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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(26): e2203086119, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727979

RESUMO

Accurate measurements of the size and quantity of aerosols generated by various human activities in different environments are required for efficacious mitigation strategies and accurate modeling of respiratory disease transmission. Previous studies of speech droplets, using standard aerosol instrumentation, reported very few particles larger than 5 µm. This starkly contrasts with the abundance of such particles seen in both historical slide deposition measurements and more recent light scattering observations. We have reconciled this discrepancy by developing an alternative experimental approach that addresses complications arising from nucleated condensation. Measurements reveal that a large volume fraction of speech-generated aerosol has diameters in the 5- to 20-µm range, making them sufficiently small to remain airborne for minutes, not hours. This coarse aerosol is too large to penetrate the lower respiratory tract directly, and its relevance to disease transmission is consistent with the vast majority of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections initiating in the upper respiratory tract. Our measurements suggest that in the absence of symptoms such as coughing or sneezing, the importance of speech-generated aerosol in the transmission of respiratory diseases is far greater than generally recognized.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias , Fala , COVID-19/transmissão , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Vet Res ; 53(1): 45, 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35733232

RESUMO

Bovine paratuberculosis is an endemic disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map). Map is mainly transmitted between herds through movement of infected but undetected animals. Our objective was to investigate the effect of observed herd characteristics on Map spread on a national scale in Ireland. Herd characteristics included herd size, number of breeding bulls introduced, number of animals purchased and sold, and number of herds the focal herd purchases from and sells to. We used these characteristics to classify herds in accordance with their probability of becoming infected and of spreading infection to other herds. A stochastic individual-based model was used to represent herd demography and Map infection dynamics of each dairy cattle herd in Ireland. Data on herd size and composition, as well as birth, death, and culling events were used to characterize herd demography. Herds were connected with each other through observed animal trade movements. Data consisted of 13 353 herds, with 4 494 768 dairy female animals, and 72 991 breeding bulls. We showed that the probability of an infected animal being introduced into the herd increases both with an increasing number of animals that enter a herd via trade and number of herds from which animals are sourced. Herds that both buy and sell a lot of animals pose the highest infection risk to other herds and could therefore play an important role in Map spread between herds.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis , Paratuberculose , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Paratuberculose/microbiologia , Paratuberculose/transmissão , Prevalência
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(23): e2112385119, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648836

RESUMO

SignificanceChemosensory systems play crucial roles across mosquito life cycles, with underlying molecular receptors often forming functional complexes that require cognate coreceptors. To better understand chemosensory pathways in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles coluzzii, gene editing were used to localize and functionally characterize the ionotropic receptor coreceptor AcIr76b. Expression of AcIr76b was observed in antennal grooved pegs, coeloconic sensilla, and other accessory olfactory appendages. When AcIr76b was inactivated, mutant mosquitoes displayed altered neuronal responses to amines.. Beyond olfactory phenotypes, AcIr76b mutants display significantly impaired mating and blood feeding capabilities. Our data reveal discrete roles of AcIr76b across chemosensory pathways, suggesting ionotropic pathways as targets for the design of vector control strategies.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Comportamento Alimentar , Malária , Mosquitos Vetores , Receptores Ionotrópicos de Glutamato , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Anopheles/fisiologia , Sangue , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Receptores Ionotrópicos de Glutamato/genética , Receptores Ionotrópicos de Glutamato/fisiologia , Sensilas/fisiologia , Olfato
6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3052, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650193

RESUMO

Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) infection control practices are based on the paradigm that detected carriers in the hospital transmit to other patients who stay in the same ward. The role of plasmid-mediated transmission at population level remains largely unknown. In this retrospective cohort study over 4.7 years involving all multi-disciplinary public hospitals in Singapore, we analysed 779 patients who acquired CPE (1215 CPE isolates) detected by clinical or surveillance cultures. 42.0% met putative clonal transmission criteria, 44.8% met putative plasmid-mediated transmission criteria and 13.2% were unlinked. Only putative clonal transmissions associated with direct ward contact decreased in the second half of the study. Both putative clonal and plasmid-mediated transmission associated with indirect (no temporal overlap in patients' admission period) ward and hospital contact did not decrease during the study period. Indirect ward and hospital contact were identified as independent risk factors associated with clonal transmission. In conclusion, undetected CPE reservoirs continue to evade hospital infection prevention measures. New measures are needed to address plasmid-mediated transmission, which accounted for 50% of CPE dissemination.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Gammaproteobacteria , Proteínas de Bactérias , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/transmissão , Gammaproteobacteria/genética , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , beta-Lactamases/genética
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(26): e2112182119, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696558

