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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4169, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234124

RESUMO

Reports of P. vivax infections among Duffy-negative hosts have accumulated throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Despite this growing body of evidence, no nationally representative epidemiological surveys of P. vivax in sub-Saharan Africa have been performed. To overcome this gap in knowledge, we screened over 17,000 adults in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) for P. vivax using samples from the 2013-2014 Demographic Health Survey. Overall, we found a 2.97% (95% CI: 2.28%, 3.65%) prevalence of P. vivax infections across the DRC. Infections were associated with few risk-factors and demonstrated a relatively flat distribution of prevalence across space with focal regions of relatively higher prevalence in the north and northeast. Mitochondrial genomes suggested that DRC P. vivax were distinct from circulating non-human ape strains and an ancestral European P. vivax strain, and instead may be part of a separate contemporary clade. Our findings suggest P. vivax is diffusely spread across the DRC at a low prevalence, which may be associated with long-term carriage of low parasitemia, frequent relapses, or a general pool of infections with limited forward propagation.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Portador Sadio/diagnóstico , Portador Sadio/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Vivax/diagnóstico , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4226, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244481

RESUMO

RIFIN, a large family of Plasmodium variant surface antigens, plays a crucial role in malaria pathogenesis by mediating immune suppression through activation of inhibitory receptors such as LAIR1, and antibodies with LAIR1 inserts have been identified that bind infected erythrocytes through RIFIN. However, details of RIFIN-mediated LAIR1 recognition and receptor activation have been unclear. Here, we use negative-stain EM to define the architecture of LAIR1-inserted antibodies and determine crystal structures of RIFIN-variable 2 (V2) domain in complex with a LAIR1 domain. These structures reveal the LAIR1-binding region of RIFIN to be hydrophobic and membrane-distal, to exhibit extensive structural diversity, and to interact with RIFIN-V2 in a one-to-one fashion. Through structural and sequence analysis of various LAIR1 constructs, we identify essential elements of RIFIN-binding on LAIR1. Furthermore, a structure-derived LAIR1-binding sequence signature ascertained >20 LAIR1-binding RIFINs, including some from P. falciparum field strains and Plasmodium species infecting gorillas and chimpanzees.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/ultraestrutura , Malária Falciparum/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/ultraestrutura , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/ultraestrutura , Receptores Imunológicos/ultraestrutura , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/genética , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/metabolismo , Variação Antigênica/genética , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutação , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo
3.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198857

RESUMO

Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is one the cheapest and most suitable treatments to produce safe drinking water at the household level in resource-poor settings. This review introduces the main parameters that influence the SODIS process and how new enhancements and modelling approaches can overcome some of the current drawbacks that limit its widespread adoption. Increasing the container volume can decrease the recontamination risk caused by handling several 2 L bottles. Using container materials other than polyethylene terephthalate (PET) significantly increases the efficiency of inactivation of viruses and protozoa. In addition, an overestimation of the solar exposure time is usually recommended since the process success is often influenced by many factors beyond the control of the SODIS-user. The development of accurate kinetic models is crucial for ensuring the production of safe drinking water. This work attempts to review the relevant knowledge about the impact of the SODIS variables and the techniques used to develop kinetic models described in the literature. In addition to the type and concentration of pathogens in the untreated water, an ideal kinetic model should consider all critical factors affecting the efficiency of the process, such as intensity, spectral distribution of the solar radiation, container-wall transmission spectra, ageing of the SODIS reactor material, and chemical composition of the water, since the substances in the water can play a critical role as radiation attenuators and/or sensitisers triggering the inactivation process.


Assuntos
Desinfecção/métodos , Água Potável/análise , Desinfecção/instrumentação , Água Potável/microbiologia , Água Potável/parasitologia , Humanos , Polietilenotereftalatos/química , Pobreza , Energia Solar , Microbiologia da Água
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202990

