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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149969, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481160

RESUMO

In this study, we identified major aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists in the sediments from Yeongil Bay (n = 6) using effect-directed analysis. Using the H4IIE-luc bioassays, great AhR-mediated potencies were found in aromatic fractions (F2) of sediment organic extracts from silica gel column chromatography and sub-fractions (F2.6-F2.8) from reverse phase-HPLC. Full-scan mass spectrometric analysis using GC-QTOFMS was conducted to identify novel AhR agonists in highly potent fractions, such as F2.6-F2.8 of S1 (Gumu Creek). Selection criteria for AhR-active compounds consisted of three steps, including matching factor of NIST library (≥70), aromatic structures, and the number of aromatic rings (≥4). Fifty-nine compounds were selected as tentative AhR agonist candidates, with the AhR-mediated activity being assessed for six compounds for which standard materials were available commercially. Of these compounds, 20-methylcholanthrene, 7-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 10-methylbenz[a]pyrene, and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene exhibited significant AhR-mediated potency. Relative potency values of these compounds were determined relative to benzo[a]pyrene to be 3.2, 1.4, 1.2, and 0.2, respectively. EPA positive matrix factorization modeling indicated that the sedimentary AhR-active aromatic compounds primarily originated from coal combustion and vehicle emissions. Potency balance analysis indicated that four novel AhR agonists explained 0.007% to 1.7% of bioassay-derived AhR-mediated potencies in samples.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico , Bioensaio , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149868, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481163

RESUMO

To investigate the mechanisms and potential risks of river eco-remediation, river water, sediment, and biofilms in remediation facilities were sampled from a 2-year full scale eco-remediation site in an urban river in southeastern China. The samples from both remediated and adjacent control areas were analyzed for chemical properties and functional microbial community structures. The eco-remediation significantly changed the community structures in the river and introduced much more diverse functional microorganisms in facility biofilms. Corresponding to effective reduction of organics and ammonium in river water, some labile-organics-degrading and ammonia-oxidizing gene families showed higher abundances in river water of remediated area than control area, and were obviously more abundant in facility biofilms than in river water and sediment. The eco-remediation facilities showed obvious absorption of N, P, and heavy metals (Mn, CrVI, Fe, Al, As, Co), contributing to nutrients and metals removal from river water. The eco-remediation also increased transparency and sedimentation of some heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn), which probably associated with colloids breakdown. Various metal-resistance microorganisms showed different abundances between facility biofilms and sediment, in accordance with relative metals. Most detected pathogens were not significantly affected by eco-remediation. However, our measurements in sediment and facilities showed heavy metals accumulation and development of some pathogens and several antibiotic-resistance pathogens, alerting us to investigate and control these potential risks to ecosystem and human health.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Microbiota , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149921, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482135

RESUMO

Plastic pollution poses a global threat to aquatic organisms, yet its effect on many species remains poorly documented and understood. This study addresses the impact caused by different sizes of polyethylene (PE) plastics on the common carp and evaluates their multi-biomarkers response. We investigated the histological structure and measurement of biochemical alterations, antioxidant enzymes, immunological responses, and fluctuations in blood profiles of the organisms after 15 days of exposure to a concentration of 100 mg/L of nano- (NPs), micro- (MPs) and macroplastics (MaPs). The fish health status was altered in the sole presence of PE particles. All biomarkers changed after exposure compared to the control group, with larger changes being observed with the decreasing size of particles (NPs > MPs > MaPs) compared to their absence. A synergistic effect resulting from the individual impact of plastics penetration in the circulatory system, bursting biochemical responses, and lesions in tissues, might explain the more considerable impact of NPs compared to MPs and/or MaPs.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Biomarcadores , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Polietileno , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150027, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482139

