) in ruminants (e.g. cattle, sheep and goats), leading to serious economic losses of livestock worldwide, but the pathogenic mechanisms of N. caninum are poorly understood. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported to be closely associated with pathogenesis of many infectious diseases. However, the effect of N. caninum infection on the mitochondrial function of hosts remains unclear. METHODS: The effects of N. caninum infection on mitochondrial dysfunction in caprine endometrial epithelial cells (EECs), including intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy numbers and ultrastructure of mitochondria, were studied by using JC-1, DCFH-DA, ATP assay kits, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and transmission electron microscopy, respectively, and the regulatory roles of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) on mitochondrial dysfunction, autophagy and N. caninum propagation in caprine EECs were investigated by using two drugs, namely resveratrol (an activator of SIRT1) and Ex 527 (an inhibitor of SIRT1). RESULTS: The current study found that N. caninum infection induced mitochondrial dysfunction of caprine EECs, including accumulation of intracellular ROS, significant reductions of MMP, ATP contents, mtDNA copy numbers and damaged ultrastructure of mitochondria. Downregulated expression of SIRT1 was also detected in caprine EECs infected with N. caninum. Treatments using resveratrol and Ex 527 to caprine EECs showed that dysregulation of SIRT1 significantly reversed mitochondrial dysfunction of cells caused by N. caninum infection. Furthermore, using resveratrol and Ex 527, SIRT1 expression was found to be negatively associated with autophagy induced by N. caninum infection in caprine EECs, and the intracellular propagation of N. caninum tachyzoites in caprine EECs was negatively affected by SIRT1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that N. caninum infection induced mitochondrial dysfunction by downregulating SIRT1, and downregulation of SIRT1 promoted cell autophagy and intracellular proliferation of N. caninum tachyzoites in caprine EECs. The findings suggested a potential role of SIRT1 as a target to develop control strategies against N. caninum infection.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Neospora , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Animais , Bovinos , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Células Epiteliais , Feminino , Cabras , Mitocôndrias/genética , Neospora/genética , Gravidez , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Resveratrol , Ovinos/genética , Sirtuína 1/genética
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 275, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avian haemosporidia infect both domestic and wild birds, causing anemia, acute tissue degeneration, and depopulation in wild birds. Poultry and wild birds have been reported as common reservoirs of haemosporidia, but limited information is available for red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) in China. The present study investigated the prevalence and molecular characterization of haemosporidia in red junglefowl. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 234 red junglefowl from Jinghong City of Yunnan Province, and genomic DNA was extracted from these samples. The prevalence of haemosporidia was determined by nested PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene. Molecular characterization was investigated based on phylogenetic analysis of cytb sequences, and associated risk factors were analyzed using the Chi-square (χ2) test. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of haemosporidia was 74.8% (175/234), and three species were identified, namely Haemoproteus enucleator, Leucocytozoon californicus, and Plasmodium juxtanucleare. The prevalence of haemosporidia in adult fowl (81.1%, 107/132) was significantly higher (χ2 = 6.32, df = 1, P = 0.012) than that in juveniles (66.7%, 68/102). Three novel haemosporidian lineages were revealed. CONCLUSIONS: This study examined the prevalence and identified species of avian haemosporidians in red junglefowl, providing new information on the molecular epidemiology and geographical distribution of haemosporidian parasites. Our results indicated high prevalence and diverse species distribution of these haemosporidians in red junglefowl. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of haemosporidian infection in red junglefowl in China.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Haemosporida , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Galinhas , China/epidemiologia , Citocromos b/genética , Haemosporida/genética , Filogenia , Fatores de Risco
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13461, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931886

RESUMO

Avian schistosomes, comprise a diverse and widespread group of trematodes known for their surprising ability to switch into new hosts and habitats. Despite the considerable research attention on avian schistosomes as causatives of the human cercarial dermatitis, less it is known about the diversity, geographical range and host associations of the marine representatives. Our molecular analyses inferred from cox1 and 28S DNA sequence data revealed presence of two schistosome species, Ornithobilharzia canaliculata (Rudolphi, 1819) Odhner, 1912 and a putative new species of Austrobilharzia Johnston, 1917. Molecular elucidation of the life-cycle of O. canaliculata was achieved for the first time via matching novel and published sequence data from adult and larval stages. This is the first record of Ornithobilharzia from the Persian Gulf and globally the first record of this genus in a potamidid snail host. Our study provides: (i) new host and distribution records for major etiological agents of cercarial dermatitis and contributes important information on host-parasite relationships; (ii) highlights the importance of the molecular systematics in the assessment of schistosome diversity; and (iii) calls for further surveys to reach a better understanding of the schistosome diversity and patterns of relationships among them, host associations, transmission strategies and distribution coverage.


