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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 791, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mineworkers in Southern Africa have the highest rates of tuberculosis (TB) among working populations in the world (The World Bank, Benefits and costs associated with reducing tuberculosis among Southern Africa's mineworkers, 2014), making mineworkers a key population for TB program efforts. The current evaluation aimed to characterize mineworkers and former (ex-) mineworkers, and assess knowledge, attitudes and practices related to TB and HIV care among mineworkers and healthcare workers (HCWs) in Zambia. METHODS: A mixed-methods evaluation of current and former (ex-) mineworkers and HCWs was conducted in the Copperbelt and North-Western provinces, Zambia. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) related to TB care and policies were assessed using a structured survey. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted with current and ex-mineworkers to understand perceptions, practices, and barriers related to accessing healthcare for TB. RESULTS: Overall, 2,792 mineworkers and 94 HCWs completed the KAP survey, and 206 (171 current, 71 ex-) mineworkers participated in FGDs. Mineworkers and ex-mineworkers were knowledgeable about TB symptoms (cough; 94%), transmission (81.7%) and treatment (99.2%). Yet, barriers to seeking care were evident with 30% of mineworkers experiencing cough, and 19% reporting 2 or more TB symptoms at the time of the survey. The majority of mineworkers (70.9%) were aware of policies barring persons from working after a diagnosis of TB, and themes from FGDs and HCW comments (n = 32/62; 51.6%) recognized fear of job loss as a critical barrier to providing timely screening and appropriate care for TB among mineworkers. The majority (76.9%) of mineworkers indicated they would not disclose their TB status to their supervisor, but would be willing to share their diagnosis with their spouse (73.8%). CONCLUSION: Fear of job loss, driven by governmental policy and mistrust in mining companies, is a major barrier to healthcare access for TB among mineworkers in Zambia. As a result of these findings, the government policy prohibiting persons from working in the mines following TB disease is being repealed. However, major reforms are urgently needed to mitigate TB among mineworkers, including ensuring the rights of mineworkers and their communities to healthy living and working environments, improved social responsibility of mining companies, and facilitating choice and access to affordable, timely, and high-quality healthcare services.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mineração , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tosse , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Mineração/organização & administração , Políticas , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/economia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/tendências , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
3.
Prosthet Orthot Int ; 46(2): 175-182, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been a reported reduction in the incidence of amputation, but it is unclear whether the number of amputations has decreased in the elderly, a cohort that typically has the largest proportion of amputees. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence proportion and time trends of amputation in patients aged ≥ 65 years in Taiwan. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study from a large national database. METHODS: The records of patients who underwent an amputation were collected from a nationally representative sample of 1,000,000 enrollees of Taiwan's National Health Insurance program during 1996-2013. The patients were divided into four age groups: ≤64, 65-74, 75-84, and ≥85 years. Joinpoint regression was performed with adjustment for age and sex to identify changes in incidence proportion by year. RESULTS: During the 18 years, the incidence of upper and lower limb amputation decreased significantly in the total population, with the average annual percentage change (AAPC) of -6.1 and -1.8, respectively. However, in the elderly population over 65 years, the incidence did not decrease significantly for upper minor amputation, lower minor amputation, and major amputation with the AAPC of -1.1, -0.1, and -0.4, respectively. Although not significant, the incidence of major and minor lower limb amputation in the population over 85 years old showed an increasing trend, with the AAPC of 1.2 and 3.2, respectively. CONCLUSION: During the study period, although the incidence of amputation of the overall population decreased in Taiwan, this trend was not simultaneously observed in the elderly and hence, it should not be ignored.


Assuntos
Amputação , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Extremidade Superior/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amputação/estatística & dados numéricos , Amputação/tendências , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
5.
J Med Syst ; 46(5): 25, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378645

