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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256916, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355874

RESUMO

Abstract Crotalaria (Fabaceae) occurs abundantly in tropical and subtropical regions and has about 600 known species. These plants are widely used in agriculture, mainly as cover plants and green manures, in addition to their use in the management of phytonematodes. A striking feature of these species is the production of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), secondary allelochemicals involved in plant defense against herbivores. In Crotalaria species, monocrotaline is the predominant PA, which has many biological activities reported, including cytotoxicity, tumorigenicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity, with a wide range of ecological interactions. Thus, studies have sought to elucidate the effects of this compound to promote an increase in flora and fauna (mainly insects and nematodes) associated with agroecosystems, favoring the natural biological control. This review summarizes information about the monocrotaline, showing such effects in these environments, both above and below ground, and their potential use in pest management programs.


Resumo Crotalaria (Linnaeus, 1753) (Fabaceae) ocorre abundantemente em regiões tropicais e subtropicais e tem cerca de 600 espécies conhecidas. Estas plantas são amplamente utilizadas na agricultura, principalmente como cobertura e adubos verdes, além da sua utilização no manejo de fitonematoides. Uma característica marcante destas espécies é a produção de alcalóides pirrolizidinicos (APs), aleloquímicos secundários envolvidos na defesa das plantas contra os herbívoros. Nas espécies de Crotalaria, a monocrotalina é a AP predominante, que tem muitas atividades biológicas relatadas, incluindo citotoxicidade, tumorigenicidade, hepatotoxicidade e neurotoxicidade, além de uma vasta gama de interações ecológicas. Assim, estudos têm procurado elucidar os efeitos desse composto para promover um incremento na flora e fauna (principalmente insetos e nematoides) associados aos agroecossistemas, favorecendo o controle biológico natural. Esta revisão compila informações sobre a monocrotalina, mostrando tais efeitos nesses ambientes, tanto acima como abaixo do solo e a sua potencial utilização em programas de manejo de pragas.


Assuntos
Animais , Artrópodes , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina , Crotalaria , Fabaceae , Monocrotalina/toxicidade
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251289, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355889

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was made to determine the micronuclei and cytotoxic capacity of the antidepressant venlafaxine in an in vivo acute and subchronic assays in mouse. In the first study, we administered once 5, 50, and 250 mg/kg of the drug, and included a negative and a daunorubicin treated group. Observations were daily made during four days. The subchronic assay lasted 5 weeks with daily administration of venlafaxine (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) plus a negative and an imipramine administered groups. Observations were made each week. In the first assay results showed no micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE) increase, except with the high dose at 72 h. The strongest cytotoxic effect was found with 250 mg/kg at 72 h (a 51% cytotoxic effect in comparison with the mean control level). In the subchronic assay no MNPE increase was found; however, with the highest dose a significant increase of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes was observed in the last three weeks (a mean of 51% respect to the mean control value). A cytotoxic effect with the two high doses in the last two weeks was observed (a polychromatic erythrocyte mean decrease of 52% respect to the mean control value). Results suggest caution with venlafaxine.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi feita para determinar a capacidade micronuclei e citotóxica do antidepressivo venlafaxina em ensaios agudos e subcrônicos in vivo em camundongos. No primeiro estudo, administramos uma vez 5, 50 e 250 mg/kg do medicamento e incluímos um grupo negativo e um grupo tratado com daunorubicina. As observações foram feitas diariamente durante quatro dias. O ensaio subcrônico durou cinco semanas com administração diária de venlafaxina (1, 5, e 10 mg/kg) mais um grupo negativo e um grupo administrado de imipramina. As observações foram feitas a cada semana. No primeiro ensaio, os resultados não mostraram aumento de eritrócitos policromáticos micronucleados (MNPE), exceto com a dose elevada a 72 h. O efeito citotóxico mais forte foi encontrado com 250 mg/kg a 72 h (um efeito citotóxico de 51% em comparação com o nível médio de controle). No ensaio subcrônico não foi encontrado aumento de MNPE; entretanto, com a dose mais alta, um aumento significativo de eritrócitos normocromáticos micronucleados foi observado nas últimas três semanas (média de 51% em relação ao valor médio de controle). Foi observado um efeito citotóxico com as duas altas doses nas últimas duas semanas (uma diminuição média de 52% em relação ao valor médio de controle dos eritrócitos policromáticos). Os resultados sugerem cautela com a venlafaxina.