Assuntos
Dermatite , Schistosomatidae , Esquistossomose , Animais , Humanos , Oceano Índico , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética , Filogenia , Schistosoma , Schistosomatidae/genética , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Caramujos/parasitologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13440, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927296

RESUMO

Goat warble fly infestation (GWFI) is a subcutaneous myiasis caused by larvae of Przhevalskiana silenus, an insect belonging to the order Diptera. The diagnosis of GWFI is challenging in the early larval instars (L1 and L2) as they are occult under the skin and hair coat causing prolonged economic loss in form of meat and hide damage. This necessitates early diagnosis for disease control at herd level and its prophylactic management to prevent economic losses. Hypodermins, a class of serine proteases from Hypoderminae subfamily have been used as serodiagnostic antigens for the past four decades for diagnosis of warble fly myiasis. In this study,the immunodominant antigen Hypodermin C (HyC) from P. silenus has been recombinantly expressed in E. coli and immunogenic characterisation of expressed protein was done. The protein shows hallmark residues in conserved cysteine and catalytic triad typical of serine proteases along with similar profile of immunoreactivity towards Hypoderminae infestation. The present study reports an optimised indirect-ELISA based on recombinant HyC derived from P. silenus for early diagnosis of GWFI. The optimised indirect ELISA provides a sensitive and specific immunodiagnostic for mass surveillance of the GWFI with diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of 96% and 100%, respectively and not showing any cross reactivity against other important parasitic and bacterial diseases of goats. This study presents the first report of indirect ELISA based on recombinant Hypodermin C antigen derived from P. silenus for the serosurveillance of goat warble fly disease.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Doenças das Cabras , Miíase , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Escherichia coli , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Cabras/parasitologia , Larva , Miíase/diagnóstico , Miíase/parasitologia , Miíase/veterinária , Serina Endopeptidases , Serina Proteases , Testes Sorológicos
11.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(8): 1074-1076, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952645

RESUMO

Tackling the ancient infectious foe of malaria, Xie et al. (2022) uncover a novel class of nucleoside analogs that selectively hijack and inhibit the tyrosine tRNA synthase of the parasite. With high potency, good oral bioavailability, and minimal host cell toxicity, these inhibitors show promise as next-generation antimalarials.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária , Adenosina , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Ácidos Sulfônicos/uso terapêutico
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13664, 2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953527

RESUMO

Parasite biodiversity in cetaceans represents a neglected component of the marine ecosystem. This study aimed to investigate the distribution and genetic diversity of anisakid nematodes of the genus Anisakis sampled in cetaceans from the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. A total of 478 adults and pre-adults of Anisakis spp. was identified by a multilocus genetic approach (mtDNA cox2, EF1 α - 1 nDNA and nas 10 nDNA gene loci) from 11 cetacean species. A clear pattern of host preference was observed for Anisakis spp. at cetacean family level: A. simplex (s.s.) and A. pegreffii infected mainly delphinids; A. physeteris and A. brevispiculata were present only in physeterids, and A. ziphidarum occurred in ziphiids. The role of cetacean host populations from different waters in shaping the population genetic structure of A. simplex (s.s.), A. pegreffii and A. physeteris was investigated for the first time. Significant genetic sub-structuring was found in A. simplex (s.s.) populations of the Norwegian Sea and the North Sea compared to those of the Iberian Atlantic, as well as in A. pegreffii populations of the Adriatic and the Tyrrhenian Seas compared to those of the Iberian Atlantic waters. Substantial genetic homogeneity was detected in the Mediterranean Sea population of A. physeteris. This study highlights a strong preference by some Anisakis spp. for certain cetacean species or families. Information about anisakid biodiversity in their cetacean definitive hosts, which are apex predators of marine ecosystems, acquires particular importance for conservation measures in the context of global climate change phenomena.


