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1.
Enferm. glob ; 22(69): 384-397, ene. 2023. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-504

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Describir el proceso de validación de la apariencia, claridad y pertinencia del contenido del instrumento titulado: "Consumo de medios sexuales en línea y prácticas de riesgo de VIH/SIDA".Materiales y método: Estudio metodológico desarrollado a partir de la técnica Delphi. La evaluación fue realizada por jueces y siguió tres fases: la adaptación del instrumento original al contexto de los medios sexuales en línea, la validación del contenido del instrumento adaptado y la verificación semántica. Los datos fueron procesados en el software IBM® SPSS® con análisis estadístico descriptivo. Resultados: El IVC fue satisfactorio para los dominios de salud sexual (93,4%) y prácticas sexuales (94,2%), mientras que los ítems relacionados con el consumo de medios sexuales explícitos obtuvieron un IVC del 100,0% para ambos criterios. Conclusiones: Se obtuvieron índices de validez y positividad de alto contenido, indicando que el instrumento validado "Consumo de medios sexuales y prácticas de riesgo de VIH/SIDA" nos permite analizar de manera confiable y de calidad la influencia del consumo de medios sexuales en las prácticas de riesgo de VIH. (AU)


Objetivo: Descrever o processo de validação de aparência, clareza e relevância do conteúdo do instrumento intitulado: “Consumo de mídias sexuais online e as práticas de risco ao HIV/Aids”. Materiais e método: Estudo metodológico desenvolvido a partir da técnica Delphi. A avaliação foi realizada por juízes e seguiu três fases: a adaptação do instrumento original para o contexto das mídias sexuais online, a validação de conteúdo do instrumento adaptado e a verificação semântica. Os dados foram processados no software IBM® SPSS® com análise estatística descritiva. Resultados: O IVC foi satisfatório para os domínios de saúde sexual (93,4%) e práticas sexuais (94,2%), enquanto os itens referentes ao consumo de mídias sexuais explícitas obtiveram IVC de 100,0% para ambos os critérios. Conclusão: Obteve-se elevados índices de validade de conteúdo e de positividade indicando que o instrumento “Consumo de mídias sexuais e as práticas de risco ao HIV/Aids” validado permite analisar com confiabilidade e qualidade a influência do consumo das mídias sexuais nas práticas de risco para HIV. (AU)


Objective: To describe the process of validation of appearance, clarity and relevance of the content of the instrument entitled: "Consumption of online sexual media and HIV/AIDS risk practices".Materials and Method: Methodological study developed from the Delphi technique. The evaluation was performed by judges and followed three phases: the adaptation of the original instrument to the context of online sexual media, the content validation of the adapted instrument and semantic verification. The data were processed in IBM® SPSS® software with descriptive statistical analysis. Results: CVI was satisfactory for the domains of sexual health (93.4%) and sexual practices (94.2%), while the items related to the consumption of explicit sexual media obtained CVI of 100.0% for both criteria. Conclusions: High content validity and positivity indexes were obtained, indicating that the validated instrument "Consumption of sexual media and HIV/AIDS risk practices" allows us to reliably and quality analyze the influence of sexual media consumption on HIV risk practices. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Conducta Sexual , VIH , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Brasil , Recursos Audiovisuales
2.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 34(1): 15-23, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656091

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Individuals unaware of their HIV seropositive status continue to represent a key "driver" of the HIV epidemic. Strategies to improve initiation into the HIV treatment cascade, including among young men, are required. This study assesses the acceptability of three HIV testing options among young cisgender men living in Vancouver, British Columbia. Using a modified grounded theory approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 45 young cisgender men ages 18-30 years to identify the factors influencing the acceptability of diverse HIV testing approaches. Participants ascribed value to non-nominal testing as a means of providing a secure pathway to HIV-related care for those who test positive while also safeguarding privacy. Anonymous HIV testing was problematized by participants as potentially creating difficulty in accessing ongoing HIV-related care. Most participants preferred non-nominal testing. Nevertheless, based on principles of equity, we argue that anonymous access to one's serostatus should be available, especially within a criminalized context.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Colombia Británica , Prueba de VIH , Investigación Cualitativa , Homosexualidad Masculina
3.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 37(1): 22-30, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36626154