Assuntos
Animais , Coelhos , Dano ao DNA , Antineoplásicos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eritrócitos , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/toxicidade
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115671, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055476

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kalyanaka ghrita (KG) is an Ayurvedic formulation traditionally used in the treatment of Daurbalya (debility) and Smritidaurbalya (impairment of intellectual activities). Clinical studies have reported the effect of KG in the treatment of Manasmandata or Buddhimandyata which is associated with impaired learning, social adjustment and maturation. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aims to standardization of KG and validation of its use in experimental models of neurodegeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: KG was Standardized for biomarkers curcumin, gallic acid, tannic acid, chebulagic acid, and berberine. In male wistar rats, neurodegeneration was induced by administration of intracerebroventricular Amyloid ß (Aß1-42). The effect of KG (oral and intranasal treatment) was evaluated through behavioral parameters such as Morris water maze, social recognition test, novel object recognition, locomotor activity, and molecular parameters, brain acetylcholinesterase, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress markers, and antioxidants. Brain histopathology was performed for studying the architecture of the brain and plaque formation. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A novel HPLC method has been developed for the standardization of KG. Treatment with KG significantly improved cognition and memory and increased brain BDNF and antioxidant status in Aß1-42 induced rats. It also reduced brain acetylcholinesterase, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines and prevented neuronal damage. There were more marked effects with intra-nasal administration compared to oral treatment. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that KG has neuroprotective potential and along with its nootropic property could be a promising therapy for neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Berberina , Curcumina , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Nootrópicos , Acetilcolinesterase , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes , Berberina/farmacologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Curcumina/farmacologia , Citocinas/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Nootrópicos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Taninos/farmacologia
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129843, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113351

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is the most widely distributed heavy metal pollutant in soil and has significant negative effects on crop yields and human health. Rhizobia can enhance soybean growth in the presence of heavy metals, and the legume-rhizobia symbiosis has been used to promote heavy-metal phytoremediation, but much remains to be learned about the molecular networks that underlie these effects. Here, we demonstrated that soybean root growth was strongly suppressed after seven days of Cd exposure but that the presence of rhizobia largely eliminated this effect, even prior to nodule development. Moreover, rhizobia did not appear to promote root growth by limiting plant Cd uptake: seedlings with and without rhizobia had similar root Cd concentrations. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for m6A RNA methylation in the response of rice and barley to Cd stress. We therefore performed transcriptome-wide m6A methylation profiling to investigate changes in the soybean RNA methylome in response to Cd with and without rhizobia. Here, we provide some of the first data on transcriptome-wide m6a RNA methylation patterns in soybean; m6A modifications were concentrated at the 3' UTR of transcripts and showed a positive relationship with transcript abundance. Transcriptome-wide m6A RNA methylation peaks increased in the presence of Cd, and the integration of m6A methylome and transcriptome results enabled us to identify 154 genes whose transcripts were both differentially methylated and differentially expressed in response to Cd stress. Annotation results suggested that these genes were associated with Ca2+ homeostasis, ROS pathways, polyamine metabolism, MAPK signaling, hormones, and biotic stress responses. There were 176 differentially methylated and expressed transcripts under Cd stress in the presence of rhizobia. In contrast to the Cd-only gene set, they were also enriched in genes related to auxin, jasmonic acid, and brassinosteroids, as well as abiotic stress tolerance. They contained fewer genes related to Ca2+ homeostasis and also included candidates with known functions in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. These findings offer new insights into how rhizobia promote soybean root growth under Cd stress; they provide candidate genes for research on plant heavy metal responses and for the use of legumes in phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Fabaceae , Metais Pesados , Rhizobium , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Brassinosteroides , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Epigenoma , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poliaminas/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rhizobium/metabolismo , Solo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115741, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162543

