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1.
J Biomed Opt ; 29(Suppl 2): S22702, 2025 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38434231

RESUMEN

Significance: Advancements in label-free microscopy could provide real-time, non-invasive imaging with unique sources of contrast and automated standardized analysis to characterize heterogeneous and dynamic biological processes. These tools would overcome challenges with widely used methods that are destructive (e.g., histology, flow cytometry) or lack cellular resolution (e.g., plate-based assays, whole animal bioluminescence imaging). Aim: This perspective aims to (1) justify the need for label-free microscopy to track heterogeneous cellular functions over time and space within unperturbed systems and (2) recommend improvements regarding instrumentation, image analysis, and image interpretation to address these needs. Approach: Three key research areas (cancer research, autoimmune disease, and tissue and cell engineering) are considered to support the need for label-free microscopy to characterize heterogeneity and dynamics within biological systems. Based on the strengths (e.g., multiple sources of molecular contrast, non-invasive monitoring) and weaknesses (e.g., imaging depth, image interpretation) of several label-free microscopy modalities, improvements for future imaging systems are recommended. Conclusion: Improvements in instrumentation including strategies that increase resolution and imaging speed, standardization and centralization of image analysis tools, and robust data validation and interpretation will expand the applications of label-free microscopy to study heterogeneous and dynamic biological systems.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Histológicas , Microscopía , Animales , Citometría de Flujo , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694541

RESUMEN

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the treatment of acute cholangitis caused by choledocholithiasis. Methods: The Japanese government declared a state of emergency in April 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 309 patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for acute cholangitis caused by choledocholithiasis between April 2017 and December 2022. Results: Patients were categorized into a pregroup (n = 134) and a postgroup (n = 175), depending on whether they were diagnosed before or after the state of emergency declaration. The total number of ERCP cases and the number of ERCP cases with endoscopic stone removals increased after the state of emergency declaration. Compared with the pregroup, the numbers of patients with performance status of 0-1 and surgically altered anatomy increased, whereas the numbers of patients taking oral antiplatelets or anticoagulants and those with cerebrovascular disease decreased in the postgroup. The number of single-stage endoscopic stone removals increased and hospital stays were significantly shorter in the postgroup. No differences in adverse event rates were detected between the two groups. Conclusions: Although our hospital provides tertiary care, the number of patients with cholangitis in good general condition and no underlying disease increased after the state of emergency declaration. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in an increase in the number of single-stage endoscopic treatments and shortened hospital stays for patients with acute cholangitis caused by choledocholithiasis. No safety issues with ERCP were detected, even during the pandemic.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694538

RESUMEN

Large ileal lipomas over 2 cm can cause symptoms, that may require a resection. Due to the narrow lumen and thin walls of the ileum, endoscopic treatments can have a high risk of adverse events and require technical expertise, thus surgical resection is currently the mainstay of treatment. To overcome the technical challenges, we developed a novel method to endoscopically resect terminal ileal lipomas. The technique involves extracting the lesion into the cecum, which creates sufficient space to maneuver, and a better field of view. The lipoma is resected with endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection. The appearance of the lipoma protruding out of the ileocecal valve resembles that of a tongue sticking out of the mouth, thus we named this the "tongue out technique". To assess the technical feasibility of this method, we retrospectively analyzed seven cases of terminal ileal lipoma that were endoscopically resected using the "tongue out technique" at NTT Medical Center Tokyo between January 2017 and October 2023. Technical success was 100% and en bloc resection was achieved in all cases. The median size was 31 (14-55) mm. Three cases were resected with endoscopic mucosal resection while endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed on the other four cases. There was one case of delayed post-endoscopic mucosal resection bleeding, which was caused by clip dislodgement. There were no perforations. No recurrence of the lipoma or associated symptoms have been observed. This new technique can allow more ileal lipomas to be treated with minimally invasive and organ-preserving endoscopic procedures.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694539

