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1.
Gene ; 806: 145920, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455026

RESUMO

Depression is deemed a mood disorder characterized by a high rate of relapse. Therefore, overcoming of the recurrent depression is globally expecting. Kososan, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, has been clinically used for mild depressive mood, and our previous studies have shown some evidence for its antidepressive-like efficacy in experimental animal models of depression. However, it remains unclear whether kososan has beneficial effects on recurrent depression. Here, we examined its effect using a mouse model of modified repeated social defeat stress (SDS) paradigm. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to a 5-min SDS from unfamiliar aggressive CD-1 mice for 5 days. Kososan extract (1.0 kg/kg/day) or an antidepressant milnacipran (60 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 26 days (days 7-32) to depression-like mice with social avoidant behaviors on day 6. Single 5 min of SDS was subjected to mice recovered from the social avoidance on day 31, and then the recurrence of depression-like behaviors was evaluated on day 32. Hippocampal gene expression patterns were also assayed by DNA microarray analysis. Water- or milnacipran-administered mice resulted in a recurrence of depression-like behaviors by re-exposure of single SDS, whereas kososan-administered mice did not recur depression-like behaviors. Distinct gene expression patterns were also found for treating kososan and milnacipran. Collectively, this finding suggests that kososan exerts a preventive effect on recurrent depression-like behaviors in mice. Pretreatment of kososan is more useful for recurrent depression than that of milnacipran.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Derrota Social , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Depressão/genética , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Japão , Masculino , Medicina Kampo/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Milnaciprano/farmacologia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/classificação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Recidiva , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
2.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210040, 2022. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1339880

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo analisar a percepção dos pais sobre as práticas de educação em saúde desenvolvidas pelos enfermeiros na Unidade Neonatal que facilitaram a aquisição de competências parentais para uma tomada de decisão fundamentada. Método estudo exploratório e descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa. Participaram 13 pais com filhos internados, pela primeira vez, em uma Unidade Neonatal portuguesa. Os dados foram colhidos entre fevereiro e agosto de 2020, por meio de grupos focais, processados no software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionneires, através da Classificação Hierárquica Descendente e da Análise de Similitude. Resultados da Classificação Hierárquica Descendente, emergiram quatro classes: "Necessidades de informação", "Lacunas na informação", "Disponibilidade para informar"; "Práticas facilitadoras da educação em saúde". Conclusão e implicações para a prática os pais consideraram como práticas facilitadoras da educação em saúde a tecnologia digital aliada à disponibilidade dos enfermeiros para informar e explicar, bem como propiciar um ambiente empático e informal. Tal resultado pode subsidiar o desenvolvimento de intervenções de enfermagem de educação em saúde para pais na Unidade Neonatal, com recurso à tecnologia digital.


Resumen Objetivo analizar la percepción de los padres sobre las prácticas de educación en salud desarrolladas por enfermeras de la Unidad Neonatal que facilitaron la adquisición de habilidades parentales para la toma de decisiones informada. Método estudio exploratorio descriptivo, con abordaje cualitativo. Participaron 13 padres con hijos hospitalizados, por primera vez, en una Unidad Neonatal Portuguesa. Los datos fueron recolectados entre febrero y agosto de 2020, a través de grupos focales, procesados en el software Interface de R pour Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionneires, a través de la Clasificación Jerárquica Descendente y el Análisis de Similitud. Resultados surgieron cuatro clases de la Clasificación Jerárquica Descendente: "Necesidades de información"; "Brechas de información"; "Disponibilidad para informar"; "Prácticas facilitadoras de la educación para la salud". Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica los padres consideraron prácticas facilitadoras para la educación en salud la tecnología digital combinada con la disponibilidad de enfermeras para informar y explicar, además de brindar un ambiente empático e informal. Este resultado puede apoyar el desarrollo de intervenciones de enfermería de educación para la salud para los padres en Unidad Neonatal, con el uso de tecnología digital.