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pulsatilla decoction (PD), is an herbal formula commonly used for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) in clinical practice, but the mechanism of PD alters the colitis remains elusive. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the intervention effect of PD on Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS)-induced UC based on gut microbiota and intestinal short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) metabolism, and to investigate the mechanism of action of PD in treating UC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 3% (wt/vol) DSS-induced ulcerative colitis model in C57BL/6 male mice was used to evaluate the effect of oral PD in treating UC. The changes in gut microbiota in mice were analyzed by 16SrDNA gene sequencing, and the content of SCFAs in the intestinal contents of mice was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to analyze the expression of inflammatory cytokines in serum and colonic tissues, and western blotting (WB) was applied to analyze the expression of tight junction proteins in colonic tissues. RESULTS: PD can alleviate the symptoms of UC mice, Pulsatilla Decoction high dose treatment group (PDHT) shows the best effect. Compared with the DSS group, the PDHT had significantly lower body mass, disease activity index (DAI) score, colonic macroscopic damage index (CMDI) score, and pathological damage score, at the phylum level, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes increased while that of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria decreased, at the Genus level, the abundance of Bacteroides and Lachnospiraceae.NK4A136.group increased while that of Clostridium. sensu.stricto。, Escherichia. shigella and Turicibacter decreased. Compared with the DSS group, acetate, propionate, and total SCFAs in the PDHT with significantly higher levels. The concentrations of interleukin-1ß (L-1ß), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-17 (IL-17) decreased whereby the concentration of interleukin-10 (IL-10) increased in the PDHT group. The expression levels of Occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), Claudin1, Claudin5, G protein-coupled receptor43 (GPR43) protein, and the relative expression of ZO-1 and Occludin mRNA were significantly increased PDHT group. CONCLUSIONS: PD has a good therapeutic effect on UC mice. The pharmacological mechanism is probably maintaining the homeostasis and diversity of gut microbiota, increasing the content of SCFAs, and repairing the colonic mucosal barrier.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Pulsatilla , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ocludina/metabolismo , Propionatos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115745, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162548

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan is an endemic tree to South America and different parts of it are used by the population for the treatment of various diseases, as well as in indigenous rituals. This species has high pharmacological potential but may present toxic potential due to the presence of psychotropic compounds. AIM OF THE STUDY: To review published studies with the species A. colubrina regarding ethnobotanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological aspects, as well as discuss perspectives for new research and protection of this species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature review was performed by accessing published articles on databases such as: PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, Scopus, Taylor and Francis online, Springer Link, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ACS Publications, Chemspider and Google Scholar. The keywords used were: "Anadenanthera colubrina" or "Mimosa colubrina" or "Piptadenia colubrina" or "Piptadenia macrocarpa" or "Piptadenia grata" or "Anadenanthera macrocarpa" and "medicinal plants" or "pharmacological" or "phytochemicals" or "traditional use" or "toxicological" or "ethnobotanical" or "pre-clinical trial" or "clinical". Articles found by database searches and search engines were screened at four stages: (i) title screening, (ii) locality screening, (iii) abstract screening, and (iv) full text. Other articles found through supplementary searches were screened in the full text whenever available. Each article was assessed by three reviewers at the title and abstract screening stages, except for those found in Portuguese databases that were assessed by the native reviewer. RESULTS: This robust tree has been popularly useful for agroeconomic, medicinal and as a hallucinogen in religious rituals. According to the published studies, the main parts of the plant are the bark and seeds that are mostly used for respiratory conditions and as entheogens, respectively. It is a rich traditional herbal medicine with many pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antidiarrheal, wound healing, antimicrobial, antitumoral, antioxidant, antiaddictive, insecticide and allelopathic that were described in in vitro and in vivo assays, and approximately 56 compounds were identified, suggesting a therapeutic potential for this species. Although most relate to medicinal uses, these are preliminaries and do not show the mechanism of action. The phytochemical assays showed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, triterpenes, steroids and alkaloids. Some of the compounds are anadanthoflavone, which is exclusive to this species, and no pharmacological or toxicological studies have yet demonstrated this compound. Another important compound is bufotenine which was isolated from seeds and is related to hallucinogenic and antiviral activity. The extracts made from leaves, bark, gum, and fruits appear to be safe, according to both in vivo and in vitro toxicology testing, which all shown low toxicity. Due to the presence of bufotenine in the seeds, it can be toxic, however, it was not found in toxicological assays with the seed extracts. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, part of the studies confirms the popular use of A. colubrina, however, more assays with isolated compounds and with the different extracts are necessary to corroborate other uses and the mechanism of action of their pharmacological effects needs to discuss in more detail. Therefore, the present review would be identified the gaps and suggests further studies oriented to validate the popular use. Thus, it must be noted that the use of this species must be controlled in order to minimize the environmental impact, as most of the pharmacological potential was shown with the bark and seeds. Due to its wide use in folk medicine, it is part of the Brazilian medicinal species with priority for conservation.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Colubrina , Fabaceae , Alucinógenos , Inseticidas , Plantas Medicinais , Triterpenos , Analgésicos , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antidiarreicos , Antioxidantes , Antivirais , Brasil , Bufotenina , Etnofarmacologia , Flavonoides , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115725, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115602

