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1.
Food Microbiol ; 109: 104139, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309441

RESUMO

The trend of feeding dogs and cats with raw pet food claiming health benefits poses health concerns due to the occurrence of pathogenic bacteria. High pressure processing (HPP) allows the non-thermal inactivation of microorganisms, preserving the nutritional characteristics with minimal impact on organoleptic traits of food. The present study aimed to evaluate and model the effect of HPP application (450-750 MPa for 0-7 min) on the inactivation of Salmonella, endogenous microbiota and colour of raw pet food formulated with different concentrations of lactic acid (0-7.2 g/kg) as natural antimicrobial. Additionally, the effect of a subsequent frozen storage of pressurized product was assessed. Salmonella inactivation ranged between 1 and 9 log, depending on the combination of conditions. According to the polynomial model obtained, the effect of pressure was linear, while a quadratic term was also included for holding time (depicting the occurrence of a resistant tail at ca. 4-6 min). The effect of lactic acid was dependent on the pressure level, being most relevant for treatments below 600 MPa. Frozen storage after HPP prevented the pathogen recovery and caused a further Salmonella inactivation enhanced by lactic acid in most of the treatments. Endogenous microbial groups were significantly reduced by HPP to below the detection level in several conditions. In general, little effect of HPP on the instrumental colour parameters was observed, except for a slight increase in lightness, which was hardly appreciable from visual observation. High pressure processing emerges as a relevant technology for the control of Salmonella spp. and to manage the microbiological safety of raw pet food. The mathematical model can be used as decision support tool to design safer raw pet food, while keeping the desired freshness appearance of the products.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Salmonella/fisiologia , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Pressão Hidrostática
2.
Appl Ergon ; 106: 103878, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001925

RESUMO

As driving performance relies heavily on the interpretation of visual information, driving simulators require a visual display that can effectively communicate the virtual environment to the driver. Most high-fidelity visual displays include an expensive system of high-definition projectors and wraparound screens. To reduce the overall cost of a driving simulator while preserving the generalizability of results to naturalistic driving, head mounted displays (HMD) are being considered as a substitute visual cueing system. Recent innovations to virtual reality technologies are encouraging, however, differences between HMDs and more traditional visual displays have not been explored for all types of driving measures. In particular, while existing literature provides insight into the validity of HMDs as a substitute for higher fidelity visual displays in tests of driver behaviour and performance, there is a gap in the literature regarding differences in physiological responses. In the current study, upper body muscle activation and joint angle ranges were compared between an Oculus™ Rift Development Kit 2 HMD and a system of wrap around screens. Twenty-one participants each completed two simulated drives, one per display, in a counterbalanced order. During the simulation, drivers encountered unanticipated pedestrian crossings during which peak surface electromyography, root-mean-square of the surface electromyography signal and joint angles were determined bilaterally on the upper limbs. No significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were observed between the Oculus™ Rift HMD and the wrap around screens for all dependent variables with the exception of left joint range of motion in female participants, suggesting that the HMD reduced field of view had a minimal effect on driver kinematics and no effect on muscle activation levels. Upper body bracing was observed during the hazard response time segments characterized by significantly increased muscle activity during hazard response time segments and minimal joint movement. Considering the lack of significant kinematic and muscle activation differences between the two visual inputs, HMD technology for hazard response may provide a suitable alternative to wrap around screens for studying kinematic responses during hazardous driving scenarios.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Músculos , Óculos Inteligentes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Músculos/fisiologia , Pedestres , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
3.
Appl Ergon ; 106: 103898, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115134

RESUMO

A dual task was designed to involve a tracking mission with various tracking speeds and a spatial compatibility task with various signal-key mappings and presentation modalities. This dual task was used to investigate the effects of workload and resource competition in distinct parts of the dual-task process. The results demonstrated that increasing the tracking speed adversely affected the tracking performance but led to positive arousal to the secondary discrete response task. Visual spatial signals gave the shortest reaction time due to the optimal time-sharing of the visual resources in the focal and ambient channels. Compared with visual spatial signals, spatial signals of auditory and tactile modalities did not lead to an improved performance because of their cross-modality nature. These findings provided practical design guidelines for dual tasks in which the operators need to complete a continuous monitoring task visually and elicit timely and accurate responses to spatial information.