RESUMO

Detailed characterization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission across different settings can help design less disruptive interventions. We used real-time, privacy-enhanced mobility data in the New York City, NY and Seattle, WA metropolitan areas to build a detailed agent-based model of SARS-CoV-2 infection to estimate the where, when, and magnitude of transmission events during the pandemic's first wave. We estimate that only 18% of individuals produce most infections (80%), with about 10% of events that can be considered superspreading events (SSEs). Although mass gatherings present an important risk for SSEs, we estimate that the bulk of transmission occurred in smaller events in settings like workplaces, grocery stores, or food venues. The places most important for transmission change during the pandemic and are different across cities, signaling the large underlying behavioral component underneath them. Our modeling complements case studies and epidemiological data and indicates that real-time tracking of transmission events could help evaluate and define targeted mitigation policies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Busca de Comunicante , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/transmissão , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores de Tempo , Washington/epidemiologia
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 900077, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719644

RESUMO

Arboviruses are a group of diseases that are transmitted by an arthropod vector. Since they are part of the Neglected Tropical Diseases that pose several public health challenges for countries around the world. The arboviruses' dynamics are governed by a combination of climatic, environmental, and human mobility factors. Arboviruses prediction models can be a support tool for decision-making by public health agents. In this study, we propose a systematic literature review to identify arboviruses prediction models, as well as models for their transmitter vector dynamics. To carry out this review, we searched reputable scientific bases such as IEE Xplore, PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, and Scopus. We search for studies published between the years 2015 and 2020, using a search string. A total of 429 articles were returned, however, after filtering by exclusion and inclusion criteria, 139 were included. Through this systematic review, it was possible to identify the challenges present in the construction of arboviruses prediction models, as well as the existing gap in the construction of spatiotemporal models.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Arbovírus/classificação , Vetores Artrópodes/classificação , Aprendizado de Máquina , Doenças Negligenciadas/virologia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Arbovírus/patogenicidade , Arbovírus/fisiologia , Vetores Artrópodes/virologia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina/normas , Aprendizado de Máquina/tendências , Modelos Estatísticos , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/tendências
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(24): e2114309119, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675424

RESUMO

Viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes are an increasingly important global cause of disease. Defining common determinants of host susceptibility to this large group of heterogenous pathogens is key for informing the rational design of panviral medicines. Infection of the vertebrate host with these viruses is enhanced by mosquito saliva, a complex mixture of salivary-gland-derived factors and microbiota. We show that the enhancement of infection by saliva was dependent on vascular function and was independent of most antisaliva immune responses, including salivary microbiota. Instead, the Aedes gene product sialokinin mediated the enhancement of virus infection through a rapid reduction in endothelial barrier integrity. Sialokinin is unique within the insect world as having a vertebrate-like tachykinin sequence and is absent from Anopheles mosquitoes, which are incompetent for most arthropod-borne viruses, whose saliva was not proviral and did not induce similar vascular permeability. Therapeutic strategies targeting sialokinin have the potential to limit disease severity following infection with Aedes-mosquito-borne viruses.


Assuntos
Aedes , Infecções por Arbovirus , Arbovírus , Saliva , Taquicininas , Viroses , Aedes/genética , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Arbovírus/genética , Arbovírus/metabolismo , Saliva/virologia , Taquicininas/genética , Taquicininas/metabolismo , Viroses/transmissão
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(24): e2202069119, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679343

RESUMO

Current vaccines have greatly diminished the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, even though they do not entirely prevent infection and transmission, likely due to insufficient immunity in the upper respiratory tract. Here, we compare intramuscular and intranasal administration of a live, replication-deficient modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) vaccine to raise protective immune responses in the K18-hACE2 mouse model. Using a recombinant MVA expressing firefly luciferase for tracking, live imaging revealed luminescence of the respiratory tract of mice within 6 h and persisting for 3 d following intranasal inoculation, whereas luminescence remained at the site of intramuscular vaccination. Intramuscular vaccination induced S-binding-Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralizing antibodies in the lungs, whereas intranasal vaccination also induced Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and higher levels of antigen-specific CD3+CD8+IFN-γ+ T cells. Similarly, IgG and neutralizing antibodies were present in the blood of mice immunized intranasally and intramuscularly, but IgA was detected only after intranasal inoculation. Intranasal boosting increased IgA after intranasal or intramuscular priming. While intramuscular vaccination prevented morbidity and cleared SARS-CoV-2 from the respiratory tract within several days after challenge, intranasal vaccination was more effective as neither infectious virus nor viral messenger (m)RNAs were detected in the nasal turbinates or lungs as early as 2 d after challenge, indicating prevention or rapid elimination of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, we determined that neutralizing antibody persisted for more than 6 mo and that serum induced to the Wuhan S protein neutralized pseudoviruses expressing the S proteins of variants, although with less potency, particularly for Beta and Omicron.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Imunoglobulina A , Sistema Respiratório , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Vírus Vaccinia , Administração Intranasal , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Vírus Vaccinia/imunologia
11.
Fam Syst Health ; 40(2): 232-238, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666896