RESUMEN

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasound-guided tissue acquisition (EUS-TA) for diagnosing focal liver lesions in patients with a history of multiple primary malignant neoplasms. Methods: Among patients who underwent EUS-TA for focal liver lesions between 2016 and 2022, those with a history of multiple malignant neoplasms were included. A histologically confirmed malignant tumor within the past 5 years before EUS-TA was defined as a history of malignant neoplasm. The primary outcomes were diagnostic ability and adverse events of EUS-TA. Results: This study included 16 patients (median age, 73 [33-90] years), the median tumor size was 32 (6-51) mm, 14 had a history of double malignant neoplasms, whereas two had triple malignant neoplasms. Malignant neoplasms were detected histologically or cytologically in all cases. Immunohistochemistry was performed in 75% (12/16), and the final diagnosis of EUS-TA was metastatic liver tumor in 12 patients, and primary malignant liver tumor in four patients. The primary site could be identified in 11 of 12 metastatic tumor cases. The diagnostic yield of EUS-TA was 100% (16/16) for differentiating benign and malignant tumors and 94% (15/16) for confirming the histological type including the primary site of metastatic lesions. No adverse events were associated with the procedure. Conclusion: EUS-TA is a useful diagnostic modality for focal liver lesions in patients with a history of multiple malignant neoplasms, allowing for the differential diagnosis of primary and metastatic tumors and identification of the primary site of metastatic lesions.

5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694540

RESUMEN

Patients with ulcerative colitis sometimes need a total colectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis due to medically refractory disease or colitis-associated neoplasia. Up to 50% of patients with ulcerative colitis postoperatively develop pouchitis and the rate of chronic inflammatory pouch conditions requiring pouch excision or diverting ileostomy is reported to be 10%. In order to diagnose and monitor pouchitis, pouchoscopy is essential to assess endoscopic inflammatory findings of the J pouch and to survey neoplasia development, particularly in the remnant distal rectum. However, endoscopic protocols for the evaluation of the pouch may not be standardized worldwide and the reliability of existing disease activity indices for pouchitis has been questioned due to the lack of validation. Recently, reliable endoscopic scoring systems based on an observation of the anatomical location of the J pouch were reported and a significant association between the distribution pattern of endoscopic inflammation (i.e., endoscopic phenotype) and pouch outcomes was also uncovered. In this review, we discuss how to survey the J pouch using pouchoscopy, endoscopic indices for pouchitis disease activity, endoscopic phenotypes and classification, and the pathological mechanisms of pouchitis phenotype in patients with ulcerative colitis.

6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725874

RESUMEN

Objective: Iodine staining on white light imaging (WLI) is the gold standard for detecting and demarcating esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We examined the effects of texture and color enhancement imaging (TXI) on improving the endoscopic visibility of ESCC under iodine staining. Methods: Twenty ESCC lesions that underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection were retrospectively included. The color difference between ESCC and the surrounding mucosa (ΔEe) on WLI, TXI, and narrow-band imaging was assessed, and ΔEe under 1% iodine staining on WLI and TXI. Furthermore, the visibility grade determined by endoscopists was evaluated on each imaging. Result: The median ΔEe was greater on TXI than on WLI (14.53 vs. 10.71, respectively; p < 0.005). Moreover, the median ΔEe on TXI under iodine staining was greater than the median ΔEe on TXI and narrow-band imaging (39.20 vs. 14.53 vs. 16.42, respectively; p < 0.005 for both). A positive correlation in ΔEe under iodine staining was found between TXI and WLI (correlation coefficient = 0.61, p < 0.01). Moreover, ΔEe under iodine staining on TXI in each lesion was greater than the corresponding ΔEe on WLI. The visibility grade assessed by endoscopists on TXI was also significantly greater than that on WLI under iodine staining (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The visibility of ESCC after iodine staining was greater on TXI than on WLI.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725875

