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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(1)2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878208

RESUMO

This study is aimed at bridging the gap from a transdisciplinary perspective between cyber-physical systems (CPS) architecture in the field of information science and emotional design in the field of humanistic science for interactive fashion innovation. Information related to a familiar feeling in the process of interactive clothing design is used to explain how the transformation could be realized from data. By creating the cyber-physical-clothing systems (CPCS), the architecture model in the hyper world and takes the development process of an interactive parent-child clothing as a case study for analyzing the transformation from the physical signal input to the social symbol recognition output. The experimental results, which from the perspective of clothing art design rather than information discipline, show that interactive parent-child clothing is not only suitable for the rehabilitation of autistic children but also recognized by most parents. The reasonable embedding of sensing technology can greatly enhance the added value of clothing products. This study provides a fruitful practical application reference for designers who are engaged in the field of art and design but not familiar with the relevant information technology. Furthermore, the application principle and the technical process of CPCS for further interactive clothing design is explained.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Eletrônica , Transtorno Autístico/patologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , Pais/psicologia
2.
Augment Altern Commun ; 35(4): 251-262, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878789

RESUMO

Behavioral intervention packages in combination with speech output technologies have been utilized to develop communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities. The current study aimed to extend previous research (Gevarter et al.; Gevarter & Horan) by examining the effects of backward chaining in combination with least-to-most prompting, time delay, and differential reinforcement on the acquisition of functional communication skills. A multiple probe across participants design was used embedded with a changing criterion design. For the study, three male children with ASD or developmental disabilities and minimal vocal communication skills participated. The results indicated that the intervention was effective in increasing both iPad1©-based and vocal requesting of all participants, two of whom were able to maintain vocal requesting after the termination of intervention. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/reabilitação , Terapia Comportamental , Auxiliares de Comunicação para Pessoas com Deficiência , Transtornos da Comunicação/reabilitação , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/reabilitação , Criança , Computadores de Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Aplicativos Móveis , Reforço Psicológico
3.
J Neurodev Disord ; 11(1): 41, 2019 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a common cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) usually associated with a CGG expansion, termed full mutation (FM: CGG ≥ 200), increased DNA methylation of the FMR1 promoter and silencing of the gene. Mosaicism for presence of cells with either methylated FM or smaller unmethylated pre-mutation (PM: CGG 55-199) alleles in the same individual have been associated with better cognitive functioning. This study compares age- and sex-matched FM-only and PM/FM mosaic individuals on intellectual functioning, ASD features and maladaptive behaviours. METHODS: This study comprised a large international cohort of 126 male and female participants with FXS (aged 1.15 to 43.17 years) separated into FM-only and PM/FM mosaic groups (90 males, 77.8% FM-only; 36 females, 77.8% FM-only). Intellectual functioning was assessed with age appropriate developmental or intelligence tests. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2nd Edition was used to examine ASD features while the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community assessed maladaptive behaviours. RESULTS: Comparing males and females (FM-only + PM/FM mosaic), males had poorer intellectual functioning on all domains (p < 0.0001). Although females had less ASD features and less parent-reported maladaptive behaviours, these differences were no longer significant after controlling for intellectual functioning. Participants with PM/FM mosaicism, regardless of sex, presented with better intellectual functioning and less maladaptive behaviours compared with their age- and sex-matched FM-only counterparts (p < 0.05). ASD features were similar between FM-only and PM/FM mosaics within each sex, after controlling for overall intellectual functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Males with FXS had significantly lower intellectual functioning than females with FXS. However, there were no significant differences in ASD features and maladaptive behaviours, after controlling for intellectual functioning, independent of the presence or absence of mosaicism. This suggests that interventions that primarily target cognitive abilities may in turn reduce the severity of maladaptive behaviours including ASD features in FXS.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Sintomas Comportamentais , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil , Deficiência Intelectual , Mosaicismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Sintomas Comportamentais/etiologia , Sintomas Comportamentais/genética , Sintomas Comportamentais/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/complicações , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/etiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
4.
Cells ; 9(1)2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881755