RESUMO

Proteins that contain the FYVE zinc-finger domain are recruited to PtdIns3P-containing membranes, participating in numerous biological processes such as membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal regulation, and receptor signaling. However, the genome-wide distribution, evolution, and biological functions of FYVE-containing proteins are rarely reported for oomycetes. By genome mining of Phytophthora sojae, two proteins (PsFP1 and PsFP2) with a combination of the FYVE domain and the PX domain (a major phosphoinositide binding module) were found. To clarify the functions of PsFP1 and PsFP2, the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene replacement system was used to knock out the two genes respectively. Only heterozygous deletion mutants of PsFP1 were recovered, and the expression level of PsFP1 in the heterozygous knockout transformants was significantly down-regulated. These PsFP1 mutants showed a decrease in mycelial growth and pathogenicity and were more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. These phenotypes were recovered to the level of wild-type by overexpression PsFP1 gene in the PsFP1 heterozygous knockout transformant. In contrast, deletion of PsFP2 had no significant effect on vegetative growth, asexual and sexual reproduction, pathogenicity, or oxidative stress sensitivity. PsFP1 was primarily localized in vesicle-like structures and both the FYVE and PX domains are important for its localization. Overall, our results indicate that PsFP1 plays an important role in the vegetative growth and virulence of P. sojae.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo , Phytophthora/fisiologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Dedos de Zinco , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Expressão Gênica , Fenótipo , Phytophthora/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Domínios Proteicos , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Virulência/genética
5.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199336

RESUMO

The natural compound ravenelin was isolated from the biomass extracts of Exserohilum rostratum fungus, and its antimicrobial, antiplasmodial, and trypanocidal activities were evaluated. Ravenelin was isolated by column chromatography and HPLC and identified by NMR and MS. The susceptibility of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains to ravenelin was determined by microbroth dilution assay. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2) and BALB/c peritoneal macrophages by using MTT. SYBR Green I-based assay was used in the asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Trypanocidal activity was tested against the epimastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Ravenelin was active against Gram-positive bacteria strains, with emphasis on Bacillus subtilis (MIC value of 7.5 µM). Ravenelin's antiparasitic activities were assessed against both the epimastigote (IC50 value of 5 ± 1 µM) and the intracellular amastigote forms of T. cruzi (IC50 value of 9 ± 2 µM), as well as against P. falciparum (IC50 value of 3.4 ± 0.4 µM). Ravenelin showed low cytotoxic effects on both HepG2 (CC50 > 50 µM) and peritoneal macrophage (CC50 = 185 ± 1 µM) cells with attractive selectivity for the parasites (SI values > 15). These findings indicate that ravenelin is a natural compound with both antibacterial and antiparasitic activities, and considerable selectivity indexes. Therefore, ravenelin is an attractive candidate for hit-to-lead development.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/química , Macrófagos Peritoneais/citologia , Xantonas/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antiprotozoários/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Biomassa , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/parasitologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantonas/química
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199611

RESUMO

Temperature influences the physiological processes and ecology of both hosts and endophytes; however, it remains unclear how long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) modulate the consequences of temperature-dependent changes in host-pathogen interactions. To explore the role of lncRNAs in culm gall formation induced by the smut fungus Ustilago esculenta in Zizania latifolia, we employed RNA sequencing to identify lncRNAs and their potential cis-targets in Z. latifolia and U. esculenta under different temperatures. In Z. latifolia and U. esculenta, we identified 3194 and 173 lncRNAs as well as 126 and four potential target genes for differentially expressed lncRNAs, respectively. Further function and expression analysis revealed that lncRNA ZlMSTRG.11348 regulates amino acid metabolism in Z. latifolia and lncRNA UeMSTRG.02678 regulates amino acid transport in U. esculenta. The plant defence response was also found to be regulated by lncRNAs and suppressed in Z. latifolia infected with U. esculenta grown at 25 °C, which may result from the expression of effector genes in U. esculenta. Moreover, in Z. latifolia infected with U. esculenta, the expression of genes related to phytohormones was altered under different temperatures. Our results demonstrate that lncRNAs are important components of the regulatory networks in plant-microbe-environment interactions, and may play a part in regulating culm swelling in Z. latifolia plants.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/genética , Poaceae/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Temperatura , Ustilago/genética , Ustilago/patogenicidade
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206764