Assuntos
Anisakis , Doenças dos Peixes , Animais , Anisakis/genética , Oceano Atlântico , Cetáceos/genética , Ecossistema , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Larva/genética , Mar Mediterrâneo , Filogenia
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 290, 2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has provided an alternative strategy to study the composition of nematode communities with increased resolution and sensitivity. However, the handling and processing of gigabytes worth of amplicon sequence data produced by an NGS platform is still a major hurdle, limiting the use and adoption of faster and more convenient analysis software. METHODS: In total 32 paired, fecal samples from Swedish sheep flocks were cultured and the larvae subsequently harvested subjected to internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) amplicon sequencing using the PacBio platform. Samples were analyzed with three different bioinformatic pipelines, i.e. the DADA2, Mothur and SCATA pipelines, to determine species composition and richness. RESULTS: For the the major species tested in this study (Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcinta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis) neither relative abundances nor species diversity differed significantly between the three pipelines, effectively showing that all three analysis pipelines, although different in their approaches, yield nearly identical outcomes. In addition, the samples analyzed here had especially high frequencies of H. contortus (90-95% across the three pipelines) both before and after sample treatment, followed by T. circumcinta (3.5-4%). This shows that H. contortus is the parasite of primary importance in contemporary Swedish sheep farms struggling with anthelmintic resistance. Finally, although on average a significant reduction in egg counts was achieved post-treatment, no significant shifts in major species relative frequencies occurred, indicating highly rigid community structures at sheep farms where anthelmintic resistance has been reported. CONCLUSIONS: The findings presented here further contribute to the development and application of NGS technology to study nemabiome compositions in sheep, in addition to expanding our understanding about the most recent changes in parasite species abundances from Swedish sheep farms struggling with anthelmintic resistance.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Haemonchus , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Biologia Computacional , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 289, 2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Species belonging to the subgenus Sauroleishmania are parasites of reptiles, and traditionally considered to be non-pathogenic to mammals. Knowledge of the development of these parasites in sand flies and their mechanism of transmission is currently lacking. The main aim of this study was to test the susceptibility of various sand fly species to infection by two Sauroleishmania species, focusing on the localization of parasites in the sand fly intestinal tract. METHODS: The development of Leishmania (Sauroleishmania [S.]) adleri and Leishmania (S.) hoogstraali was studied in six sand fly species (Phlebotomus orientalis, P. argentipes, P. sergenti, P. papatasi, P. duboscqi, Sergentomyia schwetzi). Sand flies were fed through a chick-skin membrane on blood containing Sauroleishmania promastigotes, and they were dissected at various time intervals post blood meal (PBM). Guts were examined microscopically for the presence of parasites, and the intensity and localizations of infections were recorded. Morphological forms of both Sauroleishmania species developing in P. orientalis were analyzed. Experimental infections of geckos using sand fly-derived promastigotes were also performed, and the reptiles were repeatedly examined for Sauroleishmania infection by xenodiagnosis and PCR analysis. RESULTS: High infection rates for both Sauroleishmania species were observed in P. orientalis and P. argentipes, with the parasites migrating anteriorly and undergoing a peripylarian type of development, including colonization of the stomodeal valve. Conversely, the development of L. (S.) adleri in P. sergenti, P. papatasi and Se. schwetzi was restricted to the sand fly hindgut (hypopylarian type of development). Five morphological forms were distinguished for both Sauroleishmania species developing in P. orientalis. All experimentally infected geckos scored negative for Sauroleishmania based on xenodiagnosis and molecular analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that Sauroleishmania promastigotes can undergo either a peripylarian or hypopylarian type of development in the sand fly intestinal tract, depending on the sand fly species infected. We demonstrated that P. argentipes and P. orientalis, two sand fly species known as permissive vectors for mammalian parasites of subgenus Leishmania, are also highly susceptible to Sauroleishmania as the parasites developed mature late-stage infections, including colonization of the sand fly stomodeal valve. Thus, the role of Phlebotomus sand flies in transmission of Sauroleishmania should be reconsidered and further investigated.