RESUMO

Recent studies provide evidence to support that cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38) and CD157 meaningfully act in the brain as neuroregulators. They primarily affect social behaviors. Social behaviors are impaired in Cd38 and Cd157 knockout mice. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the CD38 and CD157/BST1 genes are associated with multiple neurological and psychiatric conditions, including autism spectrum disorder, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. In addition, both antigens are related to infectious and immunoregulational processes. The most important clues to demonstrate how these molecules play a role in the brain are oxytocin (OT) and the OT system. OT is axo-dendritically secreted into the brain from OT-containing neurons and causes activation of OT receptors mainly on hypothalamic neurons. Here, we overview the CD38/CD157-dependent OT release mechanism as the initiation step for social behavior. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is a newly identified molecule as an OT binding protein and serves as a transporter of OT to the brain, crossing over the blood-brain barrier, resulting in the regulation of brain OT levels. We point out new roles of CD38 and CD157 during neuronal development and aging in relation to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+ levels in embryonic and adult nervous systems. Finally, we discuss how CD38, CD157, and RAGE are crucial for social recognition and behavior in daily life.


Assuntos
ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/metabolismo , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Comportamento Social , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Ativação Enzimática , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos Knockout , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Ocitocina , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPM/metabolismo
5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19874, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882730

RESUMO

Objectum-sexuality (OS) is a sexual orientation which has received little attention in the academic literature. Individuals who identify as OS experience emotional, romantic and/or sexual feelings towards inanimate objects (e.g. a bridge, a statue). We tested 34 OS individuals and 88 controls, and provide the first empirical evidence that OS is linked to two separate neurodevelopmental traits - autism and synaesthesia. We show that OS individuals possess significantly higher rates of diagnosed autism and significantly stronger autistic traits compared to controls, as well as a significantly higher prevalence of synaesthesia, and significant synaesthetic traits inherent in the nature of their attractions. Our results suggest that OS may encapsulate autism and synaesthesia within its phenomenology. Our data speak to debates concerning the biological underpinnings of sexuality, to models of autism and synaesthesia, and to psychological and philosophical models of romantic love.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Sexualidade/fisiologia , Sinestesia/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 20094, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882934

RESUMO

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder struggle with motor difficulties throughout the life span, and these motor difficulties may affect independent living skills and quality of life. Yet, we know little about how whole-body movement may distinguish individuals with autism spectrum disorder from individuals with typical development. In this study, kinematic and postural sway data were collected during multiple sessions of videogame play in 39 youth with autism spectrum disorder and 23 age-matched youth with typical development (ages 7-17 years). The youth on the autism spectrum exhibited more variability and more entropy in their movements. Machine learning analysis of the youths' motor patterns distinguished between the autism spectrum and typically developing groups with high aggregate accuracy (up to 89%), with no single region of the body seeming to drive group differences. Moreover, the machine learning results corresponded to individual differences in performance on standardized motor tasks and measures of autism symptom severity. The machine learning algorithm was also sensitive to age, suggesting that motor challenges in autism may be best characterized as a developmental motor delay rather than an autism-distinct motor profile. Overall, these results reveal that whole-body movement is a distinguishing feature in autism spectrum disorder and that movement atypicalities in autism are present across the body.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Movimento , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
J Neurodev Disord ; 11(1): 42, 2019 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined and diagnosed by core deficits in social communication and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors. Research on face processing suggests deficits in this domain in ASD but includes many mixed findings regarding the nature and extent of these differences. The first eye movement to a face has been shown to be highly informative and sufficient to achieve high performance in face identification in neurotypical adults. The current study focused on this critical moment shown to be essential in the process of face identification. METHODS: We applied an established eye-tracking and face identification paradigm to comprehensively characterize the initial eye movement to a face and test its functional consequence on face identification performance in adolescents with and without ASD (n = 21 per group), and in neurotypical adults. Specifically, we presented a series of faces and measured the landing location of the first saccade to each face, while simultaneously measuring their face identification abilities. Then, individuals were guided to look at specific locations on the face, and we measured how face identification performance varied as a function of that location. Adolescent participants also completed a more traditional measure of face identification which allowed us to more fully characterize face identification abilities in ASD. RESULTS: Our results indicate that the location of the initial look to faces and face identification performance for briefly presented faces are intact in ASD, ruling out the possibility that deficits in face perception, at least in adolescents with ASD, begin with the initial eye movement to the face. However, individuals with ASD showed impairments on the more traditional measure of face identification. CONCLUSION: Together, the observed dissociation between initial, rapid face perception processes, and other measures of face perception offers new insights and hypotheses related to the timing and perceptual complexity of face processing and how these specific aspects of face identification may be disrupted in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Criança , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18301, 2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797950