RESUMEN

Autonomy support is a concept that is derived from self-determination theory. Autonomy refers to the freedom to act as one chooses. The current study aimed to examine if autonomy support was associated with dried blood spot validated pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence, and whether the association was mediated by PrEP adherence goal setting and progress toward PrEP adherence goals. Our sample was drawn from Black men who have sex with men (MSM) from across three cities (Chapel Hill, NC; Los Angeles, CA; and Washington, DC) in the United States between February 2013 and September 2014. We used logistic regression to evaluate associations between study variables and path analysis to test mediation effects. Participants were, on average, 28 [standard deviation (SD) = 1.12] years old and 25% were unemployed. We found that MSM who experienced high autonomy support were more likely to adhere to PrEP [odds ratio (OR) = 1.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.38]. MSM who set PrEP adherence goals were more likely to adhere to PrEP. Moreover, MSM who reported making progress toward their goals were also more likely to adhere to PrEP. Finally, client perception of coordination quality enhanced the magnitude of the association between goal setting and goal progress and the effect size of goal progress on PrEP adherence. Autonomy support, goal setting, goal monitoring/evaluation, and care coordination quality influenced PrEP adherence among Black MSM. Our findings indicate that while it is important to set goals for PrEP adherence, goal setting may need to be accompanied by progress monitoring to achieve the maximal effect.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Masculino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Lactante , Homosexualidad Masculina , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Objetivos
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36700598

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In Brazil, TB is a public health problem, and the treatment dropout rate contributes to it. METHODS: This systematic review investigated the factors associated with TB treatment dropout in Brazil using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method. The databases used were Bireme, Scopus, PubMed, Medline, Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), and Latin-American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS). The search was conducted on May 16, 2021. Nine articles were reviewed, and all were published within the last 5 years in English, Spanish, or Portuguese. RESULTS: The sample sizes in the studies ranged from 148 to 77,212 individuals, and the studies enrolled only adult patients (aged 18-59 years) in Brazil. Evidence suggests that the significant risk factors associated with TB treatment dropout are male sex, black race/ethnicity, age between 19 and 49 years, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, low education (<8 years), use of alcohol and illicit drugs, and unsupervised treatment. This study's limitations were the small number of articles published on this topic with stronger study designs, use of secondary data sources in most articles, and a moderate to high risk of bias in most papers. CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant association between abandonment of TB treatment and HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome co-infection; socioeconomic factors (low education and homelessness); use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs; and failure to use directly observed treatment. These results can guide more efficient measures to prevent dropout.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Coinfección , Infecciones por VIH , Tuberculosis , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad , Femenino , Brasil/epidemiología
5.
AIDS ; 37(3): 389-399, 2023 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695355

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Molecular epidemiology is a powerful tool to characterize HIV epidemics and prioritize public health interventions. Typically, HIV clusters are assumed to have uniform patterns over time. We hypothesized that assessment of cluster evolution would reveal distinct cluster behavior, possibly improving molecular epidemic characterization, towards disrupting HIV transmission. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. METHODS: Annual phylogenies were inferred by cumulative aggregation of all available HIV-1 pol sequences of individuals with HIV-1 in Rhode Island (RI) between 1990 and 2020, representing a statewide epidemic. Molecular clusters were detected in annual phylogenies by strict and relaxed cluster definition criteria, and the impact of annual newly-diagnosed HIV-1 cases to the structure of individual clusters was examined over time. RESULTS: Of 2153 individuals, 31% (strict criteria) - 47% (relaxed criteria) clustered. Longitudinal tracking of individual clusters identified three cluster types: normal, semi-normal and abnormal. Normal clusters (83-87% of all identified clusters) showed predicted growing/plateauing dynamics, with approximately three-fold higher growth rates in large (15-18%) vs. small (∼5%) clusters. Semi-normal clusters (1-2% of all clusters) temporarily fluctuated in size and composition. Abnormal clusters (11-16% of all clusters) demonstrated collapses and re-arrangements over time. Borderline values of cluster-defining parameters explained dynamics of non-normal clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive tracing of molecular HIV clusters over time in a statewide epidemic identified distinct cluster types, likely missed in cross-sectional analyses, demonstrating that not all clusters are equal. This knowledge challenges current perceptions of consistent cluster behavior over time and could improve molecular surveillance of local HIV epidemics to better inform public health strategies.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Seropositividad para VIH , VIH-1 , Humanos , VIH-1/genética , Rhode Island/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Análisis por Conglomerados , Filogenia , Epidemiología Molecular
7.
AIDS ; 37(3): 535-540, 2023 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695363