Assuntos
Leishmania , Lagartos , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Animais , Mamíferos , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Xenodiagnóstico
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954902

RESUMO

Liver cancer is the most common cancer in Northern Thailand, mainly due to the dietary preference for raw fish, which can lead to infection by the parasite, O. viverrini, a causal agent of cholangiocarcinoma. We conducted a temporal trend analysis of cross-sectional incidence rates of liver cancer in Lampang, Northern Thailand. Liver cancer data from 1993-2012 were extracted from Lampang Cancer Registry. The multiple imputation by chained equations method was used to impute missing histology data. Imputed data were analyzed using Joinpoint and age-period-cohort (APC) models to characterize the incidence rates by gender, region, and histology, considering hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). We observed a significant annual increase in CCA incidence and a considerable decrease in HCC incidence for both genders in Lampang. The APC analysis suggested that CCA incidence rates were higher in older ages, younger cohorts, and later years of diagnosis. In contrast, HCC incidence rates were higher in older generations and earlier years of diagnosis. Further studies of potential risk factors of CCA are needed to better understand and address the increasing burden of CCA in Lampang. Our findings may help to draw public attention to cholangiocarcinoma prevention and control in Northern Thailand.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Colangiocarcinoma , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Animais , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/parasitologia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Colangiocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Colangiocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Colangiocarcinoma/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Tailândia/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272560, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distribution of schistosomiasis is more focal due to spatial heterogeneities in intermediate host snail dynamics and water contact behavior of humans. This makes the search for new transmission foci of schistosomiasis and its connection with malacologically receptive water bodies essential for effective control of its transmission. This study was intended to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren and Schistosoma mansoni transmission in Koga irrigation scheme surroundings, northwest Ethiopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional parasitological and malacological surveys were conducted in three schools and nearby water bodies, respectively around Koga irrigation scheme. Stool specimens were collected from 421 randomly selected schoolchildren and microscopically examined using Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration methods. Malacological surveys were carried out and the identified Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails were screened for schistosome infection. Swiss albino mice were exposed to schistosome cercariae shed by Biomphalaria pfeifferi for definite identification of Schistosoma species. RESULTS: Among the examined schoolchildren, 22.6% (95% CI: 18.7%-26.9%) were positive for at least one intestinal helminths species. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most frequent intestinal helminth detected among forty (9.5%) children. Schistosoma mansoni was detected among 4.8% (95% CI: 2.9%-7.2%) of children and its prevalence was significantly higher among male children (p = 0.038) and those attending in Mengesha Jemberie Primary School (p = 0.044). Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails were identified in water bodies in close proximity to Mengesha Jemberie and Wotete Abay Primay schools. Schistosoma mansoni adult worms were harvested after exposure of mice to cercariae shed from Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails collected from water bodies nearby Mengesha Jemberie Primary School. CONCLUSIONS: Schistosoma mansoni infection of schoolchildren, findings of schistosome infected snails and establishment of mice infection confirm that transmission is taking place in the study areas. Hence, snail control and other measures such as provision of sanitary facilities and health education are recommended.


Assuntos
Biomphalaria , Schistosomatidae , Esquistossomose mansoni , Esquistossomose , Adulto , Animais , Biomphalaria/parasitologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Helmintíase , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Masculino , Camundongos , Prevalência , Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Caramujos , Água
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(8): e0010661, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943970

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a serious and widespread parasitic disease caused by infection with Schistosoma. Because the parasite's eggs are primarily responsible for schistosomiasis dissemination and pathogenesis, inhibiting egg production is a potential approach to control the spread and severity of the disease. The bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins represent promising targets for the development of epigenetic drugs against Schistosoma. JQ-1 is a selective inhibitor of the BET protein family. In the present study, JQ-1 was applied to S. japonicum in vitro. By using laser confocal scanning microscopy and EdU incorporation assays, we showed that application of JQ-1 to worms in vitro affected egg laying and the development of both the male and female reproductive systems. JQ-1 also inhibited the expression of the reproductive-related genes SjPlk1 and SjNanos1 in S. japonicum. Mice infected with S. japonicum were treated with JQ-1 during egg granuloma formation. JQ-1 treatment significantly reduced the size of the liver granulomas and levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in mice and suppressed both egg laying and the development of male and female S. japonicum reproductive systems in vivo. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of some proinflammatory cytokines were decreased in the parasites. Our findings suggest that JQ-1 treatment attenuates S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granuloma due at least in part to suppressing the development of the reproductive system and egg production of S. japonicum. These findings further suggest that JQ-1 or other BET inhibitors warrant additional study as a new approach for the treatment or prevention of schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Hepatite , Schistosoma japonicum , Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Animais , Feminino , Genitália Feminina , Granuloma/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Esquistossomose Japônica/parasitologia
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(8): e0010650, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943980