RESUMO

After raising more than $700 million, Elizabeth Holmes, the founder and chief executive officer of a healthcare startup once valued at $10 billion, was found guilty on four charges of defrauding investors. Founded in 2003, Theranos Inc. was a privately held corporation that aimed to disrupt the diagnostics industry with rapid, direct-to-consumer laboratory testing using only "a drop of blood" and the company's patented Nanotainer technology. By exploiting gaps in regulatory policy, Theranos brought its panel of laboratory tests to patients without pre-market review or validation from peer-reviewed scientific research. Investigations into Theranos' dubious operations and inaccurate test results exposed the failed venture which had squandered millions of dollars. Theranos affected the lives and health of patients further disrupting an already tenuous relationship between healthcare and the public - the importance of which cannot be understated in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic. As medical systems address a national public health crisis and pervasive structural inequities, we must align stakeholder incentives between industry and academic biomedical innovation to rebuild trust with our patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/ética , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Atenção à Saúde , Fraude/economia , Fraude/legislação & jurisprudência , Fraude/tendências , Humanos , Nanoestruturas/normas , Nanotecnologia/economia , Nanotecnologia/normas , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(15): e2113561119, 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394862

RESUMO

SignificanceThis paper compares the probabilistic accuracy of short-term forecasts of reported deaths due to COVID-19 during the first year and a half of the pandemic in the United States. Results show high variation in accuracy between and within stand-alone models and more consistent accuracy from an ensemble model that combined forecasts from all eligible models. This demonstrates that an ensemble model provided a reliable and comparatively accurate means of forecasting deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic that exceeded the performance of all of the models that contributed to it. This work strengthens the evidence base for synthesizing multiple models to support public-health action.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/mortalidade , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Previsões , Humanos , Pandemias , Probabilidade , Saúde Pública/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 846601, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35359777

RESUMO

Background: Myopia is one of the most common causes of vision impairment in children and adults and has become a public health priority with its growing prevalence worldwide. This study aims to identify and evaluate the global trends in myopia research of the past century and visualize the frontiers using bibliometric analysis. Methods: The literature search was conducted on the Web of Science for myopia studies published between 1900 and 2020. Retrieved publications were analyzed in-depth by the annual publication number, prolific countries and institutions, core author and journal, and the number of citations through descriptive statistics. Collaboration networks and keywords burst were visualized by VOSviewer and CiteSpace. Myopia citation network was visualized using CitNetExplorer. Results: In total, 11,172 publications on myopia were retrieved from 1900 to 2020, with most published by the United States. Saw SM, from the National University of Singapore, contributed the most publications and citations. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science was the journal with highest number of citations. Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery with the maximum number of publications. The top 10 cited papers mainly focused on the epidemiology of myopia. Previous research emphasized myopia-associated experimental animal models, while recent keywords include "SMILE" and "myopia control" with the stronger burst, indicating a shift of concern from etiology to therapy and coincided with the global increment of incidence. Document citation network was clustered into six groups: "prevalence and risk factors of myopia," "surgical control of myopia," "pathogenesis of myopia," "optical interventions of myopia," "myopia and glaucoma," and "pathological myopia." Conclusions: Bibliometrics analysis in this study could help scholars comprehend global trends of myopia research frontiers better. Hundred years of myopia research were clustered into six groups, among which "prevalence and risk factors of myopia" and "surgical control of myopia" were the largest groups. With the increasing prevalence of myopia, interventions of myopia control are a potential research hotspot and pressing public health issue.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Miopia , Bibliometria , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Humanos , Miopia/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública
12.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 22(1): 105, 2022 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35399068

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over the last years, the number of systematic reviews published is steadily increasing due to the global interest in this type of evidence synthesis. However, little is known about the characteristics of this research published in Portuguese medical journals. This study aims to evaluate the publication trends and overall quality of these systematic reviews. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a methodological study. We aimed the most visible Portuguese medical journals indexed in MEDLINE. Systematic reviews were identified through an electronic search (through PUBMED). We included systematic reviews published up to August 2020. Systematic reviews selection and data extraction were done independently by three authors. The overall quality critical appraisal using the A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews (AMSTAR-2) was independently assessed by three authors. Disagreements were solved by consensus. RESULTS: Sixty-six systematic reviews published in 5 Portuguese medical journals were included. Most (n = 53; 80.3%) were systematic reviews without meta-analysis. Up to 2010 there was a steady increase in the number of systematic reviews published, followed by a period of great variability of publication, ranging from 1 to 10 in a given year. According to the systematic reviews' typology, most have been predominantly conducted to assess the effectiveness/efficacy of health interventions (n = 27; 40.9%). General and Internal Medicine (n = 20; 30.3%) was the most addressed field. Most systematic reviews (n = 46; 69.7%) were rated as being of "critically low-quality". CONCLUSIONS: There were consistent flaws in the methodological quality report of the systematic reviews included, particularly in establishing a prior protocol and not assessing the potential impact of the risk of bias on the results. Through the years, the number of systematic reviews published increased, yet their quality is suboptimal. There is a need to improve the reporting of systematic reviews in Portuguese medical journals, which can be achieved by better adherence to quality checklists/tools.