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the landscape of needs for housing assistance among people with HIV (PWH) and availability of Housing Opportunities for People with AIDS (HOPWA) funding with respect to housing service needs, nationally and for 17 US jurisdictions. DESIGN: The CDC Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) is an annual, cross-sectional survey designed to report nationally and locally representative estimates of characteristics and outcomes among adults with diagnosed HIV in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed 2015-2020 data from MMP and 2019 funding data from HOPWA. Weighted percentages and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for national and jurisdiction-level estimates were reported. RESULTS: Nationally, 1 in 4 (27.7%) PWH had shelter or housing service needs. Among those who needed housing services, 2 in 5 (40.4%) did not receive them (range: 21.3% in New York to 62.3% in Georgia). Reasons for unmet needs were multifactorial and varied by jurisdiction. Available 2019 HOPWA funding per person in need would cover up to 1.24 months of rent per person nationally (range: 0.53 months in Virginia to 9.54 months in Puerto Rico), and may not have matched housing assistance needs among PWH in certain jurisdictions. CONCLUSION: Addressing housing service needs necessitates a multipronged approach at the provider, jurisdiction, and national level. Locally, jurisdictions should work with their partners to understand and address housing service needs among PWH. Nationally, distribution of HOPWA funding for housing services should be aligned according to local needs; the funding formula could be modified to improve access to housing services among PWH.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Vivienda Popular , Adulto , Humanos , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Estudios Transversales , Georgia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Vivienda
8.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 34(1): 24-30, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36511759

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention is a highly effective tool in preventing HIV, yet PrEP is underprescribed. Primary care providers are ideally positioned to increase access to and awareness of PrEP, but health care providers' knowledge of PrEP greatly varies. To evaluate PrEP knowledge and attitudes of primary care providers, we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study examining primary providers' knowledge and concerns about PrEP. Participants ( n = 122) included physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and residency trainees in family medicine, internal medicine, and obstetrics. Despite high awareness of PrEP among these primary care providers (91.7%), fewer reported feeling comfortable prescribing PrEP (62.5%), and the average number of PrEP prescriptions per provider written in the last 6 months was less than 1. PrEP remains key to preventing HIV, but prescriptions remain low. Health care providers would benefit from additional education and training on communicating with their patients about sexual health and HIV prevention.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Texas , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Personal de Salud/educación , Atención Primaria de Salud , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico
9.
AIDS ; 37(3): 549-551, 2023 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36544264

RESUMEN

In utero exposure to didanosine was associated with increased risk of brain cancer in a French study. We used United States health department records to assess cancer risk among 13 617 children exposed to HIV in utero , who remained HIV-uninfected after birth (1990-2017). Risk of brain tumors was borderline elevated among these children (standardized incidence ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval 0.8-4.8, P  = 0.12, based on six cases). Risk was not significantly increased for leukemia or other cancers.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Neoplasias , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Embarazo , Femenino , Niño , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Lactante , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/epidemiología , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/inducido químicamente , Estudios Prospectivos , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico
10.
Public Health Rep ; 138(1): 31-42, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023401