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Youth with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) are living well into young adulthood. There has been extensive research on the social impacts of PHIV on adolescents and young adults (AYA). However, little research has examined their broader family system. This qualitative exploratory project examined the perspectives of caregivers raising AYA with PHIV. METHOD: Eighteen caregivers who cared for adolescents and young adults with PHIV over the age of 14 completed semistructured audio-recorded interviews. Questions focused on salient aspects of adolescent development and parenting experiences over the course of their child's life. Transcripts were coded for emergent themes. RESULTS: Past and present caregiving experiences were consistently contextualized by the stigmatized nature of HIV. Daily concerns related to medication adherence and sexual behavior were common. Future-oriented expectations were marked by hope, as well as an acknowledgment of continued struggle. DISCUSSION: Negative experiences with the health care system underscore the need for ongoing education about HIV-related stigma. Findings suggest that caregivers, like other parents of typically developing youth, may need support addressing sexuality. Additionally, caregivers expressed concerns over the appropriate levels of supervision to offer their AYA as they assumed more responsibility for their own health. Collaboration among psychosocial and health care professionals to identify support strategies will benefit both caregivers and AYA living with PHIV. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Poder Familiar , Adolescente , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adulto Jovem
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7703, 2022 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545649

RESUMO

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a high-burden disease in Pakistan, with multi-drug (MDR) and extensive-drug (XDR) resistance, complicating infection control. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of M. tuberculosis is being used to infer lineages (strain-types), drug resistance mutations, and transmission patterns-all informing infection control and clinical decision making. Here we analyse WGS data on 535 M. tuberculosis isolates sourced across Pakistan between years 2003 and 2020, to understand the circulating strain-types and mutations related to 12 anti-TB drugs, as well as identify transmission clusters. Most isolates belonged to lineage 3 (n = 397; 74.2%) strain-types, and were MDR (n = 328; 61.3%) and (pre-)XDR (n = 113; 21.1%). By inferring close genomic relatedness between isolates (< 10-SNPs difference), there was evidence of M. tuberculosis transmission, with 55 clusters formed consisting of a total of 169 isolates. Three clusters consist of M. tuberculosis that are similar to isolates found outside of Pakistan. A genome-wide association analysis comparing 'transmitted' and 'non-transmitted' isolate groups, revealed the nusG gene as most significantly associated with a potential transmissible phenotype (P = 5.8 × 10-10). Overall, our study provides important insights into M. tuberculosis genetic diversity and transmission in Pakistan, including providing information on circulating drug resistance mutations for monitoring activities and clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Tuberculose , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Mutação , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/transmissão , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/transmissão
13.
J Virol ; 96(12): e0032022, 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35638848

RESUMO

Vaccination against influenza virus infection can protect the vaccinee and also reduce transmission to contacts. Not all types of vaccines induce sterilizing immunity via neutralizing antibodies; some instead permit low-level, transient infection. There has been concern that infection-permissive influenza vaccines may allow continued spread in the community despite minimizing symptoms in the vaccinee. We have explored that issue for a universal influenza vaccine candidate that protects recipients by inducing T cell responses and nonneutralizing antibodies. Using a mouse model, we have shown previously that an adenoviral vectored vaccine expressing nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix 2 (M2) provides broad protection against diverse strains and subtypes of influenza A viruses and reduces transmission to contacts in an antigen-specific manner. Here, we use this mouse model to further explore the mechanism and features of that reduction in transmission. Passive immunization did not reduce transmission from infected donors to naive contact animals to whom passive serum had been transferred. Vaccination of antibody-deficient mIgTg-JHD-/- mice, which have intact T cell responses and antigen presentation, reduced transmission in an antigen-specific manner, despite the presence of some virus in the lungs and nasal wash, pointing to a role for cellular immunity. Vaccination at ages ranging from 8 to 60 weeks was able to achieve reduction in transmission. Finally, the immune-mediated reduction in transmission persisted for at least a year after a single-dose intranasal vaccination. Thus, this infection-permissive vaccine reduces virus transmission in a long-lasting manner that does not require antibodies. IMPORTANCE Universal influenza virus vaccines targeting antigens conserved among influenza A virus strains can protect from severe disease but do not necessarily prevent infection. Despite allowing low-level infection, intranasal immunization with adenovirus vectors expressing the conserved antigens influenza nucleoprotein (A/NP) and M2 reduces influenza virus transmission from vaccinated to unvaccinated contact mice. Here, we show that antibodies are not required for this transmission reduction, suggesting a role for T cells. We also show that transmission blocking could be achieved in recipients of different ages and remained effective for at least a year following a single-dose vaccination. Such vaccines could have major public health impacts by limiting viral transmission in the community.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Vacinas contra Influenza , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Adenoviridae , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/imunologia , Proteínas Viroporinas/imunologia
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(22): e2116165119, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35609196