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the ecotoxicity effects of single tetracycline (TC) exposure and mixture exposure in presence of polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs, 80 nm) on juvenile Ctenopharyngodon idella. We carried out single and combined exposure of TC (5000 µg/L) and PS-NPs (20, 200, 2000 µg/L) for 7 days. Compared to TC single exposure, co-exposure to PS-NPs and TC significantly changed the levels of antioxidant entities, including T-AOC, SOD, and CAT in the liver and intestine of C. idella, indicating that PS-NPs might enhance the oxidative damage caused by TC. Further, the co-exposure significantly upregulated the mRNA expression levels of MMP2, MMP9, and IL-8 in a concentration-dependent manner in the liver and intestine tissues of C. idella, compared to the control and TC single exposure groups. Moreover, the phylogenetic tree showed that MMP2 and MMP9 in C. idella are relatively conservative, and the mRNA expressions of MMP2 are significantly positively correlated with TGFß1, IL8, and MMP9 in Liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) and Colon adenocarcinoma (COAD). The above genes in LIHC and COAD were significantly correlated with various immune cells. Further, histopathological analysis revealed tissue lesions in the intestine and gill of fish in all the exposed groups, compared to the control group. In short, the present study illustrated that the toxicological effects of organic pollutants such as TC could be influenced by the presence of NPs in the C. idella.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Microplásticos , Filogenia , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Tetraciclina
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150001, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492493

RESUMO

Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) have been increasingly released in aquatic ecosystems over the past decades as they are used in many applications. Cu toxicity to different organisms has already been highlighted in the literature, however toxicity mechanisms of the nanoparticulate form remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effect, transfer and localization of CuO-NPs compared to Cu salt on the aquatic plant Myriophyllum spicatum, an ecotoxicological model species with a pivotal role in freshwater ecosystems, to establish a clear mode of action. Plants were exposed to 0.5 mg/L Cu salt, 5 and 70 mg/L CuO-NPs during 96 h and 10 days. Several morphological and physiological endpoints were measured. Cu salt was found more toxic than CuO-NPs to plants based on all the measured endpoints despite a similar internal Cu concentration demonstrated via Cu mapping by micro particle-induced X-ray emission (µPIXE) coupled to Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). Biomacromolecule composition investigated by FTIR converged between 70 mg/L CuO-NPs and Cu salt treatments after 10 days. This demonstrates that the difference of toxicity comes from a sudden massive Cu2+ addition from Cu salt similar to an acute exposure, versus a progressive leaching of Cu2+ from CuO-NPs representing a chronic exposure. Understanding NP toxicity mechanisms can help in the future conception of safer by design NPs and thus diminishing their impact on both the environment and humans.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Cobre/análise , Cobre/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Óxidos , Análise Espectral , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149910, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500266

RESUMO

As an important pollutant, perfluorooctane acid (PFOA) has been widely concerned and reported by thousands of times, while less is known about the concentration-response pathway of PFOA. The aim of the present work was to reveal the concentration-response mechanism of PFOA in human cells. Omics results showed that calcium-related pathways play key roles in PFOA injury mechanisms. The results of GO and KEGG analyses showed that the cAMP signaling pathway was presented as the top one in all of the regulatory patterns and concentrations groups of PFOA. In the cAMP signaling pathway, the adenosine A1 receptor (ADORA1) recognized the low concentration of PFOA and induced pathway "Gi-cAMP-PKA" to decrease the concentration of cAMP. This indicated that the low concentration of PFOA may promote breast hyperplasia and inhibit lactation. While adenosine A2A receptor (ADORA2A) recognized the high concentration of PFOA and induced pathway "GS-AC-cAMP-RKA" to increase the concentration of cAMP, induce cell damage and may lead to the deterioration of breast cancer. The results of molecular dynamics simulation showed that PFOA could bind to ADORA1 and ADORA2A, thus cause subsequent signal transduction. Furthermore, considering the strong binding ability of PFOA with ADORA1, PFOA tends to bind to ADORA1 at a low concentration. On the other side, PFOA at high concentration will continue to bind to another receptor protein, ADORA2A, and activate subsequent signaling pathways. Combined analyses of transcriptomic and proteomic revealed that different concentrations of PFOA regulate cellular calcium-related pathways. The cAMP pathway showed a concentration-response effect of PFOA. After treatment with different concentrations of PFOA, ADORA1 and ADORA2A were activated respectively, showing opposite cellular effects, leading to kinds of breast lesions. In the nervous system, PFOA might induce a variety of nervous system diseases. The present work was an exploration on the toxicological mechanism of PFOA, providing important information on the health impacts of PFOA in humans.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Proteômica , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Receptor A1 de Adenosina
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150026, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500277

