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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612471

RESUMEN

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an enormous global health threat stemming from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection. Up to now, the tremendous advances in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) have shifted HIV-1 infection from a fatal illness into a manageable chronic disorder. However, the presence of latent reservoirs, the multifaceted nature of HIV-1, drug resistance, severe off-target effects, poor adherence, and high cost restrict the efficacy of current cART targeting the distinct stages of the virus life cycle. Therefore, there is an unmet need for the discovery of new therapeutics that not only bypass the limitations of the current therapy but also protect the body's health at the same time. The main goal for complete HIV-1 eradication is purging latently infected cells from patients' bodies. A potential strategy called "lock-in and apoptosis" targets the budding phase of the life cycle of the virus and leads to susceptibility to apoptosis of HIV-1 infected cells for the elimination of HIV-1 reservoirs and, ultimately, for complete eradication. The current work intends to present the main advantages and disadvantages of United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved anti-HIV-1 drugs as well as plausible strategies for the design and development of more anti-HIV-1 compounds with better potency, favorable pharmacokinetic profiles, and improved safety issues.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , VIH-1 , Estados Unidos , Humanos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Apoptosis , División Celular
2.
HIV Res Clin Pract ; 25(1): 2331360, 2024 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579280

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite being at elevated risk for HIV, men who have sex with transgender women (MSTW) are an overlooked population in the global HIV response. Venue-based HIV interventions have previously had success reaching other HIV priority populations, including transgender women (TW). Similar approaches could be applied for MSTW. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prospective acceptability of venue-based HIV testing and prevention interventions for MSTW and TW in Lima, Peru. METHODS: In this exploratory qualitative study, we conducted in-depth interviews (IDI) and focus group discussions (FGD) with three types of participants: MSTW (7 IDIs, 1 FGD), TW (1 FGD), and owners of social venues frequented by MSTW/TW in Lima (2 IDIs). We elicited participants' attitudes and perceptions related to the following four hypothetical interventions delivered at social venues in Lima: rapid HIV testing; HIV self-test distribution; condom/lubricant distribution; and enrolment in a mobile app supporting HIV prevention. We performed a mixed deductive-inductive thematic analysis using the framework method, then applied the Theoretical Framework of Acceptability to classify the overall acceptability of each intervention. RESULTS: Condom/lubricant distribution and app-based HIV prevention information were highly acceptable among all participant types. The two HIV testing interventions had relatively lower acceptability; however, participants suggested this could be overcome if such interventions focused on ensuring discretion, providing access to healthcare professionals, and offering appropriate incentives. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, MSTW and TW shared similar favourable attitudes towards venue-based HIV interventions. Venue-based outreach warrants further exploration as a strategy for engaging MSTW and TW in HIV prevention activities.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Personas Transgénero , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Perú/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Prueba de VIH , Lubricantes
3.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 21(2): 52-61, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517670

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite highly effective biomedical HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) options, suboptimal PrEP uptake impedes progress towards ending the epidemic in the United States of America (USA). Implementation science bridges what we know works in controlled clinical trial settings to the context and environment in which efficacious tools are intended to be deployed. In this review, we focus on strategies that target PrEP use barriers at the system or structural level, exploring the implications and opportunities in the context of the fragmented USA healthcare system. RECENT FINDINGS: Task shifting could increase PrEP prescribers, but effectiveness evidence is scarce in the USA, and generally focused in urban settings. Integration of PrEP within existing healthcare infrastructure concentrates related resources, but demonstration projects rarely present the resource implications of redirecting staff. Changing the site of service via expanded telehealth could improve access to more rural populations, though internet connectivity, technology access, and challenges associated with determining biomedical eligibility remain logistical barriers for some of the highest burden communities in the USA. Finally, a tailored care navigation and coordination approach has emerged as a highly effective component of PrEP service provision, attempting to directly modify the system-level determinants of PrEP use experienced by the individual. We highlight recent advances and evidence surrounding task shifting, integration, service delivery, and tailoring. With the exception of tailored care navigation, evidence is mixed, and the downstream impact and sustainability of task shifting and care integration require further attention. To maximize PrEP outcomes, research will need to continue to examine the interplay between individuals, clinics, and the healthcare system and associated policies within which they operate.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Telemedicina , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Atención a la Salud
4.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 38(3): 115-122, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471090