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cimicifuga foetida L. is a well-established traditional Chinese medicine with heat-clearing and detoxifying effects and has good therapeutic effect on oral mucosal ulcer and pharyngitis. The rhizome of this herb is rich in triterpenoid glycosides, including 23-O-acetylshengmanol-3-o-α-L-arabinoside (DA). AIM OF THE STUDY: Whether and how DA attenuates acute lung injury (ALI) are unclear. Accordingly, we focused on its anti-inflammatory effects and underlying molecular mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated ALI mice and RAW264.7 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The model of ALI mice was established by exposed intratracheal instillation of LPS. Lung pathological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Pulmonary function was assessed by whole-body plethysmography. Total protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was detected by bicinchoninic acid method. Wet/dry lung ratio was used to evaluate the degree of pulmonary edema in mice. The levels of pro-inflammatory mediators were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relative expression of pro-inflammatory gene mRNA was examined by RT-qPCR. The expression of inflammatory-related proteins was detected by Western blot. RAW264.7 cells were used to test the anti-inflammatory effects of DA in vitro. Cytotoxicity was assessed using a MTT assay. Nitric oxide production was measured by Griess assay. The production and expression of inflammatory mediators and the protein levels of inflammatory signaling molecules in the NF-κB and MAPK pathways were measured. Furthermore, immunofluorescence staining was used to analyze the expression of p-IκBα, p-ERK, and p-p38 in lung macrophages and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and AP-1 in cells. RESULTS: DA evidently alleviated histopathological changes and ameliorated pulmonary edema. Moreover, DA could reduce excessive inflammatory reaction in lung tissue as manifested by the reduction of proinflammatory mediators (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, iNOS, and COX-2) in BALF, serum, and lung tissues. Further, DA inhibited the activation of the NLRP3/caspase-1 pathway in the lung. DA reduced the production and expression of the proinflammatory mediators above in RAW264.7 cells. Mechanistically, DA remarkably blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, suppressed IκBα phosphorylation, and markedly reduced the nuclear translocation of AP-1 and the phosphorylation of ERK and p38. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrated that DA exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated ALI mice and macrophages by downregulating the NLRP3/caspase-1 signaling pathway in lung tissue and the IκB/NF-κB and MAPKs/AP-1 pathways in macrophages, suggesting that DA may be promising in ALI treatment.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Edema Pulmonar , Triterpenos , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Caspases/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS) , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Hematoxilina/farmacologia , Hematoxilina/uso terapêutico , Proteínas I-kappa B/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-6 , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115757, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36167233

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Callicarpa arborea Roxb. is widely used as traditional medicine especially by the tribal people of Bangladesh in the management of wide range of ailments. In addition to Bangladesh, the leaves of this plant is utilized as a remedy to various painful and inflammatory conditions including rheumatism, toothache and stomachache in other countries of Indian subcontinent. AIM OF THE STUDY: Depending on the ethnomedicinal uses, we undertook this study to investigate the in-vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of C. arborea Roxb. leaves in Swiss albino mice as well as its chemical composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the analgesic activity of Callicarpa arborea Roxb. leaves by the acetic acid induced writhing test, the hot plate test, and the formalin test. We undertook the egg albumin induced paw edema test to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of the plant. Furthermore, we conducted the phytochemical profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). RESULTS: In acute toxicity test, no mortality was observed at the highest dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. Significant (p < 0.005) inhibition of acetic acid induced writhing was observed at both doses of the extract. A dose dependent increase in the response time was seen in the hot-plate test. In the formalin test, the extract significantly inhibited pain response in both early and late phase. We observed marked anti-inflammatory activity manifested by a significant (p < 0.005) reduction in egg albumin induced paw edema. We identified a total of twenty one compounds in the extract of by GC-MS analysis. CONCLUSION: Taken all into consideration we conclude that the leaves of C. arborea Roxb. possesses potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, thus justifying its's ethnomedicinal use against painful and inflammatory pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Callicarpa , Ácido Acético/uso terapêutico , Albuminas/análise , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Metanol/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115752, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174807