RESUMO

Plant-parasitic nematodes cause severe economic losses annually which has been a persistent problem worldwide. As current nematicides are highly toxic, prone to drug resistance, and have poor stability, there is an urgent need to develop safe, efficient, and green strategies. Natural active polysaccharides such as chitin and chitosan with good biocompatibility and biodegradability and inducing plant disease resistance have attracted much attention, but their application is limited due to their poor solubility. Here, we prepared 6-oxychitin with good water solubility by introducing carboxylic acid groups based on retaining the original skeleton of chitin and evaluated its potential for nematode control. The results showed that 6-oxychitin is a better promoter of the nematicidal potential of Purpureocillium lilacinum than other water-soluble chitin derivatives. After treatment, the movement of J2s and egg hatching were obviously inhibited. Further plant experiments found that it can destroy the accumulation and invasion of nematodes, and has a growth-promoting effect. Therefore, 6-oxychitin has great application potential in the nematode control area.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Quitina/análogos & derivados , Hypocreales/química , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antinematódeos/química , Cucumis sativus/parasitologia , Locomoção , Reprodução , Tylenchoidea/patogenicidade , Tylenchoidea/fisiologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206906

RESUMO

Leishmania survival inside macrophages depends on factors that lead to the immune response evasion during the infection. In this context, the metabolic scenario of the host cell-parasite relationship can be crucial to understanding how this parasite can survive inside host cells due to the host's metabolic pathways reprogramming. In this work, we aimed to analyze metabolic networks of bone marrow-derived macrophages from C57BL/6 mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis wild type (La-WT) or arginase knocked out (La-arg-), using the untargeted Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry (CE-MS) approach to assess metabolomic profile. Macrophages showed specific changes in metabolite abundance upon Leishmania infection, as well as in the absence of parasite-arginase. The absence of L. amazonensis-arginase promoted the regulation of both host and parasite urea cycle, glycine and serine metabolism, ammonia recycling, metabolism of arginine, proline, aspartate, glutamate, spermidine, spermine, methylhistidine, and glutathione metabolism. The increased L-arginine, L-citrulline, L-glutamine, oxidized glutathione, S-adenosylmethionine, N-acetylspermidine, trypanothione disulfide, and trypanothione levels were observed in La-WT-infected C57BL/6-macrophage compared to uninfected. The absence of parasite arginase increased L-arginine, argininic acid, and citrulline levels and reduced ornithine, putrescine, S-adenosylmethionine, glutamic acid, proline, N-glutamyl-alanine, glutamyl-arginine, trypanothione disulfide, and trypanothione when compared to La-WT infected macrophage. Moreover, the absence of parasite arginase leads to an increase in NO production levels and a higher infectivity rate at 4 h of infection. The data presented here show a host-dependent regulation of metabolomic profiles of C57BL/6 macrophages compared to the previously observed BALB/c macrophages infected with L. amazonensis, an important fact due to the dual and contrasting macrophage phenotypes of those mice. In addition, the Leishmania-arginase showed interference with the urea cycle, glycine, and glutathione metabolism during host-pathogen interactions.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Leishmaniose/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Animais , Arginase/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Leishmania/enzimologia , Leishmania/patogenicidade , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204285

RESUMO

Pathogenic intracellular bacteria, parasites and viruses have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to manipulate mammalian host cells to serve as niches for persistence and proliferation. The intracellular lifestyles of pathogens involve the manipulation of membrane-bound organellar compartments of host cells. In this review, we described how normal structural organization and cellular functions of endosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, or lipid droplets are targeted by microbial virulence mechanisms. We focus on the specific interactions of Salmonella, Legionella pneumophila, Rickettsia rickettsii, Chlamydia spp. and Mycobacterium tuberculosis representing intracellular bacterial pathogens, and of Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii representing intracellular parasites. The replication strategies of various viruses, i.e., Influenza A virus, Poliovirus, Brome mosaic virus, Epstein-Barr Virus, Hepatitis C virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS), Dengue virus, Zika virus, and others are presented with focus on the specific manipulation of the organelle compartments. We compare the specific features of intracellular lifestyle and replication cycles, and highlight the communalities in mechanisms of manipulation deployed.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Organelas/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Biomarcadores , Metabolismo Energético , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Espaço Intracelular/microbiologia , Espaço Intracelular/parasitologia , Espaço Intracelular/virologia , Organelas/microbiologia , Organelas/parasitologia , Organelas/ultraestrutura , Fagocitose
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208611