RESUMEN

Accurate measurement of the size of lesions or distances between any two points during endoscopic examination of the gastrointestinal tract is difficult owing to the fisheye lens used in endoscopy. To overcome this issue, we developed a phase-shift method to measure three-dimensional (3D) data on a curved surface, which we present herein. Our system allows the creation of 3D shapes on a curved surface by the phase-shift method using a stripe pattern projected from a small projecting device to an object. For evaluation, 88 measurement points were inserted in porcine stomach tissue, attached to a half-pipe jig, with an inner radius of 21 mm. The accuracy and precision of the measurement data for our shape measurement system were compared with the data obtained using an Olympus STM6 measurement microscope. The accuracy of the path length of a simulated protruded lesion was evaluated using a plaster model of the curved stomach and graph paper. The difference in height measures between the measurement microscope and measurement system data was 0.24 mm for the 88 measurement points on the curved surface of the porcine stomach. The error in the path length measurement for a lesion on an underlying curved surface was <1% for a 10-mm lesion. The software was developed for the automated calculation of the major and minor diameters of each lesion. The accuracy of our measurement system could improve the accuracy of determining the size of lesions, whether protruded or depressed, regardless of the curvature of the underlying surface.

8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38975290

RESUMEN

The general principles of gastrointestinal endoscopy training in the United States were formulated and summarized more than a decade ago and the principles have been consistent until now. To summarize, trainees should be prepared to (i) appropriately recommend endoscopic procedures as indicated by the findings of the consultative evaluation, with an explicit understanding of accepted specific indications, contraindications, and diagnostic/therapeutic alternatives, (ii) perform procedures safely, completely, and expeditiously, including possessing a thorough understanding of the principles of conscious sedation/analgesia techniques, the use of anesthesia-assisted sedation where appropriate, and pre-procedure clinical assessment and patient monitoring, (iii) correctly interpret endoscopic findings and integrate them into medical or endoscopic therapy, (iv) identify risk factors for each procedure, understand how to minimize each, and recognize and appropriately manage complications when they occur, (v) acknowledge the limitations of endoscopic procedures and personal skills and know when to request help, and (vi) understand the principles of quality measurement and improvement. This article provides an overview of the endoscopy training system and structure, evaluation scheme, and competence and credentialing process in the United States.

9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38868705

RESUMEN

Despite endometriosis being a relatively common chronic gynecological condition in women of childbearing age, small bowel endometriosis is rare. Presentations can vary from completely asymptomatic to reported symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea. The following two cases depict very atypical manifestations of ileal endometriosis that presented as obscure intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding and bowel obstruction requiring surgical intervention. The first case describes a previously healthy 40-year-old woman with severe symptomatic iron deficiency anemia and intermittent melena. A small bowel enteroscopy diagnosed multiple ulcerated strictures in the distal small bowel as the likely culprit. Despite nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced enteropathy being initially considered as the likely etiology, histopathological examination of the resected distal ileal segment revealed evidence of endometriosis. The second case describes a 66-year-old with a presumptive diagnosis of Crohn's disease who reported a 10-year history of intermittent perimenstrual abdominal pain, diarrhea, and nausea with vomiting. Following two subsequent episodes of acute bowel obstruction and surgical resection of the patient's stricturing terminal ileal disease, histopathological examination demonstrated active chronic inflammation with endometriosis. Small bowel endometriosis should be considered as an unusual differential diagnosis in women who may present with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding from the small bowel or recurrent bowel obstruction.

10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38868706

RESUMEN

Background and Aim: Endoscopic ultrasound shear wave elastography (EUS-SWE) can facilitate an objective evaluation of pancreatic fibrosis. Although it is primarily applied in evaluating chronic pancreatitis, its efficacy in assessing early chronic pancreatitis (ECP) remains underinvestigated. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-SWE for assessing ECP diagnosed using the Japanese diagnostic criteria 2019. Methods: In total, 657 patients underwent EUS-SWE. Propensity score matching was used, and the participants were classified into the ECP and normal groups. ECP was diagnosed using the Japanese diagnostic criteria 2019. Pancreatic stiffness was assessed based on velocity (Vs) on EUS-SWE, and the optimal Vs cutoff value for ECP diagnosis was determined. A practical shear wave Vs value of ≥50% was considered significant. Results: Each group included 22 patients. The ECP group had higher pancreatic stiffness than the normal group (2.31 ± 0.67 m/s vs. 1.59 ± 0.40 m/s, p < 0.001). The Vs cutoff value for the diagnostic accuracy of ECP, as determined using the receiver operating characteristic curve, was 2.24m/s, with an area under the curve of 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.69-0.94). A high Vs was strongly correlated with the number of EUS findings (rs = 0.626, p < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis revealed that a history of acute pancreatitis and ≥2 EUS findings were independent predictors of a high Vs. Conclusions: There is a strong correlation between EUS-SWE findings and the Japanese diagnostic criteria 2019 for ECP. Hence, EUS-SWE can be an objective and invaluable diagnostic tool for ECP diagnosis.