Assuntos
Processamento Espacial , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Humanos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Tato , Processamento Espacial/fisiologia
4.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 438: 85-102, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332385

RESUMO

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a medically important human herpesvirus that has co-evolved with the human host to become a highly successful and ubiquitous pathogen. Whilst it is clear the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response play key roles in controlling this virus during both primary and reactivated infections, it is also apparent that VZV "fights back" by encoding multiple functions that impair a wide range of immune molecules. This capacity to manipulate the immune response is likely to be important in underpinning the success of VZV as a human pathogen. In this review, we will focus on the plethora of mechanisms that VZV has evolved to prevent and/or delay immune functions via regulating the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II molecules, as well as several MHC-like molecules. In doing so, we will highlight both established and newly emerged VZV-encoded immunomodulatory capabilities and provide context to new avenues of research that seek to build the most comprehensive understanding of how this virus interfaces with these aspects of host immunity.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 3 , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II , Humanos , Herpesvirus Humano 3/fisiologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I
5.
Gene ; 850: 146958, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36220449

RESUMO

Genome variations contribute to the vast majority of interindividual differences and may decisively influence sports capability. This study was conceived as a means of finding out when exactly polymorphisms start being physically discriminative. The polymorphisms we studied were two of the best characterized ones: ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X. These germline variants were determined in a cohort of 200 healthy volunteers from the university environment who underwent a series of physical evaluations that included a Cooper test, a 20-meter sprint test and a vertical jump test. Initially, no statistical association was found because the genetic effect was masked by those subjects with sedentary lifestyles. But when only physically active volunteers were considered, the ACE and ACTN3 genotypes were found to have an impact on heart rate after the Cooper test (p-value = 0.033 and 0.032 respectively) and ACTN3 was found to correlate with the total distance covered in the same test (p-value = 0.051). This can therefore be considered a paradigmatic example in which the environment might hide the genetic effect, with genotypic differences arising only upon training.


Assuntos
Actinina , Exercício Físico , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Humanos , Actinina/genética , Exercício Físico/genética , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Genótipo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Polimorfismo Genético
6.
Physiol Rev ; 103(1): 347-389, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35771984

RESUMO

Flexibly selecting appropriate actions in response to complex, ever-changing environments requires both cortical and subcortical regions, which are typically described as participating in a strict hierarchy. In this traditional view, highly specialized subcortical circuits allow for efficient responses to salient stimuli, at the cost of adaptability and context specificity, which are attributed to the neocortex. Their interactions are often described as the cortex providing top-down command signals for subcortical structures to implement; however, as available technologies develop, studies increasingly demonstrate that behavior is represented by brainwide activity and that even subcortical structures contain early signals of choice, suggesting that behavioral functions emerge as a result of different regions interacting as truly collaborative networks. In this review, we discuss the field's evolving understanding of how cortical and subcortical regions in placental mammals interact cooperatively, not only via top-down cortical-subcortical inputs but through bottom-up interactions, especially via the thalamus. We describe our current understanding of the circuitry of both the cortex and two exemplar subcortical structures, the superior colliculus and striatum, to identify which information is prioritized by which regions. We then describe the functional circuits these regions form with one another, and the thalamus, to create parallel loops and complex networks for brainwide information flow. Finally, we challenge the classic view that functional modules are contained within specific brain regions; instead, we propose that certain regions prioritize specific types of information over others, but the subnetworks they form, defined by their anatomical connections and functional dynamics, are the basis of true specialization.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Placenta , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mamíferos , Gravidez , Tálamo/fisiologia
7.
Physiology (Bethesda) ; 38(1): 0, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067133

RESUMO

After years of intense research using structural, biological, and biochemical experimental procedures, it is clear that myosin molecules are essential for striated muscle contraction. However, this is just the tip of the iceberg of their function. Interestingly, it has been shown recently that these molecules (especially myosin heavy chains) are also crucial for cardiac and skeletal muscle resting state. In the present review, we first overview myosin heavy chain biochemical states and how they influence the consumption of ATP. We then detail how neighboring partner proteins including myosin light chains and myosin binding protein C intervene in such processes, modulating the ATP demand in health and disease. Finally, we present current experimental drugs targeting myosin ATP consumption and how they can treat muscle diseases.


Assuntos
Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina , Miosinas , Humanos , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo , Miosinas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Contração Muscular , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2591: 283-295, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350555

RESUMO

Ubiquitin modification is known to regulate endocytic trafficking of many different types of cargo in eukaryotic cells, but it can be challenging to determine what role, if any, ubiquitin plays in the trafficking of a novel or uncharacterized endocytic cargo. Here, we describe a useful approach that leverages fusion to deubiquitinase (DUB) catalytic domains to explore the role ubiquitin plays in endocytic trafficking. This approach can be applied to the analysis of many different endocytic cargos in different cell types, and it can also be used to study linkage specificity in endocytic trafficking. Several different trafficking assays are described to illustrate the broad utility of this "DUB fusion" approach.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Endocitose/fisiologia , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes/genética , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes/metabolismo
9.
Radiographics ; 43(1): e220088, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367822