RESUMO

Transcription factors are proteins that directly bind to regulatory sequences of genes to modulate and adjust plants' responses to different stimuli including biotic and abiotic stresses. Sedentary plant parasitic nematodes, such as beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, have developed molecular tools to reprogram plant cell metabolism via the sophisticated manipulation of genes expression, to allow root invasion and the induction of a sequence of structural and physiological changes in plant tissues, leading to the formation of permanent feeding sites composed of modified plant cells (commonly called a syncytium). Here, we report on the AtMYB59 gene encoding putative MYB transcription factor that is downregulated in syncytia, as confirmed by RT-PCR and a promoter pMyb59::GUS activity assays. The constitutive overexpression of AtMYB59 led to the reduction in A. thaliana susceptibility, as indicated by decreased numbers of developed females, and to the disturbed development of nematode-induced syncytia. In contrast, mutant lines with a silenced expression of AtMYB59 were more susceptible to this parasite. The involvement of ABA in the modulation of AtMYB59 gene transcription appears feasible by several ABA-responsive cis regulatory elements, which were identified in silico in the gene promoter sequence, and experimental assays showed the induction of AtMYB59 transcription after ABA treatment. Based on these results, we suggest that AtMYB59 plays an important role in the successful parasitism of H. schachtii on A. thaliana roots.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/parasitologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Tylenchoidea/fisiologia , Animais , Arabidopsis/ultraestrutura , Resistência à Doença/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Fenótipo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205189

RESUMO

The triatomine Rhodnius prolixus is the main vector of Chagas disease in countries such as Colombia and Venezuela, and the first kissing bug whose genome has been sequenced and assembled. In the repetitive genome fraction (repeatome) of this species, the transposable elements represented 19% of R. prolixus genome, being mostly DNA transposon (Class II elements). However, scarce information has been published regarding another important repeated DNA fraction, the satellite DNA (satDNA), or satellitome. Here, we offer, for the first time, extended data about satellite DNA families in the R. prolixus genome using bioinformatics pipeline based on low-coverage sequencing data. The satellitome of R. prolixus represents 8% of the total genome and it is composed by 39 satDNA families, including four satDNA families that are shared with Triatoma infestans, as well as telomeric (TTAGG)n and (GATA)n repeats, also present in the T. infestans genome. Only three of them exceed 1% of the genome. Chromosomal hybridization with these satDNA probes showed dispersed signals over the euchromatin of all chromosomes, both in autosomes and sex chromosomes. Moreover, clustering analysis revealed that most abundant satDNA families configured several superclusters, indicating that R. prolixus satellitome is complex and that the four most abundant satDNA families are composed by different subfamilies. Additionally, transcription of satDNA families was analyzed in different tissues, showing that 33 out of 39 satDNA families are transcribed in four different patterns of expression across samples.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , DNA Satélite/genética , Rhodnius/genética , Animais , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Rhodnius/parasitologia , Rhodnius/patogenicidade , Triatoma/genética , Triatoma/parasitologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artemether-lumefantrine is a highly effective artemisinin-based combination therapy that was adopted in Mali as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. This study was designed to measure the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine and to assess the selection of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multi-drug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) genotypes that have been associated with drug resistance. METHODS: A 28-day follow-up efficacy trial of artemether-lumefantrine was conducted in patients aged 6 months and older suffering from uncomplicated falciparum malaria in four different Malian areas during the 2009 malaria transmission season. The polymorphic genetic markers MSP2, MSP1, and Ca1 were used to distinguish between recrudescence and reinfection. Reinfection and recrudescence were then grouped as recurrent infections and analyzed together by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to identify candidate markers for artemether-lumefantrine tolerance in the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene and the P. falciparum multi-drug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) gene. RESULTS: Clinical outcomes in 326 patients (96.7%) were analyzed and the 28-day uncorrected adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) rate was 73.9%. The total PCR-corrected 28-day ACPR was 97.2%. The pfcrt 76T and pfmdr1 86Y population prevalence decreased from 49.3% and 11.0% at baseline (n = 337) to 38.8% and 0% in patients with recurrent infection (n = 85); p = 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSION: Parasite populations exposed to artemether-lumefantrine in this study were selected toward chloroquine-sensitivity and showed a promising trend that may warrant future targeted reintroduction of chloroquine or/and amodiaquine.