RESUMO

The trypanosomatid protist Leishmania tarentolae is a saurian-associated parasite vectored by the Sergentomyia minuta sand fly. This study aimed to confirm the circulation of L. infantum and L. tarentolae in sand flies, reptiles and dogs and to isolate new strains of these protists. Reptilian and sheltered dog blood samples were collected, and sand flies were captured. Samples were tested for Leishmania spp. using duplex real-time PCR (dqPCR) and real-time PCR (qPCR); the origin of blood meal was identified in engorged sand flies by conventional PCR. The reptilian blood and intestinal content of sand fly females were cultured. Dog sera were tested by IFAT using both Leishmania species. Four Tarentola mauritanica geckoes were molecularly positive for L. infantum or L. tarentolae, with no co-infections; moreover, amastigote-like forms of L. infantum were observed in the bone marrow. 24/294 sand flies scored positive for Leishmania spp. by dqPCR, 21 S. minuta and two Phlebotomus perniciosus were positive for L. tarentolae, while only a single Ph. perniciosus was positive for L. infantum. Blood meal analysis confirmed reptile and dog in S. minuta, dog and human in Ph. perniciosus and dog in Phlebotomus neglectus. Two axenic strains of L. tarentolae were obtained. Twelve of 19 dogs scored positive for L. infantum and L. tarentolae by IFAT and three of them also for L. infantum by dqPCR, and six by qPCR. These data confirm the sympatric circulation of L. infantum and L. tarentolae in geckoes, sand flies, and dogs, and suggest that geckoes may be infected with L. infantum.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum , Lagartos , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmania infantum/genética , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Psychodidae/parasitologia
19.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(3): e005622, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946612

RESUMO

The objectives of the present study were: (1) to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. sporulated oocysts in calves from 26 Municipalities in the Central Zone of the State of Veracruz, Mexico, (2) to identify the Eimeria spp. infecting calves, and (3) to identify the risk factors associated with the presence of Eimeria spp. in tropical cattle. A total of 930 individual fecal samples were analyzed by using the McMaster technique; then, oocysts were maintained in 2.5% potassium dichromate to allow sporulation. The general prevalence of calves with Eimeria spp. oocysts was 39.7% (370/930). Of a total of 10 identified species, Eimeria canadensis was the most observed, followed by Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii. The statistical analysis showed an association between the age of the calves (5 to 9 months), the presence of other animals, the physiographic regions and the restricted type of husbandry with the presence of Eimeria spp. in calves (P<0.05). Protective risk factors, such as: routine coprological analysis was also associated with a decrease in infection. These data demonstrate the presence of coccidia in cattle from the State of Veracruz, additionally to the necessary measures that must be taken to control this parasitosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Eimeria , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , México/epidemiologia , Oocistos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
20.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(3): e006622, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946613

RESUMO

A dog that shared habitat with domestic animals in a cattle farm and that was exposed to wildlife was taken to a private practitioner for clinical examination. The analyses conducted on the patient revealed the presence of Babesia bigemina by a molecular test. Clinical signs such as lethargy, anorexia and hyperthermia > 39 °C, pale mucous membranes and blood urine were observed in the patient. The animal was treated with imidocarb dipropionate (two doses each 0.5 ml/10 kg b.w. at an interval of 14 days). On treatment day 7, the clinical signs were mostly reduced. On day 30, PCR was carried out to assess the efficacy of the treatment, with a negative result. This case represents the first report of babesiosis due to B. bigemina in a dog living on a cattle farm in Mexico. It indicates the lower host specify of these pathogens and that dogs can play a role as sentinels of vector-borne parasites in livestock animals.


Assuntos
Babesia , Babesiose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/diagnóstico , Babesiose/tratamento farmacológico , Babesiose/parasitologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , México , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
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