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder involves persistent difficulties in social communication. Although these difficulties affect both verbal and nonverbal communication, there are no quantitative behavioral studies to date investigating the cross-modal coordination of verbal and nonverbal communication in autism. The objective of the present study was to characterize the dynamic relation between speech production and facial expression in children with autism and to establish how face-directed gaze modulates this cross-modal coordination. In a dynamic mimicry task, experiment participants watched and repeated neutral and emotional spoken sentences with accompanying facial expressions. Analysis of audio and motion capture data quantified cross-modal coordination between simultaneous speech production and facial expression. Whereas neurotypical children produced emotional sentences with strong cross-modal coordination and produced neutral sentences with weak cross-modal coordination, autistic children produced similar levels of cross-modal coordination for both neutral and emotional sentences. An eyetracking analysis revealed that cross-modal coordination of speech production and facial expression was greater when the neurotypical child spent more time looking at the face, but weaker when the autistic child spent more time looking at the face. In sum, social communication difficulties in autism spectrum disorder may involve deficits in cross-modal coordination. This finding may inform how autistic individuals are perceived in their daily conversations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Expressão Facial , Fixação Ocular , Fala , Adolescente , Criança , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comunicação não Verbal , Comportamento Social
9.
Mol Autism ; 10: 39, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798816

RESUMO

Background: Humans can easily grasp the affective meaning of touch when observing social interactions. Several neural systems support this ability, including the theory of mind (ToM) network and the somatosensory system linked to embodied resonance, but it is unclear how these systems are affected in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Individuals with ASD exhibit impairments in the use of nonverbal communication such as social and reciprocal touch. Despite the importance of touch in social communication and the reported touch aversion in ASD, surprisingly little is known about the neural systems underlying impairments in touch communication in ASD. Methods: The present study applies a dynamic and socially meaningful stimulus set combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to pinpoint atypicalities in the neural circuitry underlying socio-affective touch observation in adults with ASD. Twenty-one adults with ASD and 21 matched neurotypical adults evaluated the valence and arousal of 75 video fragments displaying touch interactions. Subsequently, they underwent fMRI while watching the same videos. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) and multiple regression analysis, we examined which brain regions represent the socio-affective meaning of observed touch. To further understand the brain-behavior relationship, we correlated the strength of affective representations in the somatosensory cortex with individuals' attitude towards social touch in general and with a quantitative index of autism traits as measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale. Results: Results revealed that the affective meaning of touch was well represented in the temporoparietal junction, a core mentalizing area, in both groups. Conversely, only the neurotypical group represented affective touch in the somatosensory cortex, a region involved in self-experienced touch. Lastly, irrespective of the group, individuals with a more positive attitude towards receiving, witnessing, and providing social touch and with a higher score on social responsivity showed more differentiated representations of the affective meaning of touch in these somatosensory areas. Conclusions: Together, our findings imply that male adults with ASD show intact cognitive understanding (i.e., "knowing") of observed socio-affective touch interactions, but lack of spontaneous embodied resonance (i.e., "feeling").


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Tato/fisiologia , Adulto , Afeto , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estimulação Física , Comportamento Social , Percepção do Tato , Adulto Jovem
10.
Mol Autism ; 10: 40, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798817