RESUMO

Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an emerging noninvasive MRI technique for assessing cerebral perfusion. An important advantage of ASL perfusion is the lack of a requirement for an exogenous tracer. ASL uses magnetically labeled water protons from arterial blood as an endogenous diffusible tracer. For this reason, ASL is an attractive perfusion imaging modality for children and for patients with contraindications or adverse reactions to gadolinium, patients with renal failure, and those who need repeated follow-up imaging. Another advantage of ASL is the possibility of quantifying cerebral blood flow, which provides an opportunity for comparative analysis among multiple longitudinal studies, unlike other MR perfusion techniques, which are semiquantitative and yield relative perfusion parameters. Advances in MRI technology and pulse sequence design have translated ASL beyond the research arena to successful clinical implementation. However, ASL is still underused in routine clinical practice. Some disadvantages of ASL include a lower signal-to-noise ratio and a longer acquisition time than those with dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI. Additional factors limiting the use of ASL include variations in existing techniques and pulse sequence design, the complexity of implementation and postprocessing, insufficient experience with and/or knowledge of the potential clinical applications, and the absence of interpretation guidelines. The authors review the technical and physiologic basis of ASL perfusion, as well as artifacts, pitfalls, and its current clinical applications. A practical approach for interpreting ASL findings is also suggested.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Criança , Humanos , Marcadores de Spin , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Artefatos
10.
Cardiol Clin ; 41(1): 71-80, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368812

RESUMO

The noninvasive assessment of oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and ventilation during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) provides insight into the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic system's ability to respond to exercise. Exercise physiology has been shown to be distinct for competitive athletes and highly active persons (CAHAPs), thus creating more nuanced interpretations of CPET parameters. CPET in CAHAP is an important test that can be used for both diagnosis (provoking symptoms during a truly maximal test) and performance.


Assuntos
Cardiologistas , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Exercício , Atletas
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2582: 103-126, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370347

RESUMO

Cell communication network factor 2 (CCN2), also known as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), is protein inducible in response to TGFß/Smad signal or the transcriptional activity of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3). We discovered that MMP3 in exosomes is transferable to recipient cells and then translocates into cell nuclei to transactivate the CCN2/CTGF gene. Exosomes and liposomes enable molecular transfection to recipient cells in vitro and in vivo. These small vesicles are surrounded by lipid membranes and carry proteins, RNA, DNA, and small chemicals. Here we define the exosome-based transfection as "exofection." In addition, spinfection increases the efficiencies of transfection, exofection, and viral infection, thus being compatible with various molecular transfer protocols. Here, we provide protocols, tips, and practical examples of transfection, spinfection, exofection, fluorescence microscopy, and luciferase assays to analyze the CCNs gene expression mechanisms.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz , Transdução de Sinais , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Transfecção , Luciferases/genética , Luciferases/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2582: 191-208, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370351

RESUMO

Expanding the number of insulin-producing beta cells through reactivation of their replication has been proposed as a therapy to prevent or delay the appearance of diabetes. Using antibody arrays, we identified CCN4/Wisp1 as a circulating factor enriched in preweaning mice, a period in which beta cells exhibit a dramatic increase in number. This finding led us to investigate the involvement of CCN4 in beta cell proliferation. We demonstrated that CCN4 promotes adult beta cell proliferation in vitro in cultured isolated islets, and in vivo in islets transplanted into the anterior chamber of the eye. In this chapter, we present the methodology that was used to study proliferation in both settings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Células Secretoras de Insulina , Transplante das Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Camundongos , Animais , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2582: 237-253, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370354

RESUMO

Chemotaxis is a directed migration of cells in response to a gradient of extracellular molecules called chemoattractants. Development, growth, remodeling, and fracture healing of bones are advanced through intramembranous osteogenesis. Chemotaxis of preosteoblasts toward future bone formation sites observed in the early stage of intramembranous osteogenesis is a critical cellular process for normal bone formation. However, molecular biological mechanisms of the chemotaxis of preosteoblasts are not fully understood. We have recently clarified, for the first time, the critical role of the cellular communication network factor 2 (CCN2)/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)-integrin α5-Ras axis for chemotaxis of preosteoblasts during new bone formation through intramembranous osteogenesis. In this chapter, we describe in detail the procedures of the in vivo and in vitro assays to investigate the chemotactic property of CCN2/CTGF and its underlying molecular biological mechanisms during intramembranous osteogenesis.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo , Osteogênese , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Quimiotaxia
14.
Interv Cardiol Clin ; 12(1): 21-29, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372459