RESUMEN

Long-acting cabotegravir/rilpivirine (LA-CAB/RPV) is the first complete injectable antiretroviral for patients living with HIV. To facilitate patient access to long-acting injectable treatment, a system-wide, pharmacist-led, LA-CAB/RPV transition program was developed at four health system-based New York clinics. Provider referrals were received across four clinics between January 22nd, 2021, and December 31st, 2022. All referrals were evaluated by a pharmacist for clinical eligibility and medication access. The primary outcome was the treatment retention rate defined as the percentage of patients who remained on LA-CAB/RPV at 3 months post-transition. A total of 171 referrals were received, with 73 patients (43%) initiating LA-CAB/RPV. Baseline demographics included a median age of 38 years, 81% patients were male, 41% were African American, and 49% had commercial insurance coverage. The treatment retention rate was 90% at 3 months post-transition. By the end of the study period, 84% of patients who transitioned remained on LA-CAB/RPV. Treatment was discontinued due to reasons such as viral breakthrough (4%), emergence of mutations (4%), and intolerable side effects (4%). Injection site reactions were commonly reported (51%), but only resulting in treatment discontinuation for one patient. A pharmacist-led program can transition a diverse population of patients living with HIV to LA-CAB/RPV. Results from this study further add to clinical experiences with LA-CAB/RPV, demonstrating real-world treatment retention despite more frequent clinic visits for patients.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Dicetopiperazinas , Infecciones por VIH , Seropositividad para VIH , VIH-1 , Piridonas , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Femenino , Rilpivirina/efectos adversos , VIH-1/genética , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , New York , Farmacéuticos , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Seropositividad para VIH/tratamiento farmacológico
5.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 38(3): 123-133, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471092

RESUMEN

The most at-risk population among women for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis in the United States are Black women, accounting for 61% of all new HIV cases. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a safe and effective HIV prevention method for people at risk of HIV acquisition. Although disproportionately affected by HIV, Black women's knowledge, perceived benefits, and uptake of PrEP remain low. The socioecological model (SEM) may be useful for understanding why there is a low uptake of PrEP among Black women. The current study used the SEM to explore provider perspectives on the barriers and facilitators of PrEP uptake among Black women in Eastern Virginia. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a total sample of 15 community health care providers. Barriers of PrEP uptake at the societal (e.g., PrEP advertisements focus on gay men), community/organizational (e.g., time constraints in the workplace), interpersonal (e.g., perceived monogamy), and individual (e.g., unmet basic needs) levels were identified. Providers also identified facilitators of PrEP uptake at the societal (e.g., PrEP advertisements that target women), community/organizational (e.g., PrEP education), interpersonal (e.g., HIV-positive partner), and individual (e.g., PrEP awareness and perceived susceptibility to HIV) levels. These findings highlight unique barriers to accessing and taking PrEP for Black women in the United States, and potential factors that could facilitate PrEP use. Both barriers and facilitators may be important targets for interventions to improve PrEP uptake. Future research focused on improving PrEP uptake among Black women in the United States should consider multi-level interventions that target barriers and facilitators to reduce rates of HIV infections.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Estados Unidos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , VIH , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición/métodos , Virginia , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria
6.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 38(3): 144-150, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471093

RESUMEN

There is an unmet need for HIV prevention among Black cisgender women. From January to November 2020, we conducted formative research to develop locally informed implementation strategies to enhance pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake among Black cisgender women in New Orleans, Louisiana. Following an iterative process, we conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) with Black women who were not taking PrEP and used those findings to inform IDIs with Black women taking PrEP. We asked about PrEP awareness, social support, PrEP-related norms, medical mistrust, motivation to take PrEP, and potential implementation strategies. Data were analyzed using applied thematic analysis. We established the Black Women and PrEP (BWAP) Task Force-a diverse group of 25 Black female community representatives who reviewed the IDI findings and identified strategies to address these determinants of PrEP uptake. We interviewed 12 Black women who were not taking PrEP and 13 Black women who were taking PrEP. Two main PrEP uptake barriers were identified from the IDI findings and Task Force discussions. First, Black women do not know of other Black women taking PrEP. Women perceived PrEP as a drug for gay men. Most said that testimonials from Black women taking PrEP would make its use more relatable. Second, Black women are not frequently offered PrEP by their providers. Many preferred accessing PrEP through women's health providers. The Task Force identified two strategies to address these barriers: a social media campaign for women and an educational initiative to train providers to discuss and prescribe PrEP. These implementation strategies require further study.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Nueva Orleans , Confianza , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Louisiana
7.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 27(3): e26232, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494652