RESUMO

SignificanceThis paper simulates the spread of COVID-19 at universities via airborne transmission in classroom settings. The transmission risk model used for these simulations accounts for student-specific class schedules, classroom sizes and occupancy, and ventilation rates, as well as vaccination rate and efficacy. We show the simulations reproduce trends observed in weekly infection rates at a large US university. We also evaluate the impact of campus operational policies. Model predictions show moving 90% of classes online can reduce new infections by as much as [Formula: see text], and universal mask usage can reduce new infections by up to [Formula: see text]. For full-time in-person instruction, high vaccination rates are predicted to curb transmission even for more contagious variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Modelos Teóricos , Política Pública , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Teste para COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Humanos , Máscaras , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes , Universidades
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(21): e2104282119, 2022 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576470

RESUMO

Malaria control interventions target nocturnal feeding of the Anopheles vectors indoors to reduce parasite transmission. Mass deployment of insecticidal bed nets and indoor residual spraying with insecticides, however, may induce mosquitoes to blood-feed at places and at times when humans are not protected. These changes can set a ceiling to the efficacy of these control interventions, resulting in residual malaria transmission. Despite its relevance for disease transmission, the daily rhythmicity of Anopheles biting behavior is poorly documented, most investigations focusing on crepuscular hours and nighttime. By performing mosquito collections 48-h around the clock, both indoors and outdoors, and by modeling biting events using circular statistics, we evaluated the full daily rhythmicity of biting in urban Bangui, Central African Republic. While the bulk of biting by Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles coluzzii, Anopheles funestus, and Anopheles pharoensis occurred from sunset to sunrise outdoors, unexpectedly ∼20 to 30% of indoor biting occurred during daytime. As biting events did not fully conform to any family of circular distributions, we fitted mixtures of von Mises distributions and found that observations were consistent with three compartments, corresponding indoors to populations of early-night, late-night, and daytime-biting events. It is not known whether these populations of biting events correspond to spatiotemporal heterogeneities or also to distinct mosquito genotypes/phenotypes belonging consistently to each compartment. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum in nighttime- and daytime-biting mosquitoes was the same. As >50% of biting occurs in Bangui when people are unprotected, malaria control interventions outside the domiciliary environment should be envisaged.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Ritmo Circadiano , Comportamento Alimentar , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Malária , Controle de Mosquitos , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Anopheles/fisiologia , República Centro-Africana , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/parasitologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/transmissão , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação
17.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 23(5): 451-457, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527685

RESUMO

Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. In Central Iran, no molecular information is available on CE in humans. Therefore, in this study, we identified the genotyping of hydatid cysts obtained from patients with CE in central Iran using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene. Patients and Methods: Hydatid cysts were obtained from 19 patients referred to Shahid Sadoughi, Mojibian, and Mortaz Hospitals, Yazd, Iran from 2018 to 2020. Informed consent was obtained from all included patients. After DNA extraction, amplification was done using cox1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using MEGA7. Results: Of the 19 patients, 11 (57.9%) were male and eight (42.1%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 35.645 ± 2.55 years old. Regarding cyst location, of eight isolates from lung, six and two belonged to G1 and G6, respectively; and all liver cysts were G1 genotype. The spleen and neck cysts had G1 and G6 genotypes, respectively (p > 0.05). All cysts with a diameter in the range of 5-10 cm (n = 9) and large cysts (>10 cm; n = 5) were identified as G1 (p = 0.002). The maximum likelihood tree topology demonstrated the maximum similarity of G1 among Iran and worldwide (99%-100% likelihood). Conclusions: Based on our results, it seems that the sheep-dog cycle in the infection of humans by Echinococcus granulosus in this study area has the most important role compared with the other cycles such as the camel-dog one.