Abstract Objective to analyze parents' perception of health education practices developed by nurses in a Neonatal Unit that facilitated the acquisition of parenting skills for an informed decision-making. Method this is an exploratory, descriptive and qualitative study. We included 13 parents with children hospitalized for the first time in a Portuguese Neonatal Unit. Data were collected between February and August 2020, through focus groups, processed in the software Interface de R pour Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionneires, through Descending Hierarchical Classification and Similitude Analysis. Results four classes emerged from the Descending Hierarchical Classification: "Information needs"; "Information gaps"; "Availability to inform"; "Facilitating health education practices". Conclusion and implications for practice parents considered digital technology combined with nurses' availability to inform and explain, as well as provide an empathetic and informal environment as facilitating practices for health education. These results can support health education nursing interventions for parents at the Neonatal Units using digital technology.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Adulto , Pais/psicologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Educação em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Folhetos , Comunicação , Tomada de Decisões , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tecnologia Digital , Tempo de Internação , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Cuidados de Enfermagem/psicologia
3.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26(spe): e20210179, 2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1292850

RESUMO

Objetivo: O estudo objetivou compreender as repercussões da pandemia da Covid-19 no cuidado de lactentes prematuros, na perspectiva de mães e profissionais de saúde. Método: Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas nos meses de junho e julho de 2020, por meio de ligação telefônica, com 14 mães e quatro profissionais de saúde do serviço de follow-up de uma maternidade pública da Paraíba, Brasil. Resultados: A partir da análise temática indutiva, os impactos da pandemia no cuidado ao lactente nascido prematuro, foram: sobrecarga e afastamento dos profissionais dos serviços de saúde, desativação temporária da unidade mãe canguru, descontinuidade da assistência ao prematuro, medo materno de expor a criança à Covid-19 e baixa condição socioeconômica. Foram elencadas estratégias de enfrentamento para o cuidado dos lactentes durante a pandemia, como: maior espaçamento das consultas, acompanhamento por meio telefônico e cumprimento das medidas de biossegurança. Conclusão e implicações para a prática: A pandemia exigi adaptações na assistência, tornando necessárias novas formas de cuidado a essas crianças, como exemplo, as consultas de acompanhamento remotas, a fim de garantir o seu direito à vida e saúde


Objective: The study aimed at understanding the repercussions of the Covid-19 pandemic in the care of premature infants, from the perspective of mothers and health professionals. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the months of June and July 2020, over the telephone, with 14 mothers and four health professionals from the follow-up service of a public maternity hospital in Paraíba, Brazil. Results: From the inductive thematic analysis, the impacts of the pandemic on the care of premature infants were as follows: overload and distancing of health service professionals, temporary deactivation of the Kangaroo mother unit, discontinuity of care for the premature infant, maternal fear of exposing the child to Covid-19 and low socioeconomic status. Coping strategies for the care of infants during the pandemic were listed, such as: greater spacing between consultations, phone follow-up and compliance with biosafety measures. Conclusion and implications for the practice: The pandemic required adaptations in care, which make new forms of care necessary for these children, such as remote follow-up consultations, in order to guarantee their right to life and health


Objetivo: El estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender las repercusiones de la pandemia de Covid-19 en la atención de bebés prematuros, desde la perspectiva de las madres y los profesionales de la salud. Método: Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas en los meses de junio y julio de 2020, por medio de llamadas telefónicas, a 14 madres y cuatro profesionales de la salud del servicio de seguimiento de una maternidad pública en Paraíba, Brasil. Resultados: A partir del análisis temático inductivo, los efectos de la pandemia en la atención de bebés prematuros fueron los siguientes: sobrecarga y distanciamiento de profesionales de los servicios de salud, inhabilitación temporal de la unidad Madre Canguro, discontinuidad de la atención al bebé prematuro, miedo materno a exponer al niño al Covid-19 y nivel socioeconómico bajo. Se enumeraron estrategias de afrontamiento para la atención infantil durante la pandemia, tales como: mayor intervalo entre consultas, seguimiento telefónico y cumplimiento de medidas de bioseguridad. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica: La pandemia requirió adaptaciones en la atención, que hacen necesarias nuevas formas de atención para estos niños, como las consultas de monitoreo remoto, para garantizar su derecho a la vida y a la salud


