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1.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 279-286, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468990

RESUMO

Vaccines have been seen as the most important solution for ending the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antibody levels after inactivated virus vaccination. We included 148 healthcare workers (74 with prior COVID-19 infection and 74 with not). They received two doses of inactivated virus vaccine (CoronaVac). Serum samples were prospectively collected three times (Days 0, 28, 56). We measured SARS-CoV-2 IgGsp antibodies quantitatively and neutralizing antibodies. After the first dose, antibody responses did not develop in 64.8% of the participants without prior COVID-19 infection. All participants had developed antibody responses after the second dose. We observed that IgGsp antibody titers elicited by a single vaccine dose in participants with prior COVID-19 infection were higher than after two doses of vaccine in participants without prior infection (geometric mean titer: 898 and 607 AU/ml). IgGsp antibodies, participants with prior COVID-19 infection had higher antibody levels as geometric mean titers at all time points (p < 0.001). We also found a positive correlation between IgGsp antibody titers and neutralizing capacity (rs = 0.697, p < 0.001). Although people without prior COVID-19 infection should complete their vaccination protocol, the adequacy of a single dose of vaccine is still in question for individuals with prior COVID-19. New methods are needed to measure the duration of protection of vaccines and their effectiveness against variants as the world is vaccinated. We believe quantitative IgGsp values may reflect the neutralization capacity of some vaccines.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Adulto , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comorbidade , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunização Secundária , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 287-290, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487373

RESUMO

In the 10th month of the pandemic, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination was given first to healthcare workers in Turkey after receiving emergency use approval from the Ministry of Health. This study, which was performed at the COVID-19 reference center in Ankara (the capital of Turkey) aimed to evaluate the seroconversion rate of the CoronaVac vaccine. The anti-spike immunoglobulin G response to the two-dose vaccination was retrospectively examined in healthcare workers who had no previous history of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The postvaccine seroconversion rate was investigated by measuring the antibody levels of healthcare workers who had received CoronaVac. Vaccination was administered as 600 SU in 28-day intervals. The healthcare workers' anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G levels were used to determine the seroconversion rate 2 months after the second dose of the vaccine. Of the healthcare workers, 22.9% (n = 155) were seronegative. The younger the age of the participant, the higher the level of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G. Furthermore, anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G levels were much higher in women than men.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunização Secundária/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Soroconversão/fisiologia , Turquia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 384-387, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406670

RESUMO

The antiviral remdesivir has been shown to decrease the length of hospital stay in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients requiring supplemental oxygen. However many patients decompensate despite being treated with remdesivir. To identify potential prognostic factors in remdesivir-treated patients, we performed a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center between March 23, 2020 and May 27, 2020. We identified 55 patients who were treated with remdesivir for COVID-19 and analyzed inflammatory markers and clinical outcomes. C-reactive protein (CRP), d-dimer, and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in patients who progressed to intubation or death by 14 days compared to those who remained stable. CRP levels decreased significantly after remdesivir administration in patients who remained nonintubated over the study period. To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date examining inflammatory markers before and after remdesivir administration. Our findings support further investigation into COVID-19 treatment strategies that modify the inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , COVID-19/patologia , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
6.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 54-62, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427929

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still propagating a year after the start of the pandemic. Besides the complications patients face during the COVID-19 disease period, there is an accumulating body of evidence concerning the late-onset complications of COVID-19, of which autoimmune manifestations have attracted remarkable attention from the first months of the pandemic. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune thyroid diseases, Kawasaki disease, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and the detection of autoantibodies are the cues to the discovery of the potential of COVID-19 in inducing autoimmunity. Clarification of the pathophysiology of COVID-19 injuries to the host, whether it is direct viral injury or autoimmunity, could help to develop appropriate treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Autoimunidade/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/virologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos
8.
Gene ; 807: 145951, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500051