RESUMO

Background: The Friendship Questionnaire (FQ) is a widely used measure of friendships in autism research and beyond. This study sought to revisit the original paper where the measure was presented, using a larger sample of both autistic and non-autistic participants to examine gender differences in scoring. It also sought to expand upon the original paper by comparing FQ results to those of the Unidimensional Relationship Closeness Scale (URCS), to examine whether there are differences in how autistic people report on their general friendships in contrast to their most significant relationships. Methods: Participants were recruited for an online study, and 949 people (532 autistic, 417 non-autistic) aged between 18 and 81 took part. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire, the Autism Quotient-28, the Friendship Questionnaire, and the Unidimensional Relationship Closeness Scale. Results: We used robust regressions and Pearson's correlational analyses, conducted in R. Autistic people scored lower than non-autistic people on the FQ, and similar gender differences in the pattern of FQ scores were seen in both groups. There was a significant negative correlation between AQ and FQ scores in both groups. On the URCS, we took the data from those who rated specific close relationships and found that autistic people scored this relationship more highly than non-autistic adults did. There was a significant negative correlation between AQ and URCS scores in both groups. Also, in both groups, there was a significant positive correlation between FQ and URCS scores. Limitations: The data is entirely self-report, and diagnoses could not be verified with a clinician, although AQ scores support self-identification as autistic. Also, the groups were not evenly matched on age and other demographic variables, although this was controlled for in analyses. It is also the case that more autistic than non-autistic people were unable to specify a close relationship to score on the URCS, meaning that a certain set of experiences are not represented in this data. Conclusions: We conclude that our data replicates the core finding of the original FQ paper that autistic people score lower on the FQ. In contrast to that paper, however, we found that there were gender differences among the autistic population. Also, our inclusion of the URCS suggests that the intimate romantic relationships and best-friendships of autistic people can be of similar quality to those of non-autistic people, suggesting that there may be important differences in autistic people's relations with friends in general versus close friends and romantic partners.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Amigos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
11.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 329, 2019 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804455

RESUMO

Haploinsufficiency for PTEN is a cause of autism spectrum disorder and brain overgrowth; however, it is not known if PTEN mutations disrupt scaling across brain areas during development. To address this question, we used magnetic resonance imaging to analyze brains of male Pten haploinsufficient (Pten+/-) mice and wild-type littermates during early postnatal development and adulthood. Adult Pten+/- mice display a consistent pattern of abnormal scaling across brain areas, with white matter (WM) areas being particularly affected. This regional and WM enlargement recapitulates structural abnormalities found in individuals with PTEN haploinsufficiency and autism. Early postnatal Pten+/- mice do not display the same pattern, instead exhibiting greater variability across mice and brain regions than controls. This suggests that Pten haploinsufficiency may desynchronize growth across brain regions during early development before stabilizing by maturity. Pten+/- cortical cultures display increased proliferation of glial cell populations, indicating a potential substrate of WM enlargement, and provide a platform for testing candidate therapeutics. Pten haploinsufficiency dysregulates coordinated growth across brain regions during development. This results in abnormally scaled brain areas and associated behavioral deficits, potentially explaining the relationship between PTEN mutations and neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/fisiologia , Substância Branca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18376, 2019 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804549

RESUMO

Although autistic and anxious traits are positively correlated, high levels of autistic traits are associated with poorer emotional guidance of attention (EGA) whilst high levels of anxious traits are associated with greater EGA. In order to better understand how these two trait dimensions influence EGA, we simultaneously examined the effects of anxiety and autistic traits in neurotypical adults on target identification in an attentional blink task. Analyses indicated that implicit EGA is attenuated in individuals with higher levels of autistic traits, but largely unaffected by variation in anxious traits. Our results suggest that anxiety plays a comparatively limited role in modulating implicit EGA and reinforces the importance of disentangling correlated individual differences when exploring the effects of personality, including emotional predisposition, on attention.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Intermitência na Atenção Visual/fisiologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Neuroticismo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia
13.
PLoS Genet ; 15(12): e1008488, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805042

RESUMO

Common and rare variants of the CACNA1C voltage-gated calcium channel gene have been associated with autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and ADHD. However, little is known about how CACNA1C variants affect cellular processes to alter neurodevelopment. The Timothy syndrome mutation is a rare de novo gain-of-function variant in CACNA1C that causes autism with high penetrance, providing a powerful avenue into investigating the role of CACNA1C variants in neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we use egl-19, the C. elegans homolog of CACNA1C, to investigate the role of voltage-gated calcium channels in autism. We show that an egl-19(gof) mutation that is equivalent to the Timothy syndrome mutation can alter axon targeting and affect behavior in C. elegans. We find that wildtype egl-19 negatively regulates axon termination. The egl-19(gof) mutation represses axon termination to cause axon targeting defects that lead to the misplacement of electrical synapses and alterations in habituation to light touch. Moreover, genetic interactions indicate that the egl-19(gof) mutation functions with genes that promote selective autophagy to cause defects in axon termination and behavior. These results reveal a novel genetic mechanism whereby a de novo mutation in CACNA1C can drive alterations in circuit formation and behavior.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/genética , Canais de Cálcio/genética , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Mutação , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/patologia , Animais , Transtorno Autístico/patologia , Autofagia , Caenorhabditis elegans , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/genética , Masculino , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/metabolismo , Sindactilia/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225377, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805131