11.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(3): 613-631, 2025 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886929

RESUMEN

Alzheimer's disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder with a complex and incompletely understood pathogenesis. Despite extensive research, a cure for Alzheimer's disease has not yet been found. Oxidative stress mediates excessive oxidative responses, and its involvement in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis as a primary or secondary pathological event is widely accepted. As a member of the selenium-containing antioxidant enzyme family, glutathione peroxidase 4 reduces esterified phospholipid hydroperoxides to maintain cellular redox homeostasis. With the discovery of ferroptosis, the central role of glutathione peroxidase 4 in anti-lipid peroxidation in several diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, has received widespread attention. Increasing evidence suggests that glutathione peroxidase 4 expression is inhibited in the Alzheimer's disease brain, resulting in oxidative stress, inflammation, ferroptosis, and apoptosis, which are closely associated with pathological damage in Alzheimer's disease. Several therapeutic approaches, such as small molecule drugs, natural plant products, and non-pharmacological treatments, ameliorate pathological damage and cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease by promoting glutathione peroxidase 4 expression and enhancing glutathione peroxidase 4 activity. Therefore, glutathione peroxidase 4 upregulation may be a promising strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This review provides an overview of the gene structure, biological functions, and regulatory mechanisms of glutathione peroxidase 4, a discussion on the important role of glutathione peroxidase 4 in pathological events closely related to Alzheimer's disease, and a summary of the advances in small-molecule drugs, natural plant products, and non-pharmacological therapies targeting glutathione peroxidase 4 for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Most prior studies on this subject used animal models, and relevant clinical studies are lacking. Future clinical trials are required to validate the therapeutic effects of strategies targeting glutathione peroxidase 4 in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

12.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(3): 632-645, 2025 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886930

RESUMEN

Ischemic stroke is a cerebrovascular disease associated with high mortality and disability rates. Since the inflammation and immune response play a central role in driving ischemic damage, it becomes essential to modulate excessive inflammatory reactions to promote cell survival and facilitate tissue repair around the injury site. Various cell types are involved in the inflammatory response, including microglia, astrocytes, and neutrophils, each exhibiting distinct phenotypic profiles upon stimulation. They display either proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory states, a phenomenon known as 'cell polarization.' There are two cell polarization therapy strategies. The first involves inducing cells into a neuroprotective phenotype in vitro, then reintroducing them autologously. The second approach utilizes small molecular substances to directly affect cells in vivo. In this review, we elucidate the polarization dynamics of the three reactive cell populations (microglia, astrocytes, and neutrophils) in the context of ischemic stroke, and provide a comprehensive summary of the molecular mechanisms involved in their phenotypic switching. By unraveling the complexity of cell polarization, we hope to offer insights for future research on neuroinflammation and novel therapeutic strategies for ischemic stroke.

13.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(3): 646-659, 2025 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886931

RESUMEN

Neurodegenerative diseases cause great medical and economic burdens for both patients and society; however, the complex molecular mechanisms thereof are not yet well understood. With the development of high-coverage sequencing technology, researchers have started to notice that genomic repeat regions, previously neglected in search of disease culprits, are active contributors to multiple neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we describe the association between repeat element variants and multiple degenerative diseases through genome-wide association studies and targeted sequencing. We discuss the identification of disease-relevant repeat element variants, further powered by the advancement of long-read sequencing technologies and their related tools, and summarize recent findings in the molecular mechanisms of repeat element variants in brain degeneration, such as those causing transcriptional silencing or RNA-mediated gain of toxic function. Furthermore, we describe how in silico predictions using innovative computational models, such as deep learning language models, could enhance and accelerate our understanding of the functional impact of repeat element variants. Finally, we discuss future directions to advance current findings for a better understanding of neurodegenerative diseases and the clinical applications of genomic repeat elements.