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective medication to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV. PrEP is available free of charge in the UK from sexual health clinics. Expanding PrEP delivery to community pharmacies holds promise and aligns with UK government goals to eliminate new cases of HIV by 2030. The aim of this scoping review was to describe the existing evidence about the barriers to and facilitators of community pharmacy oral PrEP delivery, for pharmacists and pharmacy clients, as aligned with the Capacity Opportunity, Motivation Behaviour (COM-B) Model. METHODS: Five bibliographic and five review databases were searched from inception to August 2023. Literature of any study design was included if it discussed barriers and facilitators of community pharmacy PrEP delivery. Trial registrations, protocols and news articles were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 649 records were identified, 73 full texts were reviewed and 56 met the inclusion criteria, predominantly from high-income/westernized settings. Most of the included literature was original research (55%), from the United States (77%) conducted during or after the year 2020 (63%). Barriers to PrEP delivery for pharmacists included lack of knowledge, training and skills (capability), not having the necessary facilities (opportunity), concern about the costs of PrEP and believing that PrEP use could lead to risk behaviours and sexually transmitted infections (motivation). Facilitators included staff training (capability), time, the right facilities (opportunity), believing PrEP could be a source of profit and could reduce new HIV acquisitions (motivation). For clients, barriers included a lack of PrEP awareness (capability), pharmacy facilities (opportunity) and not considering pharmacists as healthcare providers (motivation). Facilitators included awareness of PrEP and pharmacist's training to deliver it (capability), the accessibility of pharmacies (opportunity) and having an interest in PrEP (motivation). DISCUSSION: To effectively enhance oral PrEP delivery in UK community pharmacies, the identified barriers and facilitators should be explored for UK relevance, addressed and leveraged at the pharmacy team, client and care pathway level. CONCLUSIONS: By comprehensively considering all aspects of the COM-B framework, community pharmacies could become crucial providers in expanding PrEP accessibility, contributing significantly to HIV prevention efforts.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Farmacias , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Motivación , Renta , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico
8.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 77(1): e20230217, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511789

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: to analyze the role of nursing in the establishment of an HIV/AIDS Testing and Counseling Center in a Brazilian municipality. METHODS: a historical study utilizing primary sources, including documents and oral accounts, involving a total of ten participants. The study encompasses the years 1997 and 1998. The research took place at the Testing and Counseling Center in São João de Meriti. Data was collected from March to May 2022. RESULTS: nursing made significant contributions through the development of training initiatives led by nurses, who were also responsible for individual and group counseling, as well as HIV testing requests. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: nursing played a crucial role in the center and in the management of Sexually Transmitted Infections, being involved in all stages of treatment in accordance with current public health policy.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Humanos , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Consejo , Prueba de VIH , Brasil
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541377