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to analyze the role of selected polymorphisms of SIRT3 and SIRT5 in gastric carcinogenesis. METHODS: For this study, 500 blood samples of GC patients and 500 blood samples of healthy individuals were collected. Six selected polymorphisms of mitochondrial sirtuins were analyzed for analysis using Tetra-Arms PCR followed by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Mutant allele frequencies of selected polymorphisms [rs3782116 (p < 0.0001), rs6598072 (p < 0.0001) and rs11246020 (p < 0.0001), rs938222 (p = 0.0136), rs3757261 (p = 0.0005) and rs2841511 (p = 0.0015)] were observed significant higher in GC patients vs controls. Haplotype analysis was performed, and 51 haplotypes were generated using haploview software. Among these haplotypes, eleven haplotypes were found associated with a significantly increased risk of GC. Furthermore, SNP-SNP interaction showed a significant correlation between studied SNPs and GC risk. Kaplan Meier analysis showed that mutant allele frequencies of selected polymorphisms are linked with a significant decrease in survival of GC patients CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that selected SNPs may be associated with enhanced risk of GC and hence can be potential prognostic markers for prognosis and predisposition of GC.


Assuntos
Sirtuína 3/genética , Sirtuínas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sirtuína 3/sangue , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo , Sirtuínas/sangue , Sirtuínas/metabolismo
9.
Gene ; 806: 145935, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478821

RESUMO

Soluble molecules of programmed death ligand 1 (sPD-L1) are known to modulate T-cell depletion, an important mechanism of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence and liver disease progression. In addition, PD-L1 polymorphisms in the 3'-UTR can influence PD-L1 expression and have been associated with cancer risk, although not definitively. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of PD-L1 polymorphisms and circulating levels of sPD-L1 in HBV infection and live disease progression. In this study, five hundred fifty-one HBV infected patients of the three clinically well-defined subgroups chronic hepatitis B (CHB, n = 186), liver cirrhosis (LC, n = 142) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, n = 223) and 240 healthy individuals (HC) were enrolled. PD-L1 polymorphisms (rs2297136 and rs4143815) were genotyped by in-house validated ARMS assays. Logistic regression models were applied in order to determine the association of PD-L1 polymorphisms with HBV infection as well as with progression of related liver diseases. Plasma sPD-L1 levels were quantified by ELISA assays. The PD-L1 rs2297136 AA genotype was associated with HBV infection susceptibility (HBV vs. HC: OR = 1.6; 95%CI = 1.1-2.3; p = 0.0087) and disease progression (LC vs. CHB: OR = 1.8; 95%CI = 1.1-2.9; p = 0.018). Whereas, the rs2297136 GG genotype was a protective factor for HCC development. Plasma sPD-L1 levels were significantly high in HBV patients (p < 0.0001) and higher in the LC followed by CHB and HCC groups. High sPD-L1 levels correlated with increased liver enzymes and with advanced liver disease progression (Child-pugh C > B > A, p < 0.0001) and BCLC classification (BCLC D > C > B > A, p = 0.031). We could, for the first time, conclude that PD-L1 rs2297136 polymorphism and plasma sPD-L1 protein levels associate with HBV infection and HBV-related liver disease progression.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite B Crônica/genética , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Adulto , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Vírus da Hepatite B/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
10.
Gene ; 807: 145888, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a glucose intolerance condition encounters for the first time in a fraction of pregnant women. The role of different host inflammatory molecules in GDM etiology has been deciphered. Chemerin is a chemoattractant protein primarily associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the association of chemerin and its genetic variants with the predisposition of GDM is not clear, and our present study is aimed to address the issue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 703 Chinese women comprising of GDM (n = 303), glucose tolerant pregnant women (n = 211), and non-pregnant glucose tolerant controls (n = 189) were recruited in the present investigation. GDM was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization recommendation for diagnosis of gestational diabetes during pregnancy. Plasma levels of chemerin were quantified by an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Common variants in the chemerin gene (rs4721, rs17173617, rs7806429, and rs17173608) were genotyped by using TaqMan assay. RESULTS: Plasma chemerin level was found higher in subjects with GDM as compared to glucose tolerant pregnant and non-pregnant women. Further, a positive correlation between plasma chemerin and HOMA-IR index suggesting an essential role of chemerin in mediating insulin resistance. Variants of rs4721 and rs17173608 polymorphisms were associated with lower levels of plasma chemerin and low HOMA-IR index. Furthermore, mutants of rs4721 and rs17173608 polymorphisms were associated with protection against the development of GDM in the Chinese cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma chemerin is elevated in GDM patients. Genetic variation in chemerin gene associated with lower plasma levels of chemerin, HOMA-IR index and protects against the development of GDM in Chinese.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/genética , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Glicemia/genética , Quimiocinas/sangue , China , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/genética , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Gravidez
11.
Talanta ; 236: 122887, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635267