RESUMO

Pesticides are extensively used to control pests, diseases, and weeds in order to increase agricultural production. Usage of indiscriminate doses and persistent pesticides has not only caused resistance issues in insect pests but has also had deleterious effects on non-target organisms (beneficial insects, fish, and wildlife) and caused environmental contamination (soil, water, and air) through leaching, overflow, and insecticide spray drift. Exposure from eating food and drinking water contaminated to pesticide residues is also affecting human health. This study was conducted to obtain information to reduce pesticide resistance and environmental pollution. A cotton dusky bug (Oxycarenus hyalinipennis) population was collected from a farmer's field and exposed to fipronil for 18 generations. In comparison to an unselected strain (XYZ-FS) and a field population (Field-Popn), the fipronil-selected strain of O. hyalinipennis (XYZ-FR) developed a 2631.50-fold level of resistance and a 202.42-fold resistance level respectively. Significantly higher fecundity was observed in the XYZ-FS (24.93) compared to that of Hybrid2 (XYZ-FR ♀ XYZ-FS ♂) (17.60), Hybrid1 (XYZ-FR ♂ × XYZ-FS ♀) (17.13), and XYZ-FR (12.6). The intrinsic rate of natural increase, relative fitness and biotic potential were highest in XYZ-FS, followed by Hybrid2, Hybrid1, and XYZ-FR. The XYZ-FR strain of O. hyalinipennis had very low cross-resistance to profenofos (1.15-2.83-fold), and emamectin benzoate (1.09-2.86-fold) and moderate resistance to bifenthrin (5.49-24.54-fold) when selection progressed from G4 to G19. The proper use of this pesticide, along with rotation and a high-dose strategy may helpful to reduce the risk of resistance development and also its negative impacts on the environment and humans.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Inseticidas , Animais , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Pirazóis , Medição de Risco
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150081, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500283

RESUMO

Dioecious plant species presented sexual differences in metal accumulation and allocation between male and female conspecifics that grown on metal contaminated soil. As the Elemental defense hypothesis postulates that metals accumulated in plant tissues could protect plants from herbivory, whether such sexual dimorphism in response to metal stress of a dioecious plant will lead to differences in herbivore resistance between male and female conspecifics is still unknown. In this study, we used female and male siblings of Populus deltoides to investigate the effect of plant sex on the growth and feeding preferences of four leaf herbivores and a root herbivore under soil cadmium (Cd) stress. The results showed that the male plants accumulated significantly higher Cd in the leaves while the females allocated more Cd in the roots. Leaf herbivores fed on male leaves grew worse than those fed on female leaves under Cd exposure, while the root herbivore showed the opposite results. In addition, all leaf herbivores strongly preferred the leaves from Cd-stressed female plants than male ones. The quantification of gene expression further showed that Cd stress could significantly upregulate more genes involved in Cd uptake, transport and detoxification pathways in male leaves and female roots. In combination with the correlation tests, we postulated that such sexual differences in herbivore resistance between the two plant sexes was most likely due to the different Cd allocation patterns in plant leaves and roots.


Assuntos
Populus , Cádmio/toxicidade , Herbivoria , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas , Populus/genética , Solo
9.
Food Chem ; 370: 131031, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509153

RESUMO

To determine whether high spraying concentrations of Zn sources increase the Zn concentration in waxy corn (Zea mays L. var. ceratina Kulesh) seeds without compromising agronomic performance, field experiments were conducted between 2018 and 2020. Excess ZnSO4 application caused foliar burn, barren ear tip, and grain yield loss. ZnEDTA and Glycine-chelated Zn (ZnGly) caused less foliar burn, but Glycine-mixed Zn caused more foliar burn than ZnSO4. The seed Zn concentration increased with spraying Zn concentration. ZnEDTA (≤0.8%) had a higher threshold concentration than ZnGly (≤0.4%). Nevertheless, Zn biofortification efficacy did not significantly differ between 0.4% ZnGly and 0.8% ZnEDTA, and the grain Zn recovery rate of 0.4% ZnGly was much higher than that of 0.8% ZnEDTA. Additionally, dual-isotope labelling tests confirmed that 15N-glycine and 68Zn in ZnGly interacted. In the future, chelating technology is essential for developing new Zn fertilizers to optimize Zn biofortification efficacy.