Assuntos
Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Lista de Checagem , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/tendências , Portugal , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e054014, 2022 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35351708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of inter-nurse lateral violence (LV) reported in current studies is inconsistent, ranging from 7% to 83%. The purpose of this study is to quantify the prevalence of LV in nurses' workplaces. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Cochrane, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, CNKI and Wanfang databases were searched for relevant studies (up to 27 January 2021). We included cross-sectional, case-control or cohort studies in which both abusers and victims were nurses. Studies that did not provide specific data on abusers were excluded. Stata V.16.0 was used for statistical analysis. Fixed-effect or random-effect model was adopted according to heterogeneity, which was evaluated by Cochran's Q and I 2 values. The main indicator was LV prevalence. Sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and meta-regression were performed to investigate the sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 14 studies with 6124 nurses were included. Further, 13 articles with 5745 nurses were included in the meta-analysis, and the pooled prevalence of LV among nurses was 33.08% (95% CI: 23.41% to 42.75%, p<0.05; I 2=99.0%). The remaining one study containing 370 samples reported that the prevalence of inter-nurse LV was 7.92%. Subgroup analysis showed that region, sample size, sampling, study's quality, response rate and publication time might not be the sources of heterogeneity. Meta-regression indicated that sample size had the main influence on model heterogeneity. Egger's test showed the existence of publication bias (p=0.03). DISCUSSION: The prevalence of inter-nurse LV is high in nurse workplace. It is suggested that scholars pay more attention to the cultural differences of inter-nurse LV between regions in the future. This study has the following limitations: there is a lack of studies on LV prevalence in many countries; lack of standard assessment tools; no grey literature was searched.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Violência , Local de Trabalho , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/tendências
17.
J Biol Chem ; 298(4): 101782, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35245500

RESUMO

Intracellular spaces are partitioned into separate compartments to ensure that numerous biochemical reactions and cellular functions take place in a spatiotemporally controlled manner. Biomacromolecules including proteins and RNAs undergo liquid-liquid phase separation and subsequent phase transition to form biological condensates with diverse material states. The material/physical properties of biological condensates are crucial for fulfilling their distinct physiological functions, and abnormal material properties can cause deleterious effects under pathological conditions. Here, we review recent studies showing the role of the material properties of biological condensates in their physiological functions. We also summarize several classic methods as well as newly emerging techniques for characterization and/or measurement of the material properties of biological condensates.


Assuntos
Bioensaio , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Celulares , Proteínas , Bioensaio/tendências , Transição de Fase , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA/química
19.
J Diabetes Res ; 2022: 3366109, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35296100

RESUMO

Diabetes is associated with several diabetic-related abnormalities which increase the risk of onset or worsening of heart failure. Recent studies showed that the majority of diabetic patients present with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and the prevalence of HFpEF in diabetics is alarming. Moreover, outcomes in HFpEF are poor and could be compared to those of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), with 1-year mortality ranging between 10 and 30%. In contrast to HFrEF, there is very limited evidence for pharmacologic therapy in symptomatic patients with preserved ejection fraction, and therefore, the optimal selection of treatment for diabetic HFpEF remains challenging. This narrative review article summarizes the currently available data on the pharmacological treatment of HFpEF in patients with diabetes.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Diuréticos/farmacologia , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Tratamento Farmacológico/tendências , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264355, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239679

RESUMO

The supply chain disruptions caused by the COVID-19 outbreak have led to changes in food prices globally. The impact of COVID-19 on the price of essential and perishable food items in developing and emerging economies has been lacking. Using a recent phone survey by the World Bank, this study examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prices of the three essential food items in India. The results indicate that price of basic food items such as atta (wheat flour) and rice increased significantly during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period. In contrast, during the same period, the price of onions declined significantly. The findings may suggest panic-buying, hoarding, and storability of food items. The results further reveal that remittance income and cash transfers from the government negatively affected commodity prices. Thus, this study's findings suggest that families may have shifted the demand away from essential foods during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos/economia , Comércio/tendências , Farinha/economia , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Renda , Índia/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Triticum
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