Assuntos
Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/administração & dosagem , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Alelos , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/efeitos adversos , Artemisininas/administração & dosagem , Artemisininas/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cloroquina/administração & dosagem , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/genética , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/patologia , Masculino , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068250

RESUMO

Chinese galls are the result of hyperplasia in host plants induced by aphids. The metabolism and gene expression of these galls are modified to accommodate the aphids. Here, we highlight the molecular and histologic features of horned galls according to transcriptome and anatomical structures. In primary pathways, genes were found to be unevenly shifted and selectively expressed in the galls and leaves near the galls (LNG). Pathways for amino acid synthesis and degradation were also unevenly shifted, favoring enhanced accumulation of essential amino acids in galls for aphids. Although galls enhanced the biosynthesis of glucose, which is directly available to aphids, glucose content in the gall tissues was lower due to the feeding of aphids. Pathways of gall growth were up-regulated to provide enough space for aphids. In addition, the horned gall has specialized branched schizogenous ducts and expanded xylem in the stalk, which provide a broader feeding surface for aphids and improve the efficiency of transportation and nutrient exchange. Notably, the gene expression in the LNG showed a similar pattern to that of the galls, but on a smaller scale. We suppose the aphids manipulate galls to their advantage, and galls lessen competition by functioning as a medium between the aphids and their host plants.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tumores de Planta/genética , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tumores de Planta/parasitologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068436

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small lipid vesicles released by either any prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell, or both, with a biological role in cell-to-cell communication. In this work, we characterize the proteomes and nanomechanical properties of EVs released by tissue-culture cell-derived trypomastigotes (mammalian infective stage; (TCT)) and epimastigotes (insect stage; (E)) of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. EVs of each stage were isolated by differential centrifugation and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Measurements of zeta-potential were also included. Results show marked differences in the surface molecular cargos of EVs between both stages, with a noteworthy expansion of all groups of trans-sialidase proteins in trypomastigote's EVs. In contrast, chromosomal locations of trans-sialidases of EVs of epimastigotes were dramatically reduced and restricted to subtelomeric regions, indicating a possible regulatable expression of these proteins between both stages of the parasite. Regarding mechanical properties, EVs of trypomastigotes showed higher adhesion compared to the EVs of epimastigotes. These findings demonstrate the remarkable surface remodeling throughout the life cycle of T. cruzi, which shapes the physicochemical composition of the extracellular vesicles and could have an impact in the ability of these vesicles to participate in cell communication in completely different niches of infection.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo , Animais , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Vesículas Extracelulares/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteoma/análise , Células Vero
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 507, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hematological abnormalities are common features in falciparum malaria but vary among different populations across countries. Therefore, we compared hematological indices and abnormalities between Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients and malaria-negative subjects in Kosti city of the White Nile State, Sudan. METHODS: A comparative, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Clinical Laboratory Unit of Kosti Teaching Hospital from June to December 2018. A total of 392 participants (192 P. falciparum-infected patients and 200 malaria-negative subjects) were recruited in the study. Hematological indices of hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets were measured, and their median values were statistically compared. RESULTS: The majority of P. falciparum-infected patients (67.6%) showed a low-level parasitemia. The median values of Hb concentration, RBC count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) and mean corpuscular Hb concentration (MCHC) were significantly lower in P. falciparum-infected patients, while the median red cell distribution width (RDW) was significantly higher in the patients compared to malaria-negative subjects. Anemia, low MCV, low MCH, low MCHC and high RDW were significantly associated with falciparum malaria, but parasitemia level was not significantly associated with anemia severity. The median total WBC count was non-significantly higher in P. falciparum-infected patients, with neutropenia being significantly associated with falciparum malaria. The median platelet count was significantly lower in P. falciparum-infected patients, with thrombocytopenia being significantly associated with falciparum malaria. CONCLUSIONS: Falciparum malaria among patients in Kosti city of the White Nile State, Sudan is predominantly of low-level parasitemia. It is significantly associated with anemia, low MCV, low MCH, low MCHC, high RDW, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. However, parasitemia level is not a significant predictor of anemia severity. On the other hand, leucopenia is not useful to predict falciparum malaria. Further large-scale studies in community and healthcare settings and inclusion of patients with complicated or severe malaria and those with high parasite densities are recommended.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/sangue , Anemia/parasitologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Leucopenia/sangue , Leucopenia/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parasitemia/sangue , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(6)2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115583