Assuntos
Biofortificação , Sulfato de Zinco , Animais , Abelhas , Glicina/toxicidade , Ceras , Zea mays , Zinco
10.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131675, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358890

RESUMO

Caffeine has been identified as emerging contaminant of concern due to its widespread occurrence in the aquatic environment and potential to be biologically active. Recently, these concerns have been translated in an increasing research on its occurrence and effects on biota. However, there is still a limited knowledge on seawater matrices and the implications of caffeine presence in coastal and marine ecosystems are not fully known. The present review aims to fill these knowledge gaps, analysing the existing literature regarding the occurrence, effects and potential risks of caffeine residues to coastal ecosystems, contributing to the risk assessment of this psychoactive drug in the aquatic environment. The analysed literature reported caffeine concentrations in the coastal ecosystems, raising high concerns about the potential adverse impacts on the ecological safety and human health. Caffeine has been found in tissues from coastal and marine biota including microalgae, coral reefs, bivalves and fish due to bioaccumulation after chronic, long-term exposures in a contaminated environment. Additionally, caffeine residues had been demonstrated to have adverse impacts on aquatic organisms, at environmentally realistic concentrations, inducing oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, neurotoxicity, changing energy reserves and metabolic activity, affecting reproduction and development and, in some cases, causing mortality. Considering the increasing adverse impacts of caffeine pollution in the coastal environment, this review highlights the urgent need to minimize the increasing load of caffeine to the aquatic ecosystems; being imperative the implementation of scientific programs and projects to classify effectively the caffeine as a high-priority environmentally hazardous emerging pollutant.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Cafeína/análise , Cafeína/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Humanos , Água do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
11.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131833, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426128

RESUMO

Due to the poor living and healthcare conditions, preterm birth (PTB) in rural population is a pressing health issue. However, PTB studies in rural population are rare. To explore the effects of air pollutants on PTB in rural population, we collected 697,316 medical records during 2014-2016 based on the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between air pollutants and PTB and the modifying effects of demographic characteristics. Relative contribution and principal component analysis-generalized linear model (PCA-GLM) analysis were used to explore the most significant air pollutant and gestational period. Our results demonstrated that PTB risk is positively associated with exposure to air pollutants including PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO, while negatively associated with O3 exposure (P < 0.05). In addition, we found that NO2 was the largest contributor to the risk of PTB caused by air pollutants (26.5%). The third trimester of pregnancy was the most sensitive exposure window. PCA-GLM analysis showed that the first component (a combination of PM, SO2, NO2, and CO) increased the risk of PTB. Moreover, we found that rural women who are younger, had higher educated, multi-parity, or smoke appeared to be more sensitive to the association between air pollutants exposure and PTB (P-interaction<0.05). Our findings suggested that increased air pollutants except O3 were associated with elevated PTB risk, especially among vulnerable mothers. Therefore, the effects of air pollutants exposure on PTB should be mitigated by restricting emission sources of NO2 and SO2 in rural population, especially during the third trimester.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Nascimento Prematuro , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , População Rural
12.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131802, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion (SAB) brings serious physical and psychological sequelae to women and their families. Though a growing body of individual studies have suggested the possible linkage between chronic particulate matter (PM) exposure and risks of SAB, the provided results were rather contradictory. We therefore performed an evidence-based meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically searched the PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science databases for available studies published before February 1, 2021 which reported associations between PM exposure and SAB. Corresponding models were applied to combine relative risks (RRs) and their confidence intervals (CIs) from eligible studies according to heterogeneity test. The GRADEpro app was used to evaluate the certainty of evidence. Sensitivity analyses and a publication bias assessment were also utilized to determine the stability of results. RESULTS: Of the initial 2358 citations, 6 papers examining the chronic effects of PM exposure were deemed eligible and a total population of approximately 723,000 was observed. Pooled RR for SAB risks associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and particulate matter ≤ 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) were 1.20 (95%CI: 1.01-1.40) and 1.09 (95%CI: 1.02-1.15), respectively. The GRADE results of PM2.5 and PM10 were both categorized as "moderate" certainty evidence. CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed a significant increase of SAB hazards related with maternal PM exposure, and this study may therefore provide new evidence for personal protection to improve reproductive health.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Aborto Espontâneo/induzido quimicamente , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149790, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have examined whether air pollution is associated with adverse births outcomes, but it is not clear if socioeconomic status (SES) modifies this relationship. OBJECTIVES: We investigated if maternal education and area-level socioeconomic status modified the relationship between ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10) on preterm births (PTB; gestational age <37 weeks) and term low birth weight (TLBW; weight < 2500 g on term deliveries). METHODS: Analyses were based on almost 1 million singleton live births in São Paulo municipality between 2011 and 2016. The final sample included 979,306 births for PTB analysis and 888,133 for TLBW analysis. Exposure to PM10, NO2 and O3 were based on date of birth and estimated for the entire gestation and for each trimester. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to examine the effect of air pollutants on both adverse birth outcomes and whether it was modified by individual and area-level SES. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, over the entire pregnancy, a 10 µg/m3 increase in O3 and PM10 was associated with increased chance of PTB (odds ratio; OR = 1.14 CI 1.13, 1.16 and 1.08 CI = 1.02, 1.15 respectively) and PM10 with TLBW (OR = 1.08 CI 1.03, 1.14). Associations were modified by maternal educational and area-level SES for both outcomes. Mothers of lower education had an additional chance of PTB and TLBW due to PM10 exposure (OR = 1.04 CI 1.04, 1.05 and 1.10 CI 1.08, 1.14 respectively), while mothers living in low SES areas have an additional chance for TLBW (OR = 1.05 CI 1.03, 1.06). Similar modification effects were found for O3 exposure. Trimester specific associations were weaker but followed a similar pattern. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic status modifies the effect of air pollution on adverse birth outcomes. Results indicate that mothers with lower SES may be more susceptible to air pollution effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Classe Social
14.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131741, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358888