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) Implementation, Data to Care, and Evaluation (PrIDE) was a demonstration project implemented by 12 state and local health departments during 2015-2019 to expand PrEP services for men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender persons at risk for HIV infection. We describe findings from the cross-jurisdictional evaluation of the project. METHODS: We analyzed work plans, annual progress reports, and aggregate quantitative program data submitted by funded health departments (n = 12) to identify key activities implemented and summarize key project outcomes. RESULTS: PrIDE jurisdictions implemented multiple health equity-focused activities to expand PrEP services to priority populations, including building program capacity, conducting knowledge and awareness campaigns, providing PrEP support services, and addressing barriers to PrEP use. Overall, PrIDE jurisdictions identified 44 813 persons with PrEP indications. Of these, 74.8% (n = 33 500) were referred and 33.1% (n = 14 821) were linked to PrEP providers, and 25.3% (n = 11 356) were prescribed PrEP. Most persons prescribed PrEP were MSM or transgender persons (87.9%) and persons from racial and ethnic minority groups (65.6%). However, among persons with PrEP indications, non-Hispanic Black/African American persons (14.9% of 18 782) were less likely than non-Hispanic White persons (31.0% of 11 633) to be prescribed PrEP (z = -33.57; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: PrIDE jurisdictions successfully expanded PrEP services for MSM, transgender persons, and racial and ethnic minority groups by implementing health equity-focused activities that addressed barriers to PrEP services. However, PrEP prescription was generally low, with significant disparities by demographic characteristics. Additional targeted interventions are needed to expand PrEP services, achieve equity in PrEP use, and contribute to ending the HIV epidemic in the United States.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Personas Transgénero , Masculino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Homosexualidad Masculina , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Etnicidad , Grupos Minoritarios , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico
11.
AIDS ; 37(1): F1-F10, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36476452

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Many vaccines require higher/additional doses or adjuvants to provide adequate protection for people with HIV (PWH). Our objective was to compare COVID-19 vaccine immunogenicity in PWH to HIV-negative individuals. DESIGN: In a Canadian multi-center prospective, observational cohort of PWH receiving at least two COVID-19 vaccinations, we measured vaccine-induced immunity at 3 and 6 months post 2nd and 1-month post 3rd doses. METHODS: The primary outcome was the percentage of PWH mounting vaccine-induced immunity [co-positivity for anti-IgG against SARS-CoV2 Spike(S) and receptor-binding domain proteins] 6 months post 2nd dose. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were used to compare COVID-19-specific immune responses between groups and within subgroups. RESULTS: Data from 294 PWH and 267 controls were analyzed. Immunogenicity was achieved in over 90% at each time point in both groups. The proportions of participants achieving comparable anti-receptor-binding domain levels were similar between the group at each time point. Anti-S IgG levels were similar by group at month 3 post 2nd dose and 1-month post 3rd dose. A lower proportion of PWH vs. controls maintained vaccine-induced anti-S IgG immunity 6 months post 2nd dose [92% vs. 99%; odds ratio: 0.14 (95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.80; P = 0.027)]. In multivariable analyses, neither age, immune non-response, multimorbidity, sex, vaccine type, or timing between doses were associated with reduced IgG response. CONCLUSION: Vaccine-induced IgG was elicited in the vast majority of PWH and was overall similar between groups. A slightly lower proportion of PWH vs. controls maintained vaccine-induced anti-S IgG immunity 6 months post 2nd dose demonstrating the importance of timely boosting in this population.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra el SIDA , COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Inmunogenicidad Vacunal , Estudios Prospectivos , ARN Viral , COVID-19/prevención & control , Canadá , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticuerpos
12.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 92(1): 27-33, 2023 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215975