RESUMO

Fractional flow reserve (FFR) and nonhyperemic pressure ratios (NHPRs) provide an important clinical tool to evaluate the hemodynamic significance of coronary lesions. However, these indices have major limitations. As these indices are meant to be surrogates of coronary flow, clinical scenarios such as aortic stenosis (with increased end-systolic and end-diastolic pressures) or atrial fibrillation (with significant beat-to-beat cardiac output variability) can have significant effect on the accuracy and reliability of these hemodynamic indices. Here, we provide a comprehensive evaluation of the pitfalls, limitations, and strengths of FFR and NHPRs in common clinical scenarios paired with coronary artery disease.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Fibrilação Atrial , Estenose Coronária , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Humanos , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Angiografia Coronária , Vasos Coronários , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia
15.
Interv Cardiol Clin ; 12(1): 95-117, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372465

RESUMO

Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and CCTA-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) are the best non-invasive techniques to assess coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial ischemia. Advances in these technologies allow a paradigm shift to the use of CCTA and FFRCT for advanced plaque characterization and planning myocardial revascularization.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Humanos , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Revascularização Miocárdica
16.
Interv Cardiol Clin ; 12(1): 1-12, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372454

RESUMO

Despite the now routine integration of invasive physiologic systems into coronary catheter laboratories worldwide, it remains critical that all operators maintain a sound understanding of the fundamental physiologic basis for coronary pressure assessment. More specifically, performing operators should be well informed regarding the basis for hyperemic (ie, fractional flow reserve) and nonhyperemic (ie, instantaneous wave-free ratio and other nonhyperemic pressure ratio) coronary pressure assessment. In this article, we provide readers a comprehensive history charting the inception, development, and validation of hyperemic and nonhyperemic coronary pressure assessment.


Assuntos
Estenose Coronária , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Hiperemia , Humanos , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Angiografia Coronária , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Hiperemia/diagnóstico
17.
Interv Cardiol Clin ; 12(1): 119-129, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372455

RESUMO

Ischemic heart disease (IHD) affects more than 20 million adults in the United States. Although classically attributed to atherosclerosis of the epicardial coronary arteries, nearly half of patients with stable angina and IHD who undergo invasive coronary angiography do not have obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease. Ischemia with nonobstructive coronary arteries is frequently caused by microvascular angina with underlying coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD). Greater understanding the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CMD holds promise to improve clinical outcomes of patients with ischemic heart disease.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Angina Microvascular , Adulto , Humanos , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Angina Microvascular/diagnóstico , Angina Microvascular/terapia , Angiografia Coronária
18.
Interv Cardiol Clin ; 12(1): 41-53, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372461

RESUMO

Modern coronary intervention requires integration of angiographic, physiologic, and intravascular imaging. This article describes the use and techniques needed to understand coronary physiology pullback data and how use it to make revascularization decisions. The article describes instantaneous wave-free ratio, fractional flow reserve, and the data that support their use and how they differ when used in tandem disease. Common practical mistakes and errors are discussed together with a brief review of the limited published research data.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Humanos , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
19.
Interv Cardiol Clin ; 12(1): 55-69, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372462

RESUMO

Coronary physiologic assessment has become a standard of care for patients with coronary atherosclerotic disease. While most attention has focused on pre-interventional physiologic assessment to aid in revascularization decision-making, post-interventional physiologic assessment has not been as widely used, despite evidence supporting its role in assessment and optimization of the revascularization procedure. A thorough understanding of such evidence and ongoing studies would be crucial to incorporate post-interventional physiologic assessment into daily practice. Thus, this review provides a comprehensive overview of current evidence regarding the evolving role of physiologic assessment as a functional optimization tool for the entire revascularization process.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Estenose Coronária , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Humanos , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Angiografia Coronária , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia
20.
Carbohydr Polym ; 300: 120237, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372504

RESUMO

The effects of dietary chitosan (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g/kg) on the growth, health condition and disease resistance of golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus were evaluated. Dietary chitosan significantly enhanced weight gain, with the highest observed in fish fed the 6 g/kg chitosan diet. This chitosan level significantly promoted gut health by increasing villus length, lipase and protease activities and intestinal barrier-related genes expression. Meanwhile, dietary 6 g/kg chitosan improved the inflammatory response and anti-oxidative capacity of fish by regulating the expression of genes involved in NF-κB pathway and Nrf2 pathway, respectively. Furthermore, after challenge with Vibrio harveyi for 2 weeks, the survival rate increased significantly when dietary chitosan level was 6 g/kg. Overall, our results indicate that 6 g/kg chitosan is the optimal dose for enhancing growth, health and disease resistance of fish, but excessive chitosan (10 g/kg) weakens its beneficial effects.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Doenças dos Peixes , Perciformes , Vibrioses , Animais , Resistência à Doença , Quitosana/farmacologia , Perciformes/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta , Peixes , Nível de Saúde , Imunidade Inata
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