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Peganum harmala L. is a traditional medicinal plant used for centuries in folk medicine. It has a wide array of therapeutic attributes, which include hypoglycemic, sedative, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. The fruit decoction of this plant was claimed by Avicenna as traditional therapy for urolithiasis. Also, P. harmala seed showed a clinical reduction in kidney stone number and size in patients with urolithiasis. AIM OF THE STUDY: In light of the above-mentioned data, the anti-urolithiatic activities of the seed extracts and the major ß-carboline alkaloids of P. harmala were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extraction, isolation, and characterization of the major alkaloids were performed using different chromatographic and spectral techniques. The in vivo anti-urolithiatic action was evaluated using ethylene glycol (EG)-induced urolithiasis in rats by studying their mitigating effects on the antioxidant machinery, serum toxicity markers (i.e. nitrogenous waste, such as blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, urea, and creatinine), minerals (such as Ca, Mg, P, and oxalate), kidney injury marker 1 (KIM-1), and urinary markers (i.e. urine pH and urine output). RESULTS: Two major alkaloids, harmine (P1) and harmalacidine HCl (P2), were isolated and in vivo evaluated alongside the different extracts. The results showed that P. harmala and its constituents/fractions significantly reduced oxidative stress at 50 mg/kg body weight, p.o., as demonstrated by increased levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) in kidney homogenate as compared to the EG-treated group. Likewise, the total extract, pet. ether fraction, n-butanol fraction, and P1, P2 alleviated malondialdehyde (MDA) as compared to the EG-treated group. Serum toxicity markers like blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, uric acid, urea, kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and oxalate levels were decreased by total extract, pet. ether fraction, n-butanol fraction, P1, and P2 as compared to the EG-treated group. Inflammatory markers like NFκ-B and TNF-α were also downregulated in the kidney homogenate of treatment groups as compared to the EG-treated group. Moreover, urine output and urine pH were significantly increased in treatment groups as compared to the EG-treated group deciphering anti-urolithiatic property of P. harmala. Histopathological assessment by different staining patterns also supported the previous findings and indicated that treatment with P. harmala caused a gradual recovery in damaged glomeruli, medulla, interstitial spaces and tubules, and brown calculi materials as compared to the EG-treated group. CONCLUSION: The current research represents scientific evidence on the use of P. harmala and its major alkaloids as an effective therapy in the prevention and management of urolithiasis.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Cálculos Renais , Peganum , Urolitíase , 1-Butanol , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes , Cálcio , Oxalato de Cálcio/urina , Catalase , Creatinina , Éteres , Etilenoglicol/uso terapêutico , Etilenoglicol/toxicidade , Glutationa , Glutationa Peroxidase , Glutationa Redutase , Harmina , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Cálculos Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Magnésio , Malondialdeído , Peganum/química , Fosfatos , Extratos Vegetais , Ratos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Ureia , Ácido Úrico , Urolitíase/induzido quimicamente , Urolitíase/tratamento farmacológico , Urolitíase/patologia
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115690, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075274

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Xianglian Pill (XLP) is a classical Chinese medicine prescription applied for controlling ulcerative colitis (UC). Whereas, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present work was aimed to investigate the mechanism of XLP in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC via the Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4)/Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/Nuclear Factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The major components of XLP were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The ulcerative colitis model was induced by DSS in mice. 5-Amino Salicylic Acid (5-ASA) group and XLP group were intragastrically treated. Disease activity index (DAI) and colon length were monitored and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was conducted. Gasdermin D (GSDMD)-N and TLR4 expressions in colon tissues were visualized by immunofluorescence. TLR4 mRNA was measured by Real Time Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The expressions of NOD-like receptor thermal protein domain associated protein 3 (NLRP3), active-caspase-1, GSDMD-N, TLR4, MYD88, NF-κB, p-NF-κB, and the ubiquitination of TLR4 in colon tissues were detected by Western blot. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme activity was examined and serum inflammatory factors Interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-18 were determined by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). TLR4-/- mice were applied for verifying the mechanism of XLP attenuated DSS symptoms. RESULTS: The XLP treatment extended colon length, reduced DAI, and attenuated histopathological alteration in DSS-induced mice. XLP administration suppressed MPO activity and reduced the content of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-18 in serum. XLP also inhibited the expression levels of GSDMD-N, TLR4, NLRP3, active-caspase-1, MyD88, p-NF-κB/NF-κB in colon tissues of DSS-induced mice. TLR4-/- mice proved that TLR4 was involved in XLP-mediated beneficial effect on DSS-induced ulcerative colitis. CONCLUSIONS: XLP might treat ulcerative colitis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide , Animais , Caspases/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS)/metabolismo , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS)/farmacologia , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS)/uso terapêutico , Hematoxilina/metabolismo , Hematoxilina/farmacologia , Hematoxilina/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/farmacologia , Interleucina-18/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129872, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084461