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social reciprocity and communication together with restricted interest and stereotyped behaviors. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) is considered a 'gold standard' instrument for diagnosis of ASD and mainly depends on subjective assessments made by trained clinicians. To develop a quantitative and objective surrogate marker for ASD symptoms, we investigated speech features including F0, speech rate, speaking time, and turn-taking gaps, extracted from footage recorded during a semi-structured socially interactive situation from ADOS. We calculated not only the statistic values in a whole session of the ADOS activity but also conducted a block analysis, computing the statistical values of the prosodic features in each 8s sliding window. The block analysis identified whether participants changed volume or pitch according to the flow of the conversation. We also measured the synchrony between the participant and the ADOS administrator. Participants with high-functioning ASD showed significantly longer turn-taking gaps and a greater proportion of pause time, less variability and less synchronous changes in blockwise mean of intensity compared with those with typical development (TD) (p<0.05 corrected). In addition, the ASD group had significantly wider distribution than the TD group in the within-participant variability of blockwise mean of log F0 (p<0.05 corrected). The clinical diagnosis could be discriminated using the speech features with 89% accuracy. The features of turn-taking and pausing were significantly correlated with deficits of ASD in reciprocity (p<0.05 corrected). Additionally, regression analysis provided 1.35 of mean absolute error in the prediction of deficits in reciprocity, to which the synchrony of intensity especially contributed. The findings suggest that considering variance of speech features, interaction and synchrony with conversation partner are critical to characterize atypical features in the conversation of people with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Comunicação , Relações Interpessoais , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835384

RESUMO

"Autistic traits" include a wide range of severity levels. They are often subclinical, and widely distributed in the general population. It is possible that food selectivity due to hyper- or hypo-reactivity to smell or texture, an autistic feature, may result in inadequate nutrient intakes even among non-clinical adults with autistic traits. However, dietary intake of adults with autistic traits has not been elucidated. This study aimed to investigate an association between dietary intake and autistic traits. We cross-sectionally analyzed data of 1440 men and 613 women extracted from the Eating Habit and Well-Being study. Autistic traits were assessed using the Japanese version of the Subthreshold Autism Trait Questionnaire (SATQ), and dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Iron and vitamin B12 intakes were marginally and inversely associated with the SATQ score in men. The SATQ score in women was positively associated with carbohydrate intake, but had an inverse association with protein, mineral, vitamin, and dietary fiber intakes. Low intakes of seaweed, fish and shellfish, and vegetables were observed in participants with severe autistic traits. Associations of autistic traits with food selectivity and low nutrient intakes should be further investigated to promote a new dietary strategy in the general population.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Coleta de Dados , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Minerais , Alimentos Marinhos , Alga Marinha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
16.
J Neuroinflammation ; 16(1): 265, 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837704

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental condition with no known etiology or cure. Several possible contributing factors, both genetic and environmental, are being actively investigated. Amongst these, maternal immune dysregulation has been identified as potentially involved in promoting ASD in the offspring. Indeed, ASD-like behaviors have been observed in studies using the maternal immune activation mouse model. Furthermore, recent studies have shed light on maternal dietary habits and their impact on the gut microbiome as factors possibly facilitating ASD. However, most of these studies have been limited to the effects of high fat and/or high sugar. More recent data, however, have shown that elevated salt consumption has a significant effect on the immune system and gut microbiome, often resulting in gut dysbiosis and induction of pro-inflammatory pathways. Specifically, high salt alters the gut microbiome and induces the differentiation of T helper-17 cells that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-17 and interleukin-23. Moreover, elevated salt can also reduce the differentiation of regulatory T cells that help maintaining a balanced immune system. While in the innate immune system, high salt can cause over activation of M1 pro-inflammatory macrophages and downregulation of M2 regulatory macrophages. These changes to the immune system are alarming because excessive consumption of salt is a documented worldwide problem. Thus, in this review, we discuss recent findings on high salt intake, gut microbiome, and immune system dysregulation while proposing a hypothesis to link maternal overconsumption of salt and children's ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/imunologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
17.
Invest Educ Enferm ; 37(3)2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830401