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Lactente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pessoal de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , COVID-19 , Cuidado do Lactente , Mães , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Consulta Remota , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Cobertura Vacinal , Medo , Método Canguru , Higiene das Mãos , Distanciamento Físico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle
4.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e56113, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224567

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever a escolha do parto domiciliar planejado acompanhado por enfermeira obstétrica em um centro urbano de grande porte, na perspectiva de mulheres brasileiras. Métodos: estudo qualitativo guiado pela Grounded Theory. Foram entrevistadas dez mulheres com idade entre 20 e 41 anos que tiveram parto domiciliar planejado acompanhadas por enfermeiras obstétricas. As participantes foram recrutadas por meio de rede social, acessando um grupo de mulheres que escreveram sobre seu parto domiciliar. Resultados: Emergiram duas categorias: Não vendo possibilidade de parir naturalmente no ambiente hospitalar e Pensando na segurança do parto domiciliar planejado. O hospital representou vários aspectos desfavoráveis como intervenções desnecessárias e solidão. As mulheres consideravam o lar um lugar seguro para parir, conectado aos cuidados de enfermeiras obstétricas. Conclusão: há mulheres que não desejam parir no hospital, preferindo parir em casa e do ponto de vista dos direitos humanos e dos cuidados desmedicalizados, as enfermeiras obstétricas devem apoiar as mulheres nessa sua decisão.


Objective: to describe the choice of planned homebirth attended by a nurse midwife in a large urban centre, from the perspective of Brazilian women. Methods: in this Grounded Theory study, ten women aged 20 to 41 years, who had a planned homebirth accompanied by a nurse midwife, were interviewed. Participants were recruited through a social network by accessing a group of women who wrote about their homebirth. Results: two categories emerged: seeing no possibility of giving birth naturally in the hospital environment; and thinking about the safety of a planned homebirth. Hospital represented several unfavourable aspects, such as unnecessary interventions and loneliness. Women thought of home as a safe place to give birth, connected with nurse midwife care. Conclusion: there are women who do not wish to give birth in hospital, but prefer to give birth at home and, from the point of view of human rights and de-medicalized care, nurse midwives should support women in their decision.


Objetivo: describir la elección del parto domiciliario planificado con enfermera obstétrica en un gran centro urbano, desde la perspectiva de mujeres brasileñas. Métodos: estudio cualitativo guiado por la Grounded Theory. Se entrevistó a diez mujeres entre 20 y 41 años que tuvieron parto domiciliario planificado, siendo acompañadas de enfermeras obstétricas. Las participantes fueron reclutadas a través de red social, accediendo a un grupo de mujeres que escribieron sobre su parto en domicilio. Resultados: surgieron dos categorías: las que no veían posibilidad de dar a luz naturalmente en el hospital y las que pensaron en la seguridad del parto domiciliario planificado. El hospital representó varios aspectos desfavorables como intervenciones innecesarias y soledad. Las mujeres consideraban que el hogar era un ambiente seguro para dar a luz, vinculado al cuidado de enfermeras obstétricas. Conclusión: hay mujeres que no desean dar a luz en el hospital, prefieren hacerlo en casa y, desde el punto de vista de los derechos humanos y de los cuidados sin la intervención de un médico, las enfermeras obstétricas deben apoyarlas en esa decisión.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Parto Domiciliar/enfermagem , Parto Normal/enfermagem , Enfermeiras Obstétricas , Gestantes/psicologia , Segurança do Paciente , Parto Domiciliar/psicologia , Parto Normal/psicologia
5.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e52717, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224536

RESUMO

Objetivo: compreender a construção dos significados da morte pelos profissionais de saúde frente ao cuidado à pessoa com câncer. Método: estudo qualitativo realizado em ambiente online, com a participação de 34 profissionais de saúde. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas, interpretadas segundo análise temática. Resultados: duas categorias analíticas emergiram dos dados, indicando que os significados atribuídos à morte pelos participantes foram: como um processo inerente ao ciclo da vida humana, passagem para a outra vida, e fim do sofrimento tanto do paciente quanto dos profissionais de saúde. As dificuldades que apontaram em lidar com a morte se referem à falta de suporte psicológico, escassez de conhecimento sobre morte, cuidados paliativos e comunicação de más notícias. Conclusão: os profissionais construíram diferentes significados à morte de seus pacientes, tais como um processo natural da vida, vontade de um ser superior, passagem para uma nova existência e término do sofrimento dessas pessoas.