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: New York State (NYS) was at the intersection of the HIV epidemic and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic leading to a disruption in HIV-preventive services. This study sought to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and mitigation efforts on HIV-testing trends in NYS among AIDS Institute (AI)-funded providers. METHODS: We analyzed weekly testing data from the AI Reporting System from January 1, 2017, to June 27, 2021, to fit an interrupted time series model that predicted the expected number of HIV tests among AI-funded providers in NYS had the COVID-19 pandemic not occurred. The actual observed numbers of HIV testing that occurred from weeks beginning March 15, 2020, to June 30, 2021, were compared with the number of HIV tests predicted by the model. RESULTS: In the absence of the COVID-19 pandemic, our model predicted that there would have been 45,605 HIV tests among AI-funded providers between the weeks beginning March 15, 2020, to June 27, 2021. We observed 20,742 HIV tests, representing a 54.5% reduction. We observed percent decreases of greater than 50% for HIV testing among AI-funded providers for New York City (52.9%) and rest of state (59.8%) regions, male (50.6%) and female (66.8%) genders, as well as Black (59.2%), Hispanic (52.8%), mixed race (57.5%), other (50.3%), and White (50.1%) race and ethnicities. CONCLUSION: HIV testing among AI-funded providers in NYS has declined substantially following the COVID-19 pandemic, reflecting decreased access to, and/or demand for, testing among persons at elevated risk for HIV. Initiatives to increase HIV testing and maintain access to HIV prevention services need to be explored following COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , Femenino , Masculino , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , Factores de Tiempo , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Prueba de VIH
13.
Med Care ; 61(1): 12-19, 2023 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36477617

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Medicaid expansion has been nationally shown to improve engagement in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and prevention continua, which are vital steps to stopping the HIV epidemic. New HIV infections in the United States are disproportionately concentrated among young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). Houston, TX, is the most populous city in the Southern United States with a racially/ethnically diverse population that is located in 1 of 11 US states that have not yet expanded Medicaid coverage as of 2021. METHODS: An agent-based model that incorporated the sexual networks of YBMSM was used to simulate improved antiretroviral treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) engagement through Medicaid expansion in Houston, TX. Analyses considered the HIV incidence (number of new infections and as a rate metric) among YBMSM over the next 10 years under Medicaid expansion as the primary outcome. Additional scenarios, involving viral suppression and PrEP uptake above the projected levels achieved under Medicaid expansion, were also simulated. RESULTS: The baseline model projected an HIV incidence rate of 4.96 per 100 person years (py) and about 368 new annual HIV infections in the 10th year. Improved HIV treatment and prevention continua engagement under Medicaid expansion resulted in a 14.9% decline in the number of annual new HIV infections in the 10th year. Increasing viral suppression by an additional 15% and PrEP uptake by 30% resulted in a 44.0% decline in new HIV infections in the 10th year, and a 27.1% decline in cumulative infections across the 10 years of the simulated intervention. FINDINGS: Simulation results indicate that Medicaid expansion has the potential to reduce HIV incidence among YBMSM in Houston. Achieving HIV elimination objectives, however, might require additional effective measures to increase antiretroviral treatment and PrEP uptake beyond the projected improvements under expanded Medicaid.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Humanos , Masculino , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Homosexualidad Masculina , Texas/epidemiología
14.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 37(1): 1-10, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36576421

RESUMEN

Unsuppressed HIV viremia damages immunity and increases the risk for secondary HIV transmission. Successful engagement of persons with HIV (PWH) into care resulting in viral suppression is vital. PWH already engaged in care, who, after achieving viral suppression, experience viral breakthrough episodes (VBEs) with a sequence of suppressed/unsuppressed/suppressed viral loads remain problematic. We examined the frequency and outcomes of PWH experiencing VBE. HIV care is provided at no cost to all patients under Alberta's universal health program. All PWH followed at Southern Alberta Clinic, Canada, with two or more viral load tests between January 1, 2010, and January 1, 2020, were evaluated. Sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle variables were determined along with health outcomes (CD4 levels, HIV-related hospitalizations, and HIV/AIDS-related mortality). Descriptive and multi-variable analyses were performed comparing PWH with and without VBEs. Of 2096 PWH, 386 (18%) experienced one or more VBEs. A higher risk of VBEs was seen in adjusted analyses in those diagnosed age ≤40 years. Increased risk of VBE was seen with injection drug use (46%) and in heterosexuals (56%) compared with MSM. Experience of intimate partner violence, unstable housing, homelessness, and past incarceration also increased risks by 36%, 44% 79%, and 51%, respectively. PWH with VBEs experienced lower CD4 counts (median -417/mm3 vs. 576/mm3), higher rates of HIV-related hospitalizations (16% vs. 5%), and a 67% increased risk of death (95% confidence interval 1.17-2.39) over the study period. Nearly 20% of all PWH, after achieving viral suppression, experienced VBEs. Distinct clinical, lifestyle, and life experiences predict PWH at greatest risk for more than one VBEs. Serious negative health outcomes of VBEs were identified, suggesting that novel customized care programming is required for PWH at greatest risk.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Adulto , Alberta/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Salud Pública , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/complicaciones , Recuento de Linfocito CD4
15.
J Surg Res ; 281: 338-344, 2023 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945037