RESUMO

Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), a new brominated flame retardant, could negatively affect neurobehavior and pose health risks to humans. Humans are also exposed to widely used nanomaterials. This study investigated the combined toxic effects and action types of DBDPE and Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells and the toxicity mechanisms. DBDPE inhibited the viability of SK-N-SH cells by 21.87% at 25 mg/L. ZnO NPs synergistically exacerbated the toxic effects of DBDPE. DBDPE and ZnO NPs caused excessive ROS production and inhibition of antioxidant enzyme (SOD and GSH) activity in cells, thus causing oxidative cellular damage. Moreover, DBDPE and ZnO NPs caused apoptosis by disrupting mitochondrial kinetic homeostasis, reducing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increasing cytochrome C release and regulating Bax/Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 mRNA and protein expression. DBDPE and ZnO NPs increased the mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2- related factor (Nrf2) and its downstream genes. The molecular mechanisms revealed that oxidative stress, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction were the critical factors in combined cytotoxicity. The bioinformatics analysis further indicated that co-exposure affected Nrf2 activation, apoptotic factors expression and mitochondrial fusion. The findings enrich the risk perception of neurotoxicity caused by DBDPE and ZnO NPs.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Nanopartículas , Óxido de Zinco , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Humanos , Mitocôndrias , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/farmacologia
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115687, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084819

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Global interest in phytogenic feed additives as alternatives to antibiotics in feed has been spurred by the banning of antibiotic growth promoters by several countries. Suitable plant extracts for development of phytogenic feed additives should have therapeutic value and should also be safe. AIM OF STUDY: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-lipoxygenase activities as well as cytotoxicity of selected plant species used in poultry ethnomedicine in Zimbabwe. METHODS: Antibacterial activity was determined against three ATCC strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis) and two clinical strains isolated from chickens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella Gallinarum) using a two-fold serial microdilution assay. Qualitative antibacterial bioautography was also carried out using the ATCC strains. Antioxidant activities of crude acetone and methanol extracts were determined using free radical scavenging assays whilst anti-lipoxygenase activity was evaluated using a ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX) assay. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT assay) on Vero monkey kidney cells. RESULTS: Erythrina abyssinica had the best antibacterial activity against both ATCC strains and clinical strains with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.02 to 0.156 mg/ml. Aloe greatheadii, Adenia gummifera (leaves), Senna singueana and Aloe chabaudii had moderate activity against the poultry pathogens. Bioautography showed that all ten plant species have antibacterial activity against the tested microorganisms with E. abyssinica and S. singueana having prominent bands of inhibition against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The acetone extract of S. singueana and the methanol extract of Euphorbia matabelensis had the most powerful antioxidant activities with mean IC50 values of 1.43 µg/ml and 1.31 µg/ml respectively in the ABTS assay which were comparable with those of the positive controls (ascorbic acid and trolox). Bobgunnia madagascariensis, A. chabaudii, E. abyssinica and Tridactyle bicaudata extracts had reasonable antioxidant activity. The S. singueana extract had the most potent anti-lipoxygenase activity with a mean IC50 value of 1.72 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity results showed that only the acetone extracts of A. greatheadii and S. singueana were relatively safe at concentrations that were active against the tested microorganisms (selective index >1). Regarding anti-lipoxygenase activity, extracts of B. madagascariensis, S. singueana, T. bicaudata and E. matabelensis were more active than toxic (selective index >5) indicating anti-inflammatory potential. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that S. singueana had a cocktail of therapeutic activity and supports further investigation of this plant species for development of phytogenic poultry feed additives. Other plant species with noteworthy biological activities include B. madagascariensis, E. abyssinica, A. greatheadii, T. bicaudata and E. matabelensis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes , Acetona , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Ácido Ascórbico , Galinhas , Escherichia coli , Radicais Livres , Medicina Tradicional , Metanol , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Aves Domésticas , Zimbábue
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129874, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084462

RESUMO

Wood burning is a major source of ambient particulate matter (PM) and has been epidemiologically linked to adverse pulmonary health effects, however the impact of fuel and burning conditions on PM properties has not been investigated systematically. Here, we employed our recently developed integrated methodology to characterize the physicochemical and biological properties of emitted PM as a function of three common hardwoods (oak, cherry, mesquite) and three representative combustion conditions (flaming, smoldering, incomplete). Differences in PM and off-gas emissions (aerosol number/mass concentrations; carbon monoxide; volatile organic compounds) as well as inorganic elemental composition and organic carbon functional content of PM0.1 were noted between wood types and combustion conditions, although the combustion scenario exerted a stronger influence on the emission profile. More importantly, flaming combustion PM0.1 from all hardwoods significantly stimulated the promoter activity of Sterile Alpha Motif (SAM) pointed domain containing ETS (E-twenty-six) Transcription Factor (SPDEF) in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293 T) cells, a biomarker for mucin gene expression associated with mucus production in pulmonary diseases. However, no bioactivity was observed for smoldering and incomplete combustion, which was likely driven by differences in the organic composition of PM0.1. Detailed chemical speciation of organic components of wood smoke is warranted to identify the individual compounds that drive specific biological responses.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mucinas/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Aerossóis e Gotículas Respiratórios , Fumaça/análise , Fatores de Transcrição , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Madeira/química
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129846, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063712