Objective: to understand the construction of meanings of death by healthcare professionals caring for people with cancer. Method: this qualitative study was carried out in an online environment through semi-structured interviews of 34 health professionals, which were interpreted using thematic analysis. Results: two analytical categories emerged from the data, indicating that the meanings attributed to death by the participants were: a process inherent in the human life cycle, a transition to the next life, and an end to the suffering of both patient and health professionals. The difficulties they pointed to in dealing with death related to lack of psychological support, lack of knowledge about death, palliative care, and communicating bad news. Conclusion: the professionals constructed different meanings to their patients' deaths: a natural process of life, the will of a higher being, a transition to a new existence, and an end to these people's suffering.


Objetivo: comprender la construcción de los significados de la muerte desde el punto de vista de los profesionales de la salud ante el cuidado a la persona con cáncer. Metodología: estudio cualitativo realizado en un entorno online, con la participación de 34 profesionales de la salud. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas, interpretadas según análisis temático. Resultados: de los datos surgieron dos categorías analíticas que indicaron que los significados atribuidos a la muerte por los participantes fueron: como u proceso inherente al ciclo de vida humano, transición a otra vida y fin al sufrimiento tanto del paciente como de los profesionales de la salud. Las dificultades que señalaron para afrontar la muerte se refieren a la falta de apoyo psicológico, escasez de conocimiento sobre la muerte, cuidados paliativos y comunicación de malas noticias. Conclusión: los profesionales han construido diferentes significados para la muerte de sus pacientes: un proceso natural de la vida, la voluntad de un ser superior, un paso a una nueva existencia y el fin del sufrimiento de estas personas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prática Profissional , Atitude Frente a Morte , Pessoal de Saúde , Morte , Oncologistas , Neoplasias , Cuidados Paliativos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Oncologistas/psicologia , Hospitais , Neoplasias/psicologia
7.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259213, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727110

RESUMO

Healthcare workers have had the longest and most direct exposure to COVID-19 and consequently may suffer from poor mental health. We conducted one of the first repeated multi-country analysis of the mental wellbeing of medical doctors (n = 5,275) at two timepoints during the COVID-19 pandemic (June 2020 and November/December 2020) to understand the prevalence of anxiety and depression, as well as associated risk factors. Rates of anxiety and depression were highest in Italy (24.6% and 20.1%, June 2020), second highest in Catalonia (15.9% and 17.4%, June 2020), and lowest in the UK (11.7% and 13.7%, June 2020). Across all countries, higher risk of anxiety and depression symptoms were found among women, individuals below 60 years old, those feeling vulnerable/exposed at work, and those reporting normal/below-normal health. We did not find systematic differences in mental health measures between the two rounds of data collection, hence we cannot discard that the mental health repercussions of the pandemic are persistent.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias
9.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259528, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731212

RESUMO

A key goal for society as a whole is the pursuit of well-being, which leads to the happiness of its individual members; as such, it is of critical socioeconomic relevance. In this regard, it is important to study which factors primarily affect the happiness of the population. In principle, these factors are associated with income level and residential and job stability, or more specifically, citizens' quality of life. This research, which is based on a multidimensional concept of quality of life, uses a regression model to explain the dependence of Spaniards' happiness on the well-being or quality of life provided by their work, their family situation, their income level and aspects of their place of residence, among other factors. The data were collected through an anonymous survey administered to a representative sample of Spanish citizens. The methodology used approaches the intangible concept of happiness as resulting from different individual and social causes selected from dimensions addressed in the literature, and calculates their effects or importance through regression coefficients. One of the findings is that people with the highest level of well-being or quality of life in the most important dimensions mostly claim to be happy. With respect to gender, it has a significant influence on the dimensions included in the model of citizen happiness and on personal issues. It is also shown that the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic negatively influenced the quality of life of Spanish citizens and therefore their happiness.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Qualidade de Vida , Teoria Social , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/psicologia , Emprego , Meio Ambiente , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258871, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731208