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This work aimed to define and assess the parental competence of parents with autistic children. METHODS: This study was conducted through a systematic review. The search was done in databases, including Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, Science Direct, Wiley Scopus, Pro Quest, Web of Science, Elsevier, Google Scholar, and Ovid by using keywords, like "children, autism, parenting, competence, and scale" from 1974 to 2019. Inclusion criteria were that the article should be quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method studies in nursing, psychology, and medicine; the full text of the article should be available and the article should be in English or Persian. RESULTS: Competence among these parents was affected by more factors and they reported lower competence compared to other parents. Moreover, only two instruments were available to assess parenting competence, which were not designed for parents of autistic children. Variables and factors affecting parenting competence has not been examined well in parents of children with autism, and no specialized instrument is available to evaluate parenting competence in parents with autistic children either. CONCLUSIONS: Although parental competence has been known as the main element to improve the quality of care, it has been studied restrictively from the viewpoints of the parents of children with autism. Therefore, the development of this concept is highly essential for clinical application and investigating its outcomes support.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801231

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to analyse the experience of grief and feelings of loss in family caregivers of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as well as the perceived overload from taking on the primary caregiver role. Twenty family caregivers of children with ASD participated. The family members were assessed using an ad-hoc semi-structured interview that addressed the families' reactions to the diagnosis, implications for daily functioning, and concerns for the immediate and long-term future of their relatives with ASD. The results indicate that family caregivers of children with ASD endure intense and continuous sorrow and grief due to the impact that having and caring for a child with these characteristics has on all aspects of their lives. These data highlight the importance of creating support and intervention programmes and services focused on the feelings and manifestations of ambiguous grief that occur in these family members, in order to improve their well-being and quality of life and reduce caregiver role overload.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Pesar , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801288

RESUMO

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are genetic elements resulting from relics of ancestral infection of germline cells, now recognized as cofactors in the etiology of several complex diseases. Here we present a review of findings supporting the role of the abnormal HERVs activity in neurodevelopmental disorders. The derailment of brain development underlies numerous neuropsychiatric conditions, likely starting during prenatal life and carrying on during subsequent maturation of the brain. Autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, and schizophrenia are neurodevelopmental disorders that arise clinically during early childhood or adolescence, currently attributed to the interplay among genetic vulnerability, environmental risk factors, and maternal immune activation. The role of HERVs in human embryogenesis, their intrinsic responsiveness to external stimuli, and the interaction with the immune system support the involvement of HERVs in the derailed neurodevelopmental process. Although definitive proofs that HERVs are involved in neurobehavioral alterations are still lacking, both preclinical models and human studies indicate that the abnormal expression of ERVs could represent a neurodevelopmental disorders-associated biological trait in affected individuals and their parents.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/virologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/virologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/virologia , Esquizofrenia/virologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/metabolismo , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Embrião de Mamíferos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/imunologia , Retrovirus Endógenos/patogenicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/patologia
20.
Curr Pharm Des ; 25(41): 4454-4461, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The population with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been increasing and is currently estimated to be 1 in 58 births. The increased prevalence of ASD together with the lack of knowledge on the processes of aging in this population, the support needed at this stage of life, and the associated risk factors, have led to an urgent need for further research. METHODS: This study provides a review of the literature on social- and health-related conditions that may appear when persons with ASD grow old. RESULTS: In addition to the autism-related conditions, different neurological, genetic, and environmental factors may be involved in the process of aging. In this complex setting, this study provides proposals that may guide the development of support services that may improve the quality of life for aging people with ASD. CONCLUSION: Aging in ASD is emerging as a growing problem, which requires immediate planning and targetted treatment development.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Prevalência
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