RESUMO

Dabigatran etexilate (DBG) is a new anticoagulant drug (commercially sold under the names Pradaxa® and Pradax™) that replaces Warfarin, the landmark agent for anticoagulation therapy. Inadequate administration of DBG or in the cases of massive bleeding that occurs after renal impairment, DBG therapy can carry a substantial life-threatening risks. One of the major limitations of DBG treatment is the lack of a simple and quick tool for measuring its level in blood in the case of massive bleedings or emergency operations. In this work, we have incorporated a previously isolated aptamer for DBG to develop a simple competitive lateral flow aptasensor (LFA) for the determination of DBG in buffer and blood samples. A full-length 60-mer aptamer as well as a truncated 38-mer aptamer were conjugated to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via thiol-Au coupling chemistry. After appropriate AuNP surface passivation steps, the aptamer's core region was hybridized with 8-mer biotinylated sequences. The conjugated particles could be capture on the test line by the interaction of the biotin molecules with a previously deposited streptavidin. Incubation of the conjugated particles with DBG causes the aptamer to undergo a conformational change that releases the 8-mer biotinylated sequences and result in the disappearance of the test line. Lysozyme protein was used to construct the control line that non-specifically interacts with the conjugated particles whether or not the target compound is present. The developed LFA achieves 20 nM detection level in buffer and blood samples, operates within the nanomolar range, and shows excellent selectivity against potential interfering molecules. The developed sensor could help assessing the levels of DBG in medical conditions that require rapid interventions.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Dabigatrana/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Dabigatrana/sangue , Ouro , Humanos , Estreptavidina
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2386: 43-60, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766264

RESUMO

A comprehensive study of the cellular components of the immune system demands both deep and broad immunophenotyping of numerous cell subsets in an effective and practical way. Novel full-spectrum technology reveals the complete emission spectrum of each dye maximizing the amount of information that can be obtained on a single sample regarding conventional flow cytometry and provide an expanded knowledge of biological processes. In this chapter, we describe a 37-color protocol that allows to identify more than 45 different cell populations on whole blood samples of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Citometria de Fluxo , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , COVID-19/sangue , Cor , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário
13.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 357-365, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542195

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a serious respiratory disease. The ever-increasing number of cases is causing heavier loads on the health service system. Using 38 blood test indicators on the first day of admission for the 422 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 (from January 2020 to June 2021) to construct different machine learning (ML) models to classify patients into either mild or severe cases of COVID-19. All models show good performance in the classification between COVID-19 patients into mild and severe disease. The area under the curve (AUC) of the random forest model is 0.89, the AUC of the naive Bayes model is 0.90, the AUC of the support vector machine model is 0.86, and the AUC of the KNN model is 0.78, the AUC of the Logistic regression model is 0.84, and the AUC of the artificial neural network model is 0.87, among which the naive Bayes model has the best performance. Different ML models can classify patients into mild and severe cases based on 38 blood test indicators taken on the first day of admission for patients diagnosed with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue , COVID-19/classificação , Redes Neurais de Computação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Área Sob a Curva , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Testes Hematológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 366-371, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546584