RESUMO

Introduction. Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical and subtropical disease caused by over 20 protozoan species.Hypothesis. Treatment of this complex disease with traditional synthetic drugs is a major challenge worldwide. Natural constituents are unique candidates for future therapeutic development.Aim. This study aimed to assess the in vivo anti-leishmanial effect of the Gossypium hirsutum extract, and its fractions compared to the standard drug (Glucantime, MA) in a murine model and explore the mechanism of action.Methodology. Footpads of BALB/c mice were infected with stationary phase promastigotes and treated topically and intraperitoneally with G. hirsutum extract, its fractions, or Glucantime, 4 weeks post-infection. The extract and fractions were prepared using the Soxhlet apparatus with chloroform followed by the column procedure.Results. The crude extract significantly decreased the footpad parasite load and lesion size compared to the untreated control group (P<0.05), as revealed by dilution assay, quantitative real-time PCR, and histopathological analyses. The primary mode of action involved an immunomodulatory role towards the Th1 response in the up-regulation of IFN-γ and IL-12 and the suppression of IL-10 gene expression profiling against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major.Conclusion. This finding suggests that the extract possesses multiple combinatory effects of diverse bioactive phytochemical compositions that exert its mechanisms of action through agonistic-synergistic interactions. The topical extract formulation could be a suitable and unique candidate for future investigation and pharmacological development. Further studies are crucial to evaluate the therapeutic potentials of the extract alone and in combination with conventional drugs using clinical settings.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Gossypium , Leishmania major/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Feminino , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/genética , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/genética , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Leishmania major/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/fisiopatologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Antimoniato de Meglumina/administração & dosagem , Antimoniato de Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Carga Parasitária , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Baço/parasitologia , Baço/patologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Transcriptoma
18.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(2): 83-87, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103282

RESUMO

Objective: The relationship between drug resistance and the expression of hexokinase (HK) has been indicated in leishmaniasis. According to the prolonged treatment period in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients co-infected with Crithidia in Iran, this study aims to investigate the expression of HK in the proteome of Leishmania major and Crithidia using a proteomic approach. Methods: A total of 205 samples were removed from the lesions of patients in Fars province, Iran, for the characterization of L. major and Crithidia using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After protein extraction, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was employed for protein separation. Several spots were isolated for HK determination in the proteomes of L. major and Crithidia using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS). Results: The PCR results showed 5 positive cases for Crithidia and 96 positive cases for L. major. MALDI TOF/TOF MS indicated HK as a common protein in the proteome of L. major and Crithidia. HK was up-regulated in the Crithidia proteome in comparison with the L. major proteome. Conclusion: Since a relationship between HK expression and drug resistance has been indicated in leishmaniasis, the overexpression of HK in Crithidia might be related to the increased duration of the treatment period in CL patients co-infected with Crithidia.


Assuntos
Crithidia/metabolismo , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Leishmania major/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Crithidia/enzimologia , Crithidia/isolamento & purificação , Resistência a Medicamentos , Infecções por Euglenozoa/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Euglenozoa/parasitologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Leishmania major/enzimologia , Leishmania major/isolamento & purificação , Proteômica
19.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(2): 95-100, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103284

RESUMO

Objective: In the present study, preliminary outcomes of the in vivo assessment of a Leishmania donovani/L. infantum hybrid isolated from a hospitalised patient with visceral leishmaniasis in Manisa and identified through analysis of the Leishmania-specific ITS-1, hsp70 and cpb gene regions are presented in comparison with reference strains of L. donovani and L. infantum. Methods: Three different study groups [(SG); n=16 mice each] and a control group (n=8 mice) were established with female Balb/C mice weighing 25-30 g. Reference L. donovani (MHOM/IN/1980/DD8), reference L. infantum (MHOM/TN/1980/IP1) and a L. donovani/L. infantum hybrid (MHOM/TR/2014/CBVL-LI/ LD), stored in liquid nitrogen, were thawed, cultured and incubated at 25 °C. A 15-µL dose of 1x108/mL promastigotes of three strains was applied to the tail veins of mice in the SG. After the mice were sacrificed, the liver and spleen tissues were removed and stored for immunological, immunohistochemical and pathological analyses. Results: The presence of infection in the liver and spleen tissues of mice was detected both by a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test and from the recovery of Leishmania promastigotes from liver and spleen tissues in NNN medium. However, Leishmania amastigotes were not observed in the touch biopsy smears of livers or spleens in either of the SGs. In addition, no evidence of tissue damage was identified in the SGs after immunohistochemical staining (with antibodies against IL-9, CD-117, MBP, CD163, CD4, CD8 and CD31). Conclusion: The obtained results show that hybrid Leishmania and reference L. donovani and L. infantum strains reached the liver and spleens of Balb/C mice in SGs but were of no pathological consequence. Yet, these three Leishmania isolates caused skin lesions when applied subcutaneously in Balb/C mice in another study. The findings presented in this study will be reassessed upon completion of the project, once the final results are obtained.