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Examining burden of diseases could shed light on priorities of public health interventions and research funding. This study examined trends of the U.S. top leading causes of death from 1981 to 2019 using the total number of deaths, age-adjusted death rate, and years of potential life lost (YPLLs). METHODS: Data were from the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. This study gathered total number of deaths, age-adjusted death rates per 100,000 people, and YPLLs under 70 y of age (YPLL-70) from 1981 to 2019 for the top 10 leading causes of death and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for each year. The 39 y from 1981 to 2019 were evenly divided into three study periods: 1981-1993, 1994-2006, and 2007-2019. The percent change of YPLL-70 over three time periods for the top ten leading causes of death and AIDS was calculated. Trends of age-adjusted death rates and YPLL-70 of the top five leading causes of death based on the 2018-2019 death data were also reported by graphing them against time from 1981 to 2019 to highlight major mortality causes. Age-adjusted death rates for the top five leading causes of deaths and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) annual funding level in 2019 were graphed together to illustrate funding discrepancy in injury research and prevention. RESULTS: The total number of deaths caused by malignant neoplasms in 2019 was 244,994, followed by 183,442 deaths of heart diseases, 121,476 deaths of unintentional injuries, and 41,051 suicide deaths. Despite an initial -22.20% drop of YPPL-70 during 1981-1993, unintentional injuries experienced significant increases of 19.38% and 18.59% of YPLL-70 in 1994-2006 and 2007-2019, respectively. The age-adjusted death rate for unintentional injuries was 1182 per 100,000 people in 2019, and the NIH funding in the same year was $897 million. In comparison, the age-adjusted death rate for cancer, heart disease, and human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS was 786, 649, and 30 per 100,000 people while the NIH funding was $2,560, $2,394, and $3037 million, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Unintentional injuries, suicide, and homicide were consistently among the top leading causes of death and YPLL-70, so they should be prioritized in public health planning, research, and federal funding allocation. Injury and trauma research is severely underfunded by the U.S. premier funding agency.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Cardiopatías , Heridas y Lesiones , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Humanos , Causas de Muerte , Homicidio , Causalidad , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Esperanza de Vida
16.
Health Educ Behav ; 50(1): 29-40, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36540958

RESUMEN

Transgender individuals are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States. Given increased risk of HIV among youth, there is a need to understand HIV risk and protective factors among transgender individuals who are 18 years and younger. Patterns of HIV testing, HIV education, and condom use have known associations with HIV outcomes among youth in general, but are understudied among transgender youth. This study assessed these outcomes by developing a series of sex-stratified multivariable logistic regression models using pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data. Results indicate female and male transgender youth as well as males who were not sure they were transgender were more likely have tested for HIV compared with their not transgender peers. Male transgender youth were significantly less likely to have received HIV education compared with not transgender males. Females not sure if they were transgender and male transgender youth were significantly less likely to have used condoms compared with, respectively, not transgender female and not transgender male counterparts. In sum, condom use and HIV education both remain lower among transgender individuals relative to their not-transgender peers. This highlights the need for the promotion of culturally appropriate HIV education and HIV prevention supports among transgender youth.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Personas Transgénero , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Femenino , Estados Unidos , Niño , Condones , Sexo Seguro , Prueba de VIH , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control
17.
Eval Program Plann ; 90: 101998, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544606