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: PrEP, a biomedical HIV prevention option, continues to be underutilized among transgender women who could benefit from sustained use, especially women of color and those who identify as Latina and/or reside in the southeastern US. OBJECTIVE: We explored the barriers and facilitators experienced by transgender women who live in Florida regarding accessing, using, and/or staying on PrEP. METHODS: In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted in either Spanish or English with adult transgender women living in Florida (N = 22). The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded in ATLAS.ti using thematic analyses. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 42.2 years. Among the participants, 73% were Hispanic/Latina, 59% were foreign-born, and approximately one-third were living with HIV (but had past experience with PrEP). Transgender women cited the following barriers to accessing or considering PrEP: (1) costs and benefits of PrEP use; (2) under-representation in clinical trials resulting in unknown or misinformation regarding PrEP side effects; (3) chronic poverty; and (4) trauma and discrimination. Other stressors, such as behavioral healthcare needs, were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis revealed interlocking systems of oppression like transphobia, discrimination, and misgendering, which were common barriers experienced by our participants. These synergistically epidemic (i.e., syndemic) barriers contributed to their feelings of being systematically excluded in social spaces, research, public health planning and policies, laws, and social programs related to PrEP. These structural barriers are impediments to HIV preventive care but also act as a source of stress that contributes to mental health problems, financial vulnerability, substance abuse, and other deleterious health outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Personas Transgénero , Adulto , Humanos , Femenino , Personas Transgénero/psicología , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición/métodos , Florida , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Grupos Focales , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico
13.
AIDS Care ; 36(5): 692-702, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466205

RESUMEN

HIV infections disproportionately impact Latinx populations in the United States, yet oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake is low. This study was a secondary gendered analysis of interviews with Latina cisgender women (n = 20) recruited from an urban safety net hospital inNew York City between August 2019 and October 2022. All women were indicated for PrEP by the provider. In-depth interviews were conducted with participants in English and Spanish and asked about social determinants of health, sexual partnerships and behaviors, and PrEP-specific enablers and barriers. Secondary thematic content analysis was conducted to identify gender-related factors influencing PrEP uptake. The following themes emerged from the data:structural factors (e.g., employment), partner-related factors, low sexual health knowledge, and resilience and empowerment. Partner-related factors were the most salient; partner infidelity served as reasons for initiating PrEP. Despite being constrained by low power in relationships, women made empowered choices to initiate PrEP and protect themselves. Findings indicated that the impact of gender inequity was an important factor in Latina women's PrEP decision making, pointing to a need to address partner-driven HIV risk, imbalance of power in relationships, and gender norms.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Humanos , Femenino , Estados Unidos , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Conducta Sexual , Hispánicos o Latinos
14.
Lancet Microbe ; 5(4): e345-e354, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458206

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In 2018, the tuberculosis molecular bacterial load assay (TB-MBLA), a ribosomal RNA-based test, was acknowledged by WHO as a molecular assay that could replace smear microscopy and culture for monitoring tuberculosis treatment response. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of TB-MBLA for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment response in comparison with standard-of-care tests. METHODS: For this longitudinal prospective study, patients aged 18 years or older with presumptive tuberculosis (coughing for at least 2 weeks, night sweats, and weight loss) were enrolled at China-Uganda Friendship Hospital Naguru (Kampala, Uganda). Participants were evaluated for tuberculosis by TB-MBLA in comparison with Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert-Ultra) and smear microscopy, with Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) culture as a reference test. Participants who were positive on Xpert-Ultra were enrolled on a standard 6-month anti-tuberculosis regimen, and monitored for treatment response at weeks 2, 8, 17, and 26 after initiation of treatment and then 3 months after treatment. FINDINGS: Between Nov 15, 2019, and June 15, 2022, 210 participants (median age 35 years [IQR 27-44]) were enrolled. 135 (64%) participants were male and 72 (34%) were HIV positive. The pretreatment diagnostic sensitivities of TB-MBLA and Xpert-Ultra were similar (both 99% [95% CI 95-100]) but the specificity was higher for TB-MBLA (90% [83-96]) than for Xpert-Ultra (78% [68-86]). Ten participants were Xpert-Ultra trace positive, eight (80%) of whom were negative by TB-MBLA and MGIT culture. Smear microscopy had lower diagnostic sensitivity (75% [65-83]) but higher specificity (98% [93-100]) than TB-MBLA and Xpert-Ultra. Among participants who were smear microscopy negative, the sensitivity of TB-MBLA was 96% (95 CI 80-100) and was 100% (95% CI 86-100) in those who were HIV positive. 129 (61%) participants were identified as tuberculosis positive by Xpert-Ultra and these individuals were enrolled in the treatment group and monitored for treatment response. According to TB-MBLA, 19 of these patients cleared bacillary load to zero by week 2 of treatment and remained negative throughout the 6-month treatment follow-up. Positivity for tuberculosis decreased with treatment as measured by all tests, but the rate was slower with Xpert-Ultra. Consequently, 31 (33%) of 95 participants were still Xpert-Ultra positive at the end of treatment but were clinically well and negative on TB-MBLA and culture at 6 months of treatment. Two patients were still Xpert-Ultra positive with a further 3 months of post-treatment follow-up. The rate of conversion to negative of the DNA-based Xpert-Ultra was 3·3-times slower than that of the rRNA-based TB-MBLA. Consequently for the same patient, it would take 13 weeks and 52 weeks to reach complete tuberculosis negativity by TB-MBLA and Xpert-Ultra, respectively. Participants who were positive on smear microscopy at 8 weeks, who received an extra month of intensive treatment, had a similar TB-MBLA-measured bacillary load at 8 weeks to those who were smear microscopy negative. INTERPRETATION: TB-MBLA has a similar performance to Xpert-Ultra for pretreatment diagnosis of tuberculosis, but is more accurate at detecting and characterising the response to treatment than Xpert-Ultra and standard-of-care smear microscopy. FUNDING: European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership, Makerere University Research and Innovation Fund, US National Institutes of Health.