RESUMO

Exhaust emissions from gasoline vehicles are one of the major contributors to aerosol particles observed in urban areas. It is well-known that these tiny particles are associated with air pollution, climate forcing, and adverse health effects. However, their toxicity and bioreactivity after atmospheric ageing are less constrained. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical and toxicological properties of fresh and aged particulate matter samples derived from gasoline exhaust emissions. Chemical analyses showed that both fresh and aged PM samples were rich in organic carbon, and the dominating chemical species were n-alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Comparisons between fresh and aged samples revealed that the latter contained larger amounts of oxygenated compounds. In most cases, the bioreactivity induced by the aged PM samples was significantly higher than that induced by the fresh samples. Moderate to weak correlations were identified between chemical species and the levels of biomarkers in the fresh and aged PM samples. The results of the stepwise regression analysis suggested that n-alkane and alkenoic acid were major contributors to the increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in the fresh samples, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and monocarboxylic acid were the main factors responsible for such increase in the aged samples.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Alcanos/análise , Carbono/análise , Gasolina/análise , Gasolina/toxicidade , Hong Kong , Lactato Desidrogenases/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129880, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067557

RESUMO

Coal ash deposited in open landfills is a potential source of environmental pollutants due to the contained toxic element content. The weathered coal ash used in this study additionally contains enhanced activity concentrations of 238U series radionuclides. This study aimed to determine the physiological effects of enhanced ionizing radiation and toxic elements on five plant species (smilo grass, sticky fleabane, blackberry, mastic and pine tree) inhabiting the coal ash disposal site. Among the potentially toxic measured elements, contents of Sb, As and especially V significantly exceeded their respective levels at the control site, as well as the content of 238U and its progenies. Significant changes in photosynthetic pigments were recorded following chronic exposure to the plants growing on the coal ash site. Different responses were also observed in the plant species regarding the activity of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The level of lipid peroxidation markedly increased in plants from the disposal site, except in blackberry, wherein GST activity was the strongest, indicating an important role of that enzyme in the adaptation to coal ash pollutants. The results of this study suggest that the modulation of the studied biochemical parameters in plants growing on coal ash is primarily species-dependent.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar , Urânio , Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Catalase , Carvão Mineral/análise , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Cinza de Carvão/toxicidade , Glutationa , Plantas , Centrais Elétricas , Radioisótopos/análise , Transferases , Urânio/toxicidade
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129877, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067563

RESUMO

Soil Cd pollution seriously threatens environment and human health. Due to its ability to absorb and accumulate Cd in mycelia, Stropharia rugosoannulata could be a potential candidate for bioremediation of Cd-contaminated soils; however, the response mechanism of mycelia to Cd stress is still unclear. In this study, the physiologic and proteomic differences of S. rugosoannulata mycelia under 0.2 mg/L (low) and 2 mg/L (high) Cd stress were investigated. The results showed that Cd accumulation and mycelial growth inhibition exhibited a concentration-depended trend. Analysis of antioxidant system indicated that SOD, GR, GSH, GSSG and ASA played key roles in resisting the toxic effects of Cd. Via proteome analysis, 24 and 267 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were observed under low and high Cd stress, respectively. GO and KEGG analysis found that the mycelial growth inhibition might due to the down-regulation of some DEPs involved in "valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis" and "tyrosine metabolism"; the certain tolerance to high Cd stress might attribute to the regulation of DEPs referred to energy metabolism and antioxidant system-related pathways, maintaining cellular energy homeostasis and removing ROS. These results provide a theoretical basis for further elucidation of response mechanisms in S. rugosoannulata to Cd stress.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Proteômica , Agaricales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Dissulfeto de Glutationa , Humanos , Isoleucina , Leucina , Proteoma , Proteômica/métodos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Solo , Superóxido Dismutase , Tirosina , Valina
17.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129814, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075174