RESUMO

Airborne particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (HMs) are significant contributors leading to many human health issues. Thus, this study was designed to perform chemical analysis and biological impact of airborne particulate matter 10 (PM10) in the World heritage City of Kandy City in Sri Lanka. 12 priority PAHs and 34 metals, including 10 highly toxic HMs were quantified. The biological effects of organic extracts were assayed using an in vitro primary porcine airway epithelial cell culture model. Cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and gene expressions of selected inflammatory and cancer-related genes were also assessed. Results showed that the total PAHs ranged from 3.062 to 36.887 ng/m3. The metals were dominated by Na > Ca > Mg > Al > K > Fe > Ti, while a few toxic HMs were much higher in the air than the existing ambient air quality standards. In the bioassays, a significant cytotoxicity (p < 0.05) was observed at 300 µg/mL treatment, and significant (p < 0.05) DNA damages were noted in all treatment groups. All genes assessed were found to be significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05) after 24 h of exposure and after 48 h, only TGF-ß1 and p53 did not significantly up-regulate (p < 0.05). These findings confirm that the Kandy city air contains potential carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds and thus, exposure to Kandy air may increase the health risks and respiratory tract-related anomalies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metais Pesados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Células Epiteliais , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Sistema Respiratório/química , Sri Lanka , Suínos
15.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131636, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358894