Asunto(s)
Antibióticos Antituberculosos , Seropositividad para VIH , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis Pulmonar , Tuberculosis , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Femenino , Antibióticos Antituberculosos/uso terapéutico , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/microbiología , Rifampin/farmacología , Rifampin/uso terapéutico , Uganda , Estudios Prospectivos , Carga Bacteriana , Microscopía , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Seropositividad para VIH/tratamiento farmacológico
15.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2024-03-22. (PAHO/UFCSPA/CDE/HT/23-0015).
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-59381

RESUMEN

People living with HIV (PLHIV) with severe advanced disease are at high risk of developing opportunistic infections and may face barriers related to diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to describe insights, experiences and perspectives around the feasibility of implementing a package for the rapid diagnosis of frequent opportunistic infections among patients with advanced HIV, in order to support the development and implementation of HIV care policies. The study was carried out between June 30 and October 30, 2023, comprising two focus groups with health professionals involved in the rapid diagnosis intervention (n=10); four in-depth interviews with health managers dedicated to HIV care policies; and 12 interviews with patients with advanced HIV. The intervention in question was considered relevant for allowing a more timely diagnosis of diseases that are difficult to investigate. Patient compliance was generally collaborative, especially in research hospitals, but more vulnerable patients may require expanded psychosocial support. Among the barriers, delays in results, communication challenges between professionals and patients were highlighted, as well as the lack of alignment in the flow of exam request, collection, results and communication for patients and the extended team. At the management level, the importance of integrating the intervention into the line of care for patients with HIV was highlighted. It is relevant to investigate the issue of social determinants of HIV/AIDS mortality in the future to provide valuable insights into improving prevention and treatment strategies.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis , Histoplasmosis , Criptococosis , VIH , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones Oportunistas , Política de Salud , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Brasil
16.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 98: e202403020, Mar. 2024.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-231920

RESUMEN

Fundamentos: las políticas y programas de atención en salud a las personas que viven con vih han obedecido a las políticas económicas vigentes, basadas en el modelo de desarrollo neoliberal y que configuran el actual sistema de salud. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la influencia del sistema de salud colombiano en la atención de las personas que vivían con vih afiliadas a las entidades administradoras de planes de beneficio del régimen subsidiado, atendidos en neiva (colombia). Métodos: se realizó un estudio cualitativo, enmarcado en el análisis crítico del discurso. Participaron diecinueve personas entre pacientes con vih, cuidadores no formales y personal de salud, captados de dos instituciones prestadoras de servicios de salud de la ciudad de neiva, a quienes se les aplicó entrevistas en profundidad. Los datos fueron codificados, categorizados y organizados en excel para su análisis.resultados: la relación interpersonal y el funcionamiento del sistema de salud fueron dos fenómenos que interfirieron en la atención de las personas con vih, en cuanto a que favoreció o impuso barreras a las prácticas. Se encontraron fallos en el proceso informativo/educativo desde el momento del diagnóstico, estigma y discriminación, profundizado en las instituciones de salud no especializadas en vih, así como múltiples barreras de acceso a los servicios de salud. El 55,5% de los pacientes expresó haber sido discriminados por el personal de salud en algún momento desde su diagnóstico. El 100% de pacientes entrevistados identificó barre-ras de diferente tipo para los servicios de salud, contextualizados en trato indebido, inoportunidad en la atención y abuso del poder; solo el 22,2% recurrió a la interposición de quejas, derechos de petición o tutelas para reclamar su derecho a la salud.conclusiones: la praxis de atención se realiza al margen de la situación de contexto de los pacientes, olvidando que son precisamente los ubicados en un nivel socioeconómico más bajo, quienes tienen mayor vulnerabilidad estructural relacionada con la pobreza, por lo que la falta de atención de salud exacerba las inequidades sanitarias.(AU)