RESUMO

Determining the risks of microplastics is difficult because data is of variable quality and cannot be compared. Although sediments are important sinks for microplastics, no holistic risk assessment framework is available for this compartment. Here we assess the risks of microplastics in freshwater sediments worldwide, using strict quality criteria and alignment methods. Published exposure data were screened for quality using new criteria for microplastics in sediment and were rescaled to the standard 1-5000 µm microplastic size range. Threshold effect data were also screened for quality and were aligned to account for the polydispersity of environmental microplastics and for their bioaccessible fraction. Risks were characterized for effects triggered by food dilution or translocation, using ingested particle volume and surface area as ecologically relevant metrics, respectively. Based on species sensitivity distributions, we determined Hazardous Concentrations for 5% of the species (HC5, with 95% CI) of 4.9 × 109 (6.6 × 107 - 1.9 × 1011) and 1.1 × 1010 (3.2 × 108 - 4.0 × 1011) particles / kg sediment dry weight, for food dilution and translocation, respectively. For all locations considered, exposure concentrations were either below or in the margin of uncertainty of the HC5 values. We conclude that risks from microplastics to benthic communities cannot be excluded at current concentrations in sediments worldwide.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Doce , Sedimentos Geológicos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129879, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084464

RESUMO

Rivers play a critical role in the global carbon cycle, but the processes can be affected by widespread microplastic (MP) pollution and the increasing frequency of heat waves (HWs) in a warming climate. However, little is known about the role of river microbes in regulating the carbon cycle under the combined action of MP pollution and HWs. Here, through seven-day MP exposure and three cycles of HW simulation experiments, we found that MPs inhibited the thermal adaptation of the microbial community, thus regulating carbon metabolism. The CO2 release level increased, while the carbon degradation ability and the preference for stable carbon were inhibited. Metabonomic, 16 S rRNA and ITS gene analyses further revealed that the regulation of carbon metabolism was closely related to the microbial r-/K- strategy, community assembly and transformation of keystone taxa. The random forest model revealed that dissolved oxygen and ammonia-nitrogen were important variables influencing microbial carbon metabolism. The above findings regarding microbe-mediated carbon metabolism provide insights into the effect of climate-related HWs on the ecological risks of MPs.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Rios , Amônia , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono , Temperatura Alta , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Nitrogênio , Oxigênio , Plásticos
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129792, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084470

RESUMO

Cooking Oil Fumes (COFs) contain carcinogenic organic substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic amines (HCAs), of which 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) is known as mainly meat-borne carcinogens. In this work, to identify the mechanisms to induce the inflammation response in human lung cells (A549) exposed to COFs, we investigated the physicochemical and biological characteristics of COFs generated with PhIP precursors (L-phenylalanine, creatinine, and glucose) at high cooking temperatures (300 °C and 600 °C). Interestingly, we found that PhIP was not formed both at 300 °C and 600 °C, while a large number of carbon nanoparticles were generated from soybean oil containing the PhIP precursors at 600 °C. From the biological analysis, COFs generated with the PhIP precursors at 600 °C induced the most significant pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6). This result indicates that the particulate matter in COFs generated with the PhIP precursors above the smoke temperature is the primary factor directly affecting the lung inflammatory response rather than PhIP. This study demonstrates for the first time a novel principle of the inflammatory response that the PhIP precursors can aggravate lung injury by affecting the physical properties of COFs depending on cooking temperature. Therefore, our finding is a significant result of overcoming the bias in previous studies focusing only on the chemical toxicity of PhIP in the inflammatory response of COFs.


Assuntos
Material Particulado , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Aminas/análise , Carbono/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Culinária , Creatinina/análise , Glucose , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Interleucina-6 , Pulmão , Carne/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Fenilalanina , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Fumaça/análise , Óleo de Soja/análise , Temperatura
20.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129903, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087528

RESUMO

Microplastics (MP) and nanoplastics (NP) exist in the disposable plastic take-away containers. This study aims to determine the gut and oral microbiota alterations in the individuals frequently and occasionally consuming take-away food in disposable plastic containers (TFDPC), and explore the effect of micro/nanoplastics (MNP) reduction on gut microbiota in mice. TFDPC consumption are associated with greater presences of gastrointestinal dysfunction and cough. Both occasional and frequent consumers have altered gut and oral microbiota, and their gut diversity and evenness are greater than those of non-TFDPC consuming cohort. Multiple gut and oral bacteria are associated with TFDPC consumers, among which intestinal Collinsella and oral Thiobacillus are most associated with the frequent consumers, while intestinal Faecalibacterium is most associated with the occasional consumers. Although some gut bacteria associated with the mice treated with 500 µg NP and 500 µg MP are decreased in the mice treated with 200 µg NP, the gut microbiota of the three MNP groups are all different from the control group. This study demonstrates that TFDPC induces gut and oral microbiota alterations in the consumers, and partial reduction of the size and amount of MNP cannot rectify the MNP-induced gut microbial dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Animais , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos , Microplásticos , Plásticos/toxicidade
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