14.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(3): 660-670, 2025 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886932

RESUMEN

Spinal cord injury results in paralysis, sensory disturbances, sphincter dysfunction, and multiple systemic secondary conditions, most arising from autonomic dysregulation. All this produces profound negative psychosocial implications for affected people, their families, and their communities; the financial costs can be challenging for their families and health institutions. Treatments aimed at restoring the spinal cord after spinal cord injury, which have been tested in animal models or clinical trials, generally seek to counteract one or more of the secondary mechanisms of injury to limit the extent of the initial damage. Most published works on structural/functional restoration in acute and chronic spinal cord injury stages use a single type of treatment: a drug or trophic factor, transplant of a cell type, and implantation of a biomaterial. Despite the significant benefits reported in animal models, when translating these successful therapeutic strategies to humans, the result in clinical trials has been considered of little relevance because the improvement, when present, is usually insufficient. Until now, most studies designed to promote neuroprotection or regeneration at different stages after spinal cord injury have used single treatments. Considering the occurrence of various secondary mechanisms of injury in the acute and sub-acute phases of spinal cord injury, it is reasonable to speculate that more than one therapeutic agent could be required to promote structural and functional restoration of the damaged spinal cord. Treatments that combine several therapeutic agents, targeting different mechanisms of injury, which, when used as a single therapy, have shown some benefits, allow us to assume that they will have synergistic beneficial effects. Thus, this narrative review article aims to summarize current trends in the use of strategies that combine therapeutic agents administered simultaneously or sequentially, seeking structural and functional restoration of the injured spinal cord.

15.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(3): 682-694, 2025 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886935

RESUMEN

Sirtuin 2 is a member of the sirtuin family nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylases, known for its regulatory role in different processes, including inflammation. In this context, sirtuin 2 has been involved in the modulation of key inflammatory signaling pathways and transcription factors by deacetylating specific targets, such as nuclear factor κB and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-leucine-rich-repeat and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3). However, whether sirtuin 2-mediated pathways induce a pro- or an anti-inflammatory response remains controversial. Sirtuin 2 has been implicated in promoting inflammation in conditions such as asthma and neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting that its inhibition in these conditions could be a potential therapeutic strategy. Conversely, arthritis and type 2 diabetes mellitus studies suggest that sirtuin 2 is essential at the peripheral level and, thus, its inhibition in these pathologies would not be recommended. Overall, the precise role of sirtuin 2 in inflammation appears to be context-dependent, and further investigation is needed to determine the specific molecular mechanisms and downstream targets through which sirtuin 2 influences inflammatory processes in various tissues and pathological conditions. The present review explores the involvement of sirtuin 2 in the inflammation associated with different pathologies to elucidate whether its pharmacological modulation could serve as an effective strategy for treating this prevalent symptom across various diseases.

17.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(3): 715-724, 2025 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886937

RESUMEN

Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling plays a pivotal role in dendritic growth and dendritic spine formation to promote learning and memory. The activity-dependent release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor at synapses binds to pre- or postsynaptic TrkB resulting in the strengthening of synapses, reflected by long-term potentiation. Postsynaptically, the association of postsynaptic density protein-95 with TrkB enhances phospholipase Cγ-Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling required for long-term potentiation. In this review, we discuss TrkB-postsynaptic density protein-95 coupling as a promising strategy to magnify brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling towards the development of novel therapeutics for specific neurological disorders. A reduction of TrkB signaling has been observed in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease, and enhancement of postsynaptic density protein-95 association with TrkB signaling could mitigate the observed deficiency of neuronal connectivity in schizophrenia and depression. Treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor is problematic, due to poor pharmacokinetics, low brain penetration, and side effects resulting from activation of the p75 neurotrophin receptor or the truncated TrkB.T1 isoform. Although TrkB agonists and antibodies that activate TrkB are being intensively investigated, they cannot distinguish the multiple human TrkB splicing isoforms or cell type-specific functions. Targeting TrkB-postsynaptic density protein-95 coupling provides an alternative approach to specifically boost TrkB signaling at localized synaptic sites versus global stimulation that risks many adverse side effects.