Background: health policies and programs for people living with hiv have been subordinated to current economic policies based on the neoliberal development model that shapes the current healthcare system. The study’s objective was to analyze the influence of the colombian health system on the care of people who lived with hiv enrolled in the subsidized regime through benefit plan administrating entities and treated in neiva (colombia).methods: a qualitative study framed within the framework of the critical discourse analysis was conducted. Nineteen people parti-cipated, including hiv patients, non-formal caregivers, and health workers. The participants were recruited from two health service provi-ders institutions in the city of neiva. In-depth interviews were conducted. Data were coded, categorized and organized in excel for analysis.results: the interpersonal relationship and the health system functioning were two phenomena that interfered with caring for people with hiv by favoring or imposing barriers to practices. Failures were found in the informative-educational process from the moment of diagnosis, stigmatization, and discrimination, particularly in non-hiv-specialized health institutions, and multiple barriers to access to health services. 55.5% of the patients expressed having been discriminated against by health personnel at some point since their diagnosis. 100% of the patients interviewed identified different types of barriers to health services, contextualized in im-proper treatment, untimely care and abuse of power; only 22.2% resorted to the filing of complaints, petition rights or guardianships to claim their right to health.conclusions: health care praxis is carried out regardless of patients’ situation, forgetting that those from a lower socioecono-mic level have greater structural vulnerability related to poverty. The lack of healthcare exacerbates health inequalities.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Cumplimiento y Adherencia al Tratamiento , Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA , VIH , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Barreras de Acceso a los Servicios de Salud , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Salud Pública , Sistemas de Salud , Investigación Cualitativa , Colombia
17.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(1): e202302992, feb. 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés, Español | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1525290

RESUMEN

La resistencia a los antirretrovirales (ARV) es un problema de salud pública. Con el uso de inhibidores de la integrasa (INSTI) en pediatría, también comienzan a aparecer resistencias. El objetivo de esta comunicación es describir 3 casos con resistencia a los INSTI. Se describen 3 pacientes pediátricos con transmisión vertical del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Iniciaron ARV de lactantes y preescolares, con mala adherencia al tratamiento, cursaron con diferentes planes secundarios a comorbilidades asociadas y fallas virológicas por resistencia. Los 3 casos clínicos describen la rápida aparición de resistencia frente a la falla virológica y el compromiso de los INSTI. La adherencia debe ser supervisada para detectar precozmente el aumento de la viremia. La falla virológica en un paciente tratado con raltegravir obliga a un rápido cambio de esquema ARV, ya que continuar utilizándolo podría favorecer nuevas mutaciones y resistencia a los INSTI de segunda generación.


Antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance is a public health issue. Resistance has also been observed in the case of integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) used in pediatrics. The objective of this article is to describe 3 cases of INSTI resistance. These are the cases of 3 children with vertically-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). They were started on ARVs as infants and preschoolers, with poor treatment adherence, and had different management plans due to associated comorbidities and virological failure due to resistance. In the 3 cases, resistance developed rapidly as a result of virological failure and INSTI involvement. Treatment adherence should be monitored so that any increase in viremia can be detected early. Virological failure in a patient treated with raltegravir forces to a rapid change in ARV therapy because its continued use may favor new mutations and resistance to second-generation INSTIs.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , VIH-1/genética , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH/farmacología , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Uruguay , Raltegravir Potásico/uso terapéutico , Raltegravir Potásico/farmacología , Mutación
18.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 589, 2024 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38395804

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Migration is common among transgender women (TGW), often driven by the desire to escape stigma, find acceptance, establish new connections, access body modifications, or enter new avenues of sex work. Given the heightened mobility of TGW, they are mostly vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to migration. This study aimed to evaluate the association between in-country migration and HIV infection among TGW in Northeast Brazil. METHODS: The DIVAS was a cross-sectional, multicity study investigating risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among TGW in 2016-2017. A total of 864 TGW were recruited through respondent-driven sampling from three capital cities in Northeast Brazil. Logistic regression estimating odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) was used to assess the relationship between in-country migration and HIV infection. RESULTS: The prevalence of HIV among TGW was 24.5%, 21.4% among those aged 18-34 and 36.1% among those ≥ 35 years old. In-country migration increased the odds of HIV infection among TGW aged 18-34 years (OR = 1.84; 95%CI:1.04-3.27) and even higher among those aged ≥ 35y old (OR = 3.08; 95%CI:1.18-8.04). CONCLUSIONS: These data reinforce the pressing need for public health policies that provide comprehensive access and strategies for demand creation for HIV/AIDS prevention and care for TGW who are already highly vulnerable to infection.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Personas Transgénero , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Conducta Sexual , Homosexualidad Masculina , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , VIH , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Prevalencia
19.
Can J Public Health ; 115(2): 245-249, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38389034

RESUMEN

Black communities bear a hugely disproportionate share of Canada's HIV epidemic. Black persons annually represent up to one quarter of new diagnoses, while in contrast, diagnoses have been falling among white Canadians for the past two decades. There has been a notable lack of urgency and serious debate about why the trend persists and what to do about it. For too long, public institutions have reproduced hegemonic white supremacy and profoundly mischaracterized Black life. Consequently, Black communities suffer policies and programs that buttress systemic anti-Black racism, socio-economically disenfranchise Black communities, and in the process marginalize knowledgeable, experienced, and creative Black stakeholders. The Interim Committee on HIV among Black Canadian Communities (ICHBCC) is a group of Black researchers, service providers, and community advocates who came together in early 2022 to interject urgency to the HIV crisis facing Black communities. Specifically, the ICHBCC advocates for self-determined community leadership of research, policies, and programs, backed by access to appropriate resources, to change the trajectory of HIV among Black Canadian communities. In this article, we introduce the wider community to the Black HIV Manifesto that we developed in 2022.


RéSUMé: Les communautés noires constituent une part très disproportionnée de l'épidémie de VIH du Canada. Les personnes noires représentent annuellement jusqu'au quart des nouveaux diagnostics, tandis que les diagnostics diminuent chez les Canadiennes et les Canadiens de race blanche depuis 20 ans. Il y a une absence notable d'urgence et de débat sérieux sur la raison de la persistance de ces tendances et sur ce qu'il faudrait y faire. Pendant trop longtemps, les institutions publiques ont reproduit l'hégémonie de la suprématie blanche et extrêmement mal caractérisé les vies noires. Par conséquent, les communautés noires souffrent de politiques et de programmes qui soutiennent le racisme anti-Noirs systémique, privent les communautés noires de leurs droits socioéconomiques et marginalisent ainsi les connaissances, l'expérience et la créativité des parties prenantes noires. Le comité intérimaire sur le VIH dans les communautés noires du Canada (ICHBCC) est un groupe de chercheurs et de chercheuses, de prestataires de services et de porte-parole communautaires de race noire qui se sont regroupés au début de 2022 pour mettre l'accent sur le caractère urgent de la crise du VIH dans les communautés noires. Plus précisément, l'ICHBCC plaide en faveur d'un leadership communautaire autodéterminé de la recherche, des politiques et des programmes, appuyé par un accès aux ressources nécessaires, pour changer la trajectoire du VIH dans les communautés noires du Canada. Dans cet article, nous présentons à l'ensemble de la communauté le « manifeste noir sur le VIH ¼ que nous avons élaboré en 2022.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , VIH , Pueblos de América del Norte , Humanos , Canadá/epidemiología , Población Negra , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología
20.
Lancet Digit Health ; 6(3): e187-e200, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38395539