RESUMO

COVID-19 continues to pose a threat to global public health. Multiple safe and effective vaccines against COVID-19 are available with one-third of the global population now vaccinated. Achieving a sufficient level of vaccine coverage to suppress COVID-19 requires, in part, sufficient acceptance among the public. However, relatively high rates of hesitance and resistance to COVID-19 vaccination persists, threating public health efforts to achieve vaccine-induced population protection. In this study, we examined longitudinal changes in COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, hesitance, and resistance in two nations (the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland) during the first nine months of the pandemic, and identified individual and psychological factors associated with consistent non-acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination. Using nationally representative, longitudinal data from the United Kingdom (UK; N = 2025) and Ireland (N = 1041), we found that (1) COVID-19 vaccine acceptance declined in the UK and remained unchanged in Ireland following the emergence of approved vaccines; (2) multiple subgroups existed reflecting people who were consistently willing to be vaccinated ('Accepters': 68% in the UK and 61% in Ireland), consistently unwilling to be vaccinated ('Deniers': 12% in the UK and 16% in Ireland), and who fluctuated over time ('Moveable Middle': 20% in the UK and 23% in Ireland); and (3) the 'deniers' and 'moveable middle' were distinguishable from the 'accepters' on a range of individual (e.g., younger, low income, living alone) and psychological (e.g., distrust of scientists and doctors, conspiracy mindedness) factors. The use of two high-income, Western European nations limits the generalizability of these findings. Nevertheless, understanding how receptibility to COVID-19 vaccination changes as the pandemic unfolds, and the factors that distinguish and characterise those that are hesitant and resistant to vaccination is helpful for public health efforts to achieve vaccine-induced population protection against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 583613, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744555

RESUMO

Objectives: We explored whether modes of transport (cycling, walking, public transport or private vehicle) between home and school are associated with mental well-being in children aged 10-17 years, participating in the Irish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Methods: Scores on the World Health Organization Well-being Index and the Mental Health Inventory five-item versions, self-reported life satisfaction, happiness with self, body satisfaction, excellent self-rated health, and multiple health complaints of 9,077 schoolchildren (mean age: 13.99 ± 1.91 years, percentage girls: 52.2%) were compared across modes of transport, unadjusted and adjusted for gender, age, family affluence and area of residence. Results: Those who reported using public transport reported poorer mental well-being than those using other means of transport, but adjusting for sociodemographic variables obscured these differences. The only exception was excellent health, where children who cycled outperformed the other three groups, even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Conclusions: Cycling can improve well-being in children. However, in promotion of cycling, social and environmental determinants and inequalities which influence adolescents' and their parents' decisions on modes of transport, need to be considered.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Transportes , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes/métodos
12.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 595311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744562

RESUMO

Objectives: Colombia's civil conflict and persistent socio-economic disparities have contributed to mental health inequalities in conflict-affected territories. We explore the magnitude of mental health inequalities, contributing socio-economic factors, and sociodemographic characteristics that explain these differences. Methods: The study draws on data collected in 2018, using the household survey Conflicto, Paz y Salud (CONPAS) applied to 1,309 households in Meta, Colombia. Logistic regression and decomposition analysis were used to analyze the risk of mental health disorders, measured with the Self-Reporting Questionnaire -20 (SRQ-20). Results: Individuals with lower socio-economic status are at a higher risk for mental health disorders. Forced displacement accounts for 31% of the measured mental health inequalities. Disparities in employment, education level, disability and conflict incidence between municipalities are other contributing factors. Women and people with disabilities are respectively 2.3 and 1.2 times more prone to present a mental health disorder. Conclusion: It is necessary to tackle the identified risk factors and sociodemographic circumstances that contribute to mental health inequalities in conflict-affected territories, as these hinder adequate/equitable access to mental health services.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 599831, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744566