18.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(3): 695-714, 2025 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886936

RESUMEN

Alzheimer's disease, the primary cause of dementia, is characterized by neuropathologies, such as amyloid plaques, synaptic and neuronal degeneration, and neurofibrillary tangles. Although amyloid plaques are the primary characteristic of Alzheimer's disease in the central nervous system and peripheral organs, targeting amyloid-beta clearance in the central nervous system has shown limited clinical efficacy in Alzheimer's disease treatment. Metabolic abnormalities are commonly observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The liver is the primary peripheral organ involved in amyloid-beta metabolism, playing a crucial role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Notably, impaired cholesterol metabolism in the liver may exacerbate the development of Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we explore the underlying causes of Alzheimer's disease and elucidate the role of the liver in amyloid-beta clearance and cholesterol metabolism. Furthermore, we propose that restoring normal cholesterol metabolism in the liver could represent a promising therapeutic strategy for addressing Alzheimer's disease.

19.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(3): 725-739, 2025 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886938

RESUMEN

Developing effective and long-term treatment strategies for rare and complex neurodegenerative diseases is challenging. One of the major roadblocks is the extensive heterogeneity among patients. This hinders understanding the underlying disease-causing mechanisms and building solutions that have implications for a broad spectrum of patients. One potential solution is to develop personalized medicine approaches based on strategies that target the most prevalent cellular events that are perturbed in patients. Especially in patients with a known genetic mutation, it may be possible to understand how these mutations contribute to problems that lead to neurodegeneration. Protein-protein interaction analyses offer great advantages for revealing how proteins interact, which cellular events are primarily involved in these interactions, and how they become affected when key genes are mutated in patients. This line of investigation also suggests novel druggable targets for patients with different mutations. Here, we focus on alsin and spastin, two proteins that are identified as "causative" for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and hereditary spastic paraplegia, respectively, when mutated. Our review analyzes the protein interactome for alsin and spastin, the canonical pathways that are primarily important for each protein domain, as well as compounds that are either Food and Drug Administration-approved or are in active clinical trials concerning the affected cellular pathways. This line of research begins to pave the way for personalized medicine approaches that are desperately needed for rare neurodegenerative diseases that are complex and heterogeneous.

20.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(3): 779-793, 2025 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886942

RESUMEN

Mononuclear macrophage infiltration in the central nervous system is a prominent feature of neuroinflammation. Recent studies on the pathogenesis and progression of multiple sclerosis have highlighted the multiple roles of mononuclear macrophages in the neuroinflammatory process. Monocytes play a significant role in neuroinflammation, and managing neuroinflammation by manipulating peripheral monocytes stands out as an effective strategy for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, leading to improved patient outcomes. This review outlines the steps involved in the entry of myeloid monocytes into the central nervous system that are targets for effective intervention: the activation of bone marrow hematopoiesis, migration of monocytes in the blood, and penetration of the blood-brain barrier by monocytes. Finally, we summarize the different monocyte subpopulations and their effects on the central nervous system based on phenotypic differences. As activated microglia resemble monocyte-derived macrophages, it is important to accurately identify the role of monocyte-derived macrophages in disease. Depending on the roles played by monocyte-derived macrophages at different stages of the disease, several of these processes can be interrupted to limit neuroinflammation and improve patient prognosis. Here, we discuss possible strategies to target monocytes in neurological diseases, focusing on three key aspects of monocyte infiltration into the central nervous system, to provide new ideas for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

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