RESUMO

Inhalation exposure to polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-P), one of the primary biocides used in humidifier disinfectants, caused a fatal pulmonary disease in Korea. Pregnant women were also exposed to PHMG-P, and subsequent studies showed that PHMG-P inhalation during pregnancy adversely affects their health and embryo-fetal development. However, the postnatal developmental effects after birth on prenatally PHMG-P-exposed offspring have not yet been investigated. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to examine the postnatal development of prenatally PHMG-P-exposed offspring. Pregnant rats (22 or 24 females per group) were exposed to PHMG-P during pregnancy in a whole-body inhalation chamber at the target concentrations of 0, 0.14, 1.60, and 3.20 mg/m3. After parturition, the prenatally exposed offspring were transferred to non-exposed surrogate mothers to minimize the secondary effects of severe maternal toxicities. Postnatal development of offspring was then examined with a modified extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study design. At 3.20 mg/m3 PHMG-P, increased perinatal death rates and decreased viability index (postnatal survival of offspring between birth and postnatal day 4) were observed. In addition, F1 offspring had lower body weight at birth that persisted throughout the study. PHMG-P-exposed pregnant rats also had severe systemic toxicities and increased gestation period. At 1.60 mg/m3 PHMG-P, a decreased viability index was also observed with systemic toxicities of PHMG-P-exposed pregnant rats. These results indicate that prenatal PHMG-P exposure adversely affects the offspring's future health and could be used for human risk assessment.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Umidificadores , Animais , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Feminino , Guanidinas , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Pulmão/química , Gravidez , Ratos , Reprodução
16.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131793, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364230

RESUMO

Carbamazepine is one of the most abundant pharmaceutical active compounds detected in aquatic systems. Based on laboratory exposures, carbamazepine has been proven to adversely affect aquatic organisms. However, the underlying molecular events remain poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms potentially associated with toxicological effects of carbamazepine on the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed for 3 days at realistic concentrations encountered in coastal environments (80 ng/L and 8 µg/L). An integrated metabolomics and proteogenomics approach, including data fusion strategy, was applied to gain more insight in molecular events and cellular processes triggered by carbamazepine exposure. Consistent metabolic and protein signatures revealed a metabolic rewiring and cellular stress at both concentrations (e.g. intensification of protein synthesis, transport and catabolism processes, disruption of lipid and amino acid metabolisms). These highlighted molecular signatures point to the induction of autophagy, closely related with carbamazepine mechanism of action, as well as a destabilization of the lysosomal membranes and an enzymatic overactivity of the peroxisomes. Induction of programmed cell death was highlighted by the modulation of apoptotic cognate proteins. The proposed integrative omics data analysis was shown to be highly relevant to identify the modulations of the two molecular levels, i.e. metabolites and proteins. Multi-omics approach is able to explain the resulting complex biological system, and document stronger toxicological pieces of evidence on pharmaceutical active compounds at environmental concentrations in sentinel organisms.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Proteogenômica , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Carbamazepina/toxicidade , Masculino , Metabolômica , Mytilus/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
17.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131811, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365169

RESUMO

As humans are always exposed to multiple pesticides, it is necessary to conduct risk assessments for pesticide mixtures. Due to data limitations, in this study, we introduced a disease-specific screening-level modeling framework to simulate the cumulative cancer risk (CR) of carcinogenic pesticides, which was developed based on the lognormal dose-response (LDR) curve of chemicals with disease-specific modes of action (MOAs). The simulated results of a case study indicate that the cumulative CR can be at least two orders of magnitude higher than the simulated CRs of individual pesticides. The comparison between the LDR model and the linear extrapolation (or cancer slope factor, CSF) model indicates that the CSF model can greatly overestimate population cancer risks. In addition, we applied our model to evaluate current regulatory standards of carcinogenic pesticide mixtures, and the results indicate that current standards for the selected jurisdictions can control the cumulative cancer risks within the acceptable level. However, the CSF model suggests that all selected jurisdictions cannot protect population health against the carcinogenic pesticide mixture, which is due to the nature of the low-dose linear extrapolation that triggers an initial slope when the effect dose is close to zero. Thus, we concluded that although the MOAs of pesticides in human bodies must be evaluated in future studies, our disease-specific model can be a useful and practical tool for cancer risk assessment and regulatory management of pesticide mixtures.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Praguicidas , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Medição de Risco
18.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131707, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365170