RESUMO

Co-epidemics happening simultaneously can generate a burden on healthcare systems. The co-occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 with vector-borne diseases (VBD), such as malaria and dengue in resource-limited settings represents an additional challenge to the healthcare systems. Herein, we assessed the coinfection rate between SARS-CoV-2 and VBD to highlight the need to carry out an accurate diagnosis and promote timely measures for these infections in Luanda, the capital city of Angola. This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 105 subjects tested for the SARS-CoV-2 and VBD with a rapid detection test in April 2021. The participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (3.80%), malaria (13.3%), and dengue (27.6%). Low odds related to testing positivity to SARS-CoV-2 or VBD were observed in participants above or equal to 40 years (odds ratio [OR]: 0.60, p = 0.536), while higher odds were observed in male (OR: 1.44, p = 0.392) and urbanized areas (OR: 3.78, p = 0.223). The overall co-infection rate between SARS-CoV-2 and VBD was 11.4%. Our findings showed a coinfection between SARS-CoV-2 with malaria and dengue, which could indicate the need to integrate the screening for VBD in the SARS-CoV-2 testing algorithm and the adjustment of treatment protocols. Further studies are warranted to better elucidate the relationship between COVID-19 and VBD in Angola.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Angola/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Teste para COVID-19 , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
16.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 131-140, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403145

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly become a global threat to public health, and it is difficult to predict severe patients and their prognosis. Here, we intended developing effective models for the late identification of patients at disease progression and outcome. METHODS: A total of 197 patients were included with a 20-day median follow-up time. We first developed a nomogram for disease severity discrimination, then created a prognostic nomogram for severe patients. RESULTS: In total, 40.6% of patients were severe and 59.4% were non-severe. The multivariate logistic analysis indicated that IgG, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase, platelet, albumin, and blood urea nitrogen were significant factors associated with the severity of COVID-19. Using immune response phenotyping based on NLR and IgG level, the logistic model showed patients with the NLRhi IgGhi phenotype are most likely to have severe disease, especially compared to those with the NLRlo IgGlo phenotype. The C-indices of the two discriminative nomograms were 0.86 and 0.87, respectively, which indicated sufficient discriminative power. As for predicting clinical outcomes for severe patients, IgG, NLR, age, lactate dehydrogenase, platelet, monocytes, and procalcitonin were significant predictors. The prognosis of severe patients with the NLRhi IgGhi phenotype was significantly worse than the NLRlo IgGhi group. The two prognostic nomograms also showed good performance in estimating the risk of progression. CONCLUSIONS: The present nomogram models are useful to identify COVID-19 patients with disease progression based on individual characteristics and immune response-related indicators. Patients at high risk for severe illness and poor outcomes from COVID-19 should be managed with intensive supportive care and appropriate therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/imunologia , Idoso , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Contagem de Leucócitos , Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos , Nomogramas , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 173-177, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427924

RESUMO

In this study, it was aimed to determine the antibody responses after the two doses of inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccinations in people who were above 65 years old and to evaluate the factors affecting this response. A total of 235 participants aged 65 years and older were included. Blood samples were taken and data about age, gender, comorbid diseases, and presence of side effects after vaccination were noted. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 QuantiVac ELISA (IgG) test kit (catalogue number: EI-2606-9601-10-G, Euroimmun) was used. The mean age was 70.38 ± 4.76. Approximately 120 of 235 participants had at least one comorbid disease. The mean levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody after 4 weeks from the first and second doses of vaccine were 37.70 ± 57.08 IU/ml, and 194.61 ± 174.88 IU/ml, respectively. Additionally, 134 of 235 participants (57.02%) had under 25.6 IU/ml antibody level (negative) after 4 weeks from the first vaccine dose while this rate was 11.48% (n = 27) after 4 weeks from the second vaccine dose. The 19 (70.4%) participants who had under had 25.6 IU/ml antibody level after 4 weeks from the first dose of vaccine had at least one comorbid disease including diabetes mellitus, and 8 (29.6%) participants had no comorbid disease (F = 2.352, p = 0.006). Lower rates of antibody response were detected in participants aged 65 years and older and those with comorbidities both in our study and similar studies in the current literature. Further studies should evaluate whether the low antibody titers are really associated with age and comorbidities or not. Finally, prospective studies are needed to determine how long the immunity provided by SARS-CoV-2 vaccines will continue.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
18.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 186-196, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427932