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), condom use, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), and sexual partner reduction help to prevent HIV acquisition but have low uptake among young people. We aimed to assess the efficacy of automated text messaging and monitoring, online peer support, and strengths-based telehealth coaching to improve uptake of and adherence to PrEP, condom use, and PEP among adolescents aged 12-24 years at risk of HIV acquisition in Los Angeles, CA, USA, and New Orleans, LA, USA. METHODS: We conducted a four-arm randomised controlled factorial trial, assessing interventions designed to support uptake and adherence of HIV prevention options (ie, PrEP, PEP, condom use, and sexual partner reduction). We recruited young people aged 12-24 years who were at risk of HIV acquisition from 13 community-based organisations, adolescent medicine clinics, and organisations serving people who are unstably housed, people who were previously incarcerated, and other vulnerable young people, and through dating apps, peer referrals, and social venues and events in Los Angeles, CA, USA, and New Orleans, LA, USA. Young people who tested seronegative and reported being gay, bisexual, or other men who have sex with men, transgender men or women, or gender diverse (eg. non-binary or genderqueer) were eligible for inclusion. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four intervention groups in a factorial design: automated text messaging and monitoring (AMMI) only, AMMI plus peer support via private social media, AMMI plus strengths-based telehealth coaching by near-peer paraprofessionals, or AMMI plus peer support and coaching. Assignment was further stratified by race or ethnicity and sexual orientation within each interviewer's group of participants. Participants were masked to intervention assignment until after baseline interviews when offered their randomly assigned intervention, and interviewers were masked throughout the study. Interventions were available throughout the 24-month follow-up period, and participants completed baseline and follow-up assessments, including rapid diagnostic tests for sexually transmitted infections, HIV, and substance use, at 4-month intervals over 24 months. The primary outcomes were uptake and adherence to HIV prevention options over 24 months, measured by self-reported PrEP use and adherence, consistent condom use with all partners, PEP prescription and adherence, and number of sexual partners in participants with at least one follow-up. We used Bayesian generalised linear modelling to assess changes in outcomes over time comparing the four study groups. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03134833) and is completed. FINDINGS: We screened 2314 adolescents beginning May 1, 2017, to enrol 1037 participants (45%) aged 16-24 years between May 6, 2017, and Aug 30, 2019, of whom 895 (86%) had follow-up assessments and were included in the analytical sample (313 assigned to AMMI only, 205 assigned to AMMI plus peer support, 196 assigned to AMMI plus coaching, and 181 assigned to AMMI plus peer support and coaching). Follow-up was completed on Nov 8, 2021. Participants were diverse in race and ethnicity (362 [40%] Black or African American, 257 [29%] Latinx or Hispanic, 184 [21%] White, and 53 [6%] Asian or Pacific Islander) and other sociodemographic factors. At baseline, 591 (66%) participants reported anal sex without a condom in the past 12 months. PrEP use matched that in young people nationally, with 101 (11%) participants reporting current PrEP use at baseline, increasing at 4 months to 132 (15%) and continuing to increase in the AMMI plus peer support and coaching group (odds ratio 2·31, 95% CI 1·28-4·14 vs AMMI control). There was no evidence for intervention effect on condom use, PEP use (ie, prescription or adherence), PrEP adherence, or sexual partner numbers. No unanticipated or study-related adverse events occurred. INTERPRETATION: Results are consistent with hypothesised synergistic intervention effects of evidence-based functions of informational, motivational, and reminder messaging; peer support for HIV prevention; and strengths-based, goal-focused, and problem-solving telehealth coaching delivered by near-peer paraprofessionals. These core functions could be flexibly scaled via combinations of technology platforms and front-line or telehealth HIV prevention workers. FUNDING: Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions, US National Institutes of Health.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Estados Unidos , Homosexualidad Masculina , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Teorema de Bayes
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