RESUMO

2-Pentanone is an excellent organic solvent and extractant, which is widely used in industrial production. 2-Pentanone is harmful to soil organisms when it enters the soil. However, current studies have not clarified the response of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) to 2-Pentanone and its mechanism. In this study, the response of earthworm antioxidant enzyme SOD to 2-Pentanone and its molecular mechanism was investigated at organism molecular levels. The results showed that the SOD activity of earthworms under 2-Pentanone stress was significantly inhibited, and the inability of superoxide anion radicals (·O2-) to be scavenged in time might be one of the reasons for the increase of lipid peroxidation. Under 2-Pentanone exposure conditions, catalase (CAT), an antioxidant enzyme closely related to SOD, and the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of earthworms were activated to resist oxidative damage. On the other hand, the observation of earthworm microstructure provided evidence of a direct risk of 2-Pentanone on earthworm body wall tissues. Molecular-level assays have shown that 2-pentanone altered the secondary structure of SOD, which further led to the loosening of the SOD backbone structure and the extension of the polypeptide chain. On the other hand, 2-pentanone quenched the endogenous fluorescence of SOD in the form of static quenching and formed the 2-pentanone/SOD complex. Molecular simulation results suggested that 2-pentanone tended to bind on the surface of SOD rather than close to the active site, and it is speculated that the alteration of SOD structure is the key reason for the change in its activity. This study enriches the toxicological data of 2-Pentanone on soil organisms, thus responding to the current concerns about its ecological risk.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Malondialdeído , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Pentanonas , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
19.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131698, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365176

RESUMO

Metal oxide nanoparticles have been extensively studied for their toxicological impacts. However, accurate tracing/quantification of the nanomaterials and their biological responses are difficult to measure at low concentrations. To overcome the challenge, we developed a dual-labelling technique of CuO nanoparticles with a stable isotope of 65Cu, and with rhodamine dye. In vivo experiments on C. elegans were performed using natural feeding of Rhodamine B isothiocyanate-(3 aminopropyl) triethoxysilane functionalized 65CuO nanoprobes (RBITC-APTES@65CuO) (size = 7.41 ± 1 nm) within the range of Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC) of CuO nanoparticles in soil and sediments. Fluorescence emission (570 nm) was detected in the lumen of the intestine and the pharynx of C. elegans with no impact of nanoparticle exposure on the brood size and life span of worms. The ingested fluorescent labelled RBITC-APTES@65CuO nanoprobes did not enter the reproductive system and were distributed in the alimentary canal of C. elegans. Strong fluorescent signals from the ingested RBITC-APTES@65CuO nanoprobes were achieved even after 24 h of exposure demonstrating the high stability of these nanoprobes in vivo. The net accumulation measured of 65Cu in C. elegans after background subtraction was 0.001 µg mg-1 (3.52 %), 0.005 µg mg-1 (1.76 %) and 0.024 µg mg-1 (1.69 %) for an exposure concentration of 0.0284 µg mg-1, 0.284 µg mg-1, and 1.42 µg mg-1 of 65Cu, respectively. Using C. elegans as a model organism, we demonstrated that RBITC-APTES tagged 65CuO nanoparticles acted as novel nanoprobes for measuring the uptake, accumulation, and biodistribution through quantification and imaging the nanoprobes at a very low exposure concentration (65CuO concentration: 0.033 µg mg-1).


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Cobre/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Distribuição Tecidual
20.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131761, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375828

RESUMO

The current method of agriculture entails the usage of excessive amounts of pesticides and fertilizers. The blatant use of conventional pesticides and fertilizers over several decades has led to their bioaccumulation with adverse effects on soil biodiversity and the development of resistance by pests. With the decline in clinically useful antibiotics and increase in multi drug resistant microbes, it is imperative to develop new and effective antimicrobial therapies. Growing awareness and demand for efficacious biorational pesticides are on the rise. Silver nanoparticles are widely known antimicrobials and have been in use for several purposes for a long time. This work reviews the implications of applying silver nanoparticles in agriculture and their possible consequences. The physiological and biochemical changes in plants due to the uptake of silver nanoparticles as a consequence of its morphology, capping biomolecules and method of application are comprehensively discussed in this review article. Studies on tolerance levels or stress due to silver nanoparticles by variation in concentration/doses on diverse flora and fauna are also analyzed here. Further, phytotoxicity and genotoxicity due to the metal as well as its transformation in soil, water and sludge are taken into account. We also gauge the potential of biogenic silver nanoparticles-viable antimicrobial agents for enhanced applications in agriculture as biopesticides.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Fertilizantes , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Prata/toxicidade
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