RESUMO

In classical viral infections, the avidity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is low during acute infection and high a few months later. As recently reported, SARS-CoV-2 infections are not following this scheme, but they are rather characterized by incomplete avidity maturation. This study was performed to clarify whether infection with seasonal coronaviruses also leads to incomplete avidity maturation. The avidity of IgG toward the nucleoprotein (NP) of the seasonal coronaviruses 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1 and of SARS-CoV-2 was determined in the sera from 88 healthy, SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects and in the sera from 70 COVID-19 outpatients, using the recomLine SARS-CoV-2 assay with recombinant antigens. In the sera from SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects, incomplete avidity maturation (persistent low and intermediate avidity indices) was the lowest for infections with the alpha-coronaviruses 229E (33.3%) and NL63 (61.3%), and the highest for the beta-coronaviruses OC43 (77.5%) and HKU1 (71.4%). In the sera from COVID-19 patients, the degree of incomplete avidity maturation of IgG toward NP of 223E, OC43, and HKU1 was not significantly different from that found in SARS-CoV-2-negative subjects, but a significant increase in avidity was observed for IgG toward NP of NL63. Though there was no cross-reaction between SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal coronaviruses, higher concentrations of IgG directed toward seasonal coronaviruses seemed to indirectly increase avidity maturation of IgG directed toward SARS-CoV-2. Our data show that incomplete IgG avidity maturation represents a characteristic consequence of coronavirus infections. This raises problems for the serological differentiation between acute and past infections and may be important for the biology of coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/imunologia , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Coronavirus Humano NL63/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Coronavirus Humano OC43/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 154-160, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427934

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the role and relationship between the cytokine profile and protective vitamin D by measuring their serum levels in COVID-19 intensive care unit patients with severe illnesses. A total of 74 patients were included in our study. Patients were divided into two groups. Patients in the COVID-19 group (n = 31) and individuals without a history of serious illness or infection were used as the control group (n = 43). The serum concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-10, IL-21, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Levels of serum vitamin D were detected with Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methodologies. TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-21, and vitamin D levels were measured in all patients. The serum cytokine levels in the COVID-19 patient group were significantly higher (151.59 ± 56.50, 140.37 ± 64.32, 249.02 ± 62.84, 129.04 ± 31.64, and 123.58 ± 24.49, respectively) than control groups. Serum vitamin D was also significantly low (6.82 ± 3.29) in patients in the COVID-19 group than the controls (21.96 ± 5.39). Regarding the correlation of vitamin D with cytokine levels, it was significantly variable. Our study shows that COVID-19 patients are associated with lower serum vitamin D and higher pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with increased virus presence. Our data provide more evidence of the anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D on COVID-19 patients and the protective effects of vitamin D on risk were demonstrated.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-1/sangue , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucinas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
20.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 178-185, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428312

RESUMO

Many aspects of the humoral immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), such as its role in protection after natural infection, are still unclear. We evaluated IgA and IgG response to spike subunits 1 and 2 (S1 and S2) and Nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-COV-2 in serum samples of 109 volunteers with viral RNA detected or seroconversion with different clinical evolution (asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe coronavirus disease 2019), using the ViraChip® Test Kit. We observed that the quantification of antibodies to all antigens had a positive correlation to disease severity, which was strongly associated with the presence of comorbidities. Seroreversion was not uncommon even during the short (median of 77 days) observation, occurring in 15% of mild-asymptomatic cases at a median of 55 days for IgG and 46 days for IgA. The time to reach the maximal antibody response did not differ significantly among recovered and deceased volunteers. Our study illustrated the dynamic of anti-S1, anti-N, and anti-S2 IgA and IgG antibodies, and suggests that high production of IgG and IgA does not guarantee protection to disease severity and that functional responses that have been studied by other groups, such as antibody avidity, need further attention.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Soroconversão , Adulto Jovem
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