RESUMO

Background: The effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model is widely used in job stress research. However, few studies using this model have been conducted in developing countries. This study tested the extrinsic and intrinsic hypotheses regarding the burnout of healthcare workers in China with the ERI model. Method: Job stress was assessed by Siegrist's ERI questionnaire, and burnout was evaluated by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). A total of 1,505 effective respondents were included in the final study. Multiple and hierarchical linear regression was used to analyze the association between components in the ERI model and burnout. Results: Emotional exhaustion and cynicism were positively correlated with ERI and overcommitment. Professional efficacy was positively related to ERI but not to overcommitment. ERI was the determining factor of emotional exhaustion and cynicism. Overcommitment moderated the relationship between ERI and emotional exhaustion and between ERI and cynicism. Conclusion: Changing workplace conditions and increasing personal resilience might alleviate burnout among hospital workers in China. The links between professional efficacy and stressful work environment need further exploration.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Pessoal de Saúde , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Recompensa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho
14.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 602873, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744568

RESUMO

Objectives: To describe maternal smoking trends in France between 1972 and 2016, and identify whether maternal characteristics associated with smoking in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy evolved between 2010 and 2016. Methods: Using French National Perinatal Surveys, we estimated proportions of smokers and the number of cigarettes smoked both just before pregnancy and during the 3rd trimester from 1972 to 2016. We used a Poisson model with robust variance to estimate prevalence ratios for smoking during pregnancy. Results: Proportions of mothers quitting smoking were relatively stable (46.0% in 1972 and 45.8% in 2016). The number of cigarettes smoked just before pregnancy and in the 3rd trimester decreased from 1995 onward. However, proportions of smokers remained high before (30.1%) and during the 3rd trimester in 2016 (16.2%). Smoking in the 3rd trimester was associated with a lower education level and lower income in both 2010 and 2016, whereas the association with age, country of birth and parity varied according to the survey year. Conclusion: Early targeted interventions are needed for smokers who plan to have a child and must take smokers' characteristics during pregnancy into account.


Assuntos
Gestantes , Fumar Tabaco , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/tendências
15.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 607199, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744573

RESUMO

Objectives: To explore the association of family-related adversities with physical fighting, and whether this association is mediated by hopelessness. Methods: The sample consisted of 3712 Slovak adolescents (mean age: 13.9, 50.7% girls). Participants answered questions regarding experienced family-related adversities, involvement in physical fighting in the last 12 months and the Hopelessness Questionnaire. First, the association of family adversities in general with fighting and of each of family-related adversity separately was assessed using linear regression models and second, mediation was assessed using the a*b product method with bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals Results: Adolescents who had experienced at least one family adversity reported more frequent fighting. Similarly, each of reported family adversities (death of a parent, substance abuse problems of a parent, conflicts/physical fights, divorce) was associated with more frequent fighting among adolescents. The mediation effect of hopelessness was found in each association of family-related adversity with fighting. Conclusion: These findings suggest that interventions to support adolescents who had experienced family adversities could among other things be directed at better coping with hopelessness.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Características da Família , Violência , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Feminino , Esperança , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Eslováquia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 614602, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744578

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a university tobacco-free policy by examining differences in students' attitudes, perceptions of compliance and policy benefits, after one year of the policy's implementation. Methods: Cross-sectional studies were undertaken to collect data pre- and 1 year post-policy implementation. The two samples were selected using stratified random sampling. Results: The prevalence of smoking decreased from 26% pre-policy implementation to 21% 1 year after (p = 0.035). The proportion of smokers who thought the policy had contributed to a reduction in smoking frequency increased from 10% to 70% (p < 0.001). Smokers' support for the policy rose from 42 to 58% (p = 0.007). Conclusion: Against the background of a strongly pro-tobacco environment in Lebanon, it is possible to create a positive change in the mindset of smokers at the levels of the education and smoking cessation and more efforts should be expended to bring it about.