Assuntos
Cistos , Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Animais , Cães , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/transmissão , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Ovinos , Zoonoses
18.
Science ; 376(6595): 783-784, 2022 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35587962

RESUMO

A U.S. government contest has 10 companies competing to make better face coverings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ódio , Máscaras , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Humanos
19.
J Virol ; 96(11): e0023122, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536018

RESUMO

Despite the worldwide availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), approximately 150,000 pediatric HIV infections continue to occur annually. ART can dramatically reduce HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), but inconsistent drug access and adherence, as well as primary maternal HIV infection during pregnancy and lactation are major barriers to eliminating vertical HIV transmission. Thus, immunologic strategies to prevent MTCT, such as an HIV vaccine, will be required to attain an HIV-free generation. A primary goal of HIV vaccine research has been to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) given the ability of passive bnAb immunization to protect against sensitive strains, yet we previously observed that HIV-transmitting mothers have more plasma neutralization breadth than nontransmitting mothers. Additionally, we have identified infant transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses that escape maternal bnAb responses. In this study, we examine a cohort of postpartum HIV-transmitting women with neutralization breadth to determine if certain maternal bnAb specificities drive the selection of infant T/F viruses. Using HIV pseudoviruses that are resistant to neutralizing antibodies targeting common bnAb epitopes, we mapped the plasma bnAb specificities of this cohort. Significantly more transmitting women with plasma bnAb activity had a mappable plasma bnAb specificity (six of seven, or 85.7%) compared to that of nontransmitting women with plasma bnAb activity (7 of 21, or 33.3%, P = 0.029 by 2-sided Fisher exact test). Our study suggests that having multispecific broad activity and/or uncommon epitope-specific bnAbs in plasma may be associated with protection against the vertical HIV transmission in the setting of maternal bnAb responses. IMPORTANCE As mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV plays a major part in the persistence of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and bnAb-based passive and active vaccines are a primary strategy for HIV prevention, research in this field is of great importance. While previous MTCT research has investigated the neutralizing antibody activity of HIV-infected women, this is, to our knowledge, the largest study identifying differences in bnAb specificity of maternal plasma between transmitting and nontransmitting women. Here, we show that among HIV-infected women with broad and potent neutralization activity, more postpartum-transmitting women had a mappable plasma broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) specificity, compared to that of nontransmitting women, suggesting that the nontransmitting women more often have multispecific bnAb responses or bnAb responses that target uncommon epitopes. Such responses may be required for protection against vertical HIV transmission in the setting of maternal bnAb responses.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Infecções por HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Vacinas contra a AIDS , Epitopos , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1 , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Gravidez
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(5): e0010350, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35604904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Kato-Katz microscopy technique is the global standard for assessment of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) burden. However, major limitations include its poor sensitivity, requirement for rapid sample processing, and inability to differentiate hookworm species nor detect Strongyloides spp. infections. We assessed the prevalence and intensity of STH species in Solomon Islands by conducting a province-wide survey using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for diagnosis, which can provide much better characterisation of STH burden than microscopy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 18 villages in Western Province to detect infections with six STH species and quantify intensity with three. We used linear mixed model regression to identify potential water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and environmental risk factors for infection. We collected stool specimens from 830 village residents. Overall STH prevalence was 63.3% (range 27.5 to 91.5% across villages), led by Necator americanus (54.5% [range 17.5-89.4%]), followed by Ancylostoma ceylanicum (15.5% [range 2.8-45.8%]), Trichuris trichiura (9.1% [range 0-79.2%]), and Strongyloides spp. (3.2% [range 0-29.2%]). Most infections were of light intensity for N. americanus (85.7%) and T. trichiura (90.7%). Owning a household latrine was associated with a lower risk of N. americanus infection (AOR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.68) while greater precipitation was linked to more common T. trichiura infection (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04-1.25). CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In this first large-scale population survey of STH in the Pacific using qPCR, we found evidence that ivermectin should be incorporated into STH control programmes because of the presence of T. trichiura and Strongyloides spp., both of which are poorly responsive to albendazole. Furthermore, One Health strategies are needed for improved A. ceylanicum and Strongyloides spp. control, WASH access and use should be improved to complement deworming programmes, and control efforts should ideally be expanded to entire communities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12618001086257.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Solo , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/genética , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Melanesia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , Solo/parasitologia , Água/parasitologia
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