Assuntos
Quimera , Leishmania donovani/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Animais , Quimera/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Genes de Protozoários/genética , Humanos , Leishmania donovani/genética , Leishmania infantum/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/parasitologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/parasitologia
20.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(2): 101-107, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103285

RESUMO

Objective: Natural plant products are considered as a source of novel and effective compounds for the treatment of leishmaniasis. In this study, the in vitro activities of essential oils obtained from Origanum dubium (OD), Origanum majorana (OM), Salvia fruticosa (SF) and Laurus nobilis (LN) plants in Northern Cyprus were investigated against Leishmania tropica. Methods: Leishmania tropica strain (MHOM/TR/2012/CBCL-LT) was obtained. RPMI-1640 was added to 96-well plates in 100 µL aliquots, 100 µg/mL essential oil was added to the first well of each row and serial 2-fold dilutions were performed. A promastigote suspension was pipetted into all wells, and the plates were incubated. The promastigotes were enumerated using a haemocytometer. Results: OD essential oil was effective at killing all promastigotes at a minimum inhibitor height (MIC)=0.2 µg/mL and had high activity at the lowest concentrations. Both SF and LN oils had MIC=1.56 µg/mL and LD50=0.78 µg/mL. SF was observed to impair promastigote morphology at the lowest concentrations, while LN did not exert any effect at concentrations <0.2 µg/mL. OM essential oil was found to have a MIC=3.13 µg/mL and a LD50=1.56 µg/mL. Conclusion: All tested essential oils inhibited promastigotes of Leishmania tropica. OD essential oil demonstrated the highest anti-leishmanial activity. Amaç: Bitkilerden elde edilen dogal ürünlerin leishmaniasis tedavisi için yeni ve etkili bilesiklerin üretilmesine öncülük edecegi düsünülmektedir. Çalismamizda, Kuzey Kibris'ta yetisen Origanum dubium (OD), Origanum majorana (OM), Salvia fruticosa (SF) ve Laurus nobilis (LN) bitkilerinden elde edilen uçucu yaglarin Leishmania tropica'ya karsi in vitro etkinlikleri arastirilmistir. Yöntemler: Çalismamizda, Leishmania tropica susu (MHOM/TR/2012/CBCL-LT) kullanildi. Düz tabanli 96'lik plaklarda, tüm kuyucuklara 100 µL RPMI-1640 ve ilk kuyucuklara 100 µg/mL uçucu yaglar eklenerek, seri dilüsyonlari yapildi. Ardindan tüm kuyucuklara Leishmania tropica promastigot süspansiyonundan pipetlendi ve inkübe edildi. Hemositometre yöntemiyle promastigotlarin sayisi incelendi. Bulgular: OD yaginin minimum inhibitör konsantrasyonu (MIK)=0,2 µg/mL'de tüm promastigotlari öldürürken, en düsük konsantrasyonlarda bile etkili oldugu görülmüstür. SF ve LN uçucu yaglarinin ikisinde de MIK=1,56 µg/mL, LD50=0,78 µg/mL olarak saptanmistir. SF'nin en düsük konsantrasyonlarinin bile promastigot morfolojisini bozdugu görülürken, Laurus nobilis'in ise 0,2 µg/mL'den sonraki konsantrasyonlarda etkisini kaybettigi belirlenmistir. OM uçucu yaginin MIK=3,13 µg/mL, LD50=1,56 µg/mL oldugu görülmüstür. Sonuç: Kullanilan tüm uçucu yaglarin Leishmania tropica promastigotlarini inhibe ettigi görülürken, en yüksek anti-leishmanial etkinlik Origanum dubium uçucu yaginda bulunmustur.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Leishmania tropica/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Chipre , Laurus/química , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Dose Letal Mediana , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Origanum/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Salvia/química
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