Assuntos
Política Antifumo , Estudantes , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Percepção , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
17.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 617053, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744579

RESUMO

Objectives: We examine the association between perceived discrimination, mental health, social support, and support for violent radicalization (VR) in young adults from three locations across two countries: Montréal and Toronto, Canada, and Boston, United States. A secondary goal is to test the moderating role of location. Methods: A total of 791 young adults between the ages of 18 and 30, drawn from the Somali Youth longitudinal study and a Canada-based study of college students, participated in the study. We used multivariate linear regression to assess the association between scores on the Radical Intentions Scale (RIS) with demographic characteristics, anxiety, depression, social support, and discrimination. Results: In the full sample, discrimination, age, and gender were associated with RIS scores. When we examined moderation effects by location, RIS scores were associated with depression only in Montréal, and with social support (negatively) and discrimination in Toronto. None of the variables were significant in Boston. Conclusion: These findings suggest that an understanding of risk and protective factors for support of VR may be context-dependent. Further research should take into consideration local/regional differences.


Assuntos
Violência , Adolescente , Adulto , Boston , Canadá , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Violência/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 619823, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744581

RESUMO

Objectives: As advancing evidence on modifiable resources to support mental health in persons experiencing physical disabilities is of particular importance, we investigate whether structural and functional social relationships relate to mental health in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Data from 12,330 participants of the International SCI community survey (InSCI) from 22 countries were analyzed. Structural (partnership status, living situation) and functional aspects of social relationships (belongingness, relationship satisfaction, problems with social interactions) were regressed on the SF-36 mental health index (MHI-5), stratified by countries and for the total sample using multilevel models. Results: Functional aspects of social relationships were consistently related to clinically relevant higher MHI-5 scores and lower risk of mental health disorders (MHI-5 >56). Structural social relationships were inconsistently associated with mental health in our sample. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that functional aspects of social relationships are important resources for mental health. Interventions to establish and maintain high quality relationships should be considered in public health interventions and rehabilitation programs to reduce long-term mental health problems in persons experiencing physical disabilities.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Relações Interpessoais , Saúde Mental , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Observação , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 642869, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744591

RESUMO

Objectives: To investigate the perspectives and attitudes of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in Slovakia. Methods: A cross-sectional, computer-assisted web survey on health status, emotional support, stigmatisation, communication with physician, treatment, perception, decision-making, concerns, and treatment history. A representative sample of >10% of all PLHIV (N = 895) in Slovakia was invited to participate. Results: Mean age of the 117 respondents was 35.4 (±8.9) years, 52.8% had higher education, and 67.0% were in full-time employment. Most (89.4%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 81.8% had undetectable viral load. Most (85.1%) were satisfied with their ART, and side effects were the primary reason for switching therapies. Most (60.8%) had informed only close friends or relatives about their HIV status, only 3 (2.9%) spoke openly about it, and 60.0% hid their ART from others. Of the 31 respondents (31.6%) who experienced stigmatisation, it was primarily from dentists and other physicians who refused to treat them. Conclusion: In general, PLHIV in Slovakia receive ART and are satisfied with it. They do not speak openly about their HIV status, and some have experienced discrimination.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Eslováquia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604055, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744595

RESUMO

Objective: Cancer screening rates are suboptimal for disadvantaged populations in France, yet little evidence exists on their cancer-related knowledge and screening barriers. The main objective of this study was to examine cancer-related knowledge, awareness, self-efficacy, and perceptions of screening barriers among low-income, illiterate immigrant women in France following an 8-weeks cancer educational intervention. Methods: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 164 female participants in the Ain department of France between January 2019 and March 2020. Adopting the Health Belief Model as an intervention and analytic framework, salient themes were identified using qualitative thematic analysis. Results: Increased levels of perceived susceptibility to and perceived severity of cancer contributed to higher motivation to get screened. Barriers to screening included low French proficiency, shame surrounding illiteracy, and constant worries due to precarious living conditions. Perceived benefits (e.g., valuing one's health and health-promoting behaviors), cues to action from a trusted source, and greater self-efficacy (e.g., more autonomous in healthcare-seeking) outweighed perceived barriers, including cultural barriers. Conclusions: Implications include developing audience-responsive targeted cancer screening communication strategies and educational materials to increase screening rates and reduce cancer and cancer screening inequities.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Promoção da Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , França , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Alfabetização , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Pobreza , Autoeficácia
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