RESUMEN

Strategies to reduce new HIV infections include pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Of the estimated over 221,000 Californians with an indication for PrEP, only 31,280 (14 %) were currently taking the medication as of 2019. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Project PrIDE funds were used to support and develop California PrEP navigation programs designed to increase PrEP uptake among trans persons and men who have sex with men (MSM). An analysis of PrIDE-funded PrEP navigation service outcomes was conducted to highlight where continuum drop-off occurred and how it varied among priority populations. Quantitative service delivery data for PrEP navigation program activities conducted from October 1, 2015 to September 30, 2018 were collected across three county-level local health jurisdictions (LHJs) via standardized, agency-completed service delivery data collection tools. Analyses included frequencies and crosstabs. These variations were not tested statistically but highlight group-specific needs to be addressed before implementing PrEP navigation within California. Continued systematic collection and analyses of PrEP continuum outcomes will allow programs to dynamically identify and address barriers to PrEP uptake in priority populations.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Personas Transgénero , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , California , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud
18.
Geospat Health ; 17(2)2022 Nov 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36468599

RESUMEN

The mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a serious public health problem in the Brazilian Rainforest. This study aimed to spatially analyze this type of infection between 2007 and 2018 in Pará, which is the second-largest Brazilian state in the Brazilian Rainforest and also has the highest MTCT of HIV in Brazil. We analyzed the incidence rates of HIV (including the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by MTCT as the main route of infection in children younger than 13 years old and whose mothers live in Pará. We employed spatial autocorrelation, spatial scanning, and geographic-weighted spatial regression techniques. In the period of this study, 389 new HIV/AIDS were noted, with territorial expansion of the incidence rates in the municipalities in northern and southern Pará having the highest rates. São Francisco do Pará had high spatial risk and high-spatiotemporal risk clusters comprising municipalities in western and south-western Pará between 2013 and 2016. The spatial variability of HIV/AIDS incidence rates was found to be common in the number of men and women with formal jobs; unemployed ≥18 years old people; elementary school pupils; and families enrolled in the "Single Registry for Social Programs". The social equity approach in Pará guarantee pregnant women access to preventive, diagnostic and treatment health services and their children should be supported to eliminate the MTCT of HIV in Pará.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Embarazo , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiología , Bosque Lluvioso , Madres , VIH
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(48): 1505-1510, 2022 Dec 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454696

RESUMEN

Increasing HIV testing, preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are pillars of the federal Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S. (EHE) initiative, with a goal of decreasing new HIV infections by 90% by 2030.* In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, a national emergency was declared in the United States on March 13, 2020, resulting in the closure of nonessential businesses and most nonemergency health care venues; stay-at-home orders also limited movement within communities (1). As unemployment increased during the pandemic (2), many persons lost employer-sponsored health insurance (3). HIV testing and PrEP prescriptions declined early in the COVID-19 pandemic (4-6); however, the full impact of the pandemic on use of HIV prevention and care services and HIV outcomes is not known. To assess changes in these measures during 2019-2021, quarterly data from two large U.S. commercial laboratories, the IQVIA Real World Data - Longitudinal Prescription Database (IQVIA),† and the National HIV Surveillance System (NHSS)§ were analyzed. During quarter 1 (Q1)¶ 2020, a total of 2,471,614 HIV tests were performed, 190,955 persons were prescribed PrEP, and 8,438 persons received a diagnosis of HIV infection. Decreases were observed during quarter 2 (Q2), with 1,682,578 HIV tests performed (32% decrease), 179,280 persons prescribed PrEP (6% decrease), and 6,228 persons receiving an HIV diagnosis (26% decrease). Partial rebounds were observed during quarter 3 (Q3), with 2,325,554 HIV tests performed, 184,320 persons prescribed PrEP, and 7,905 persons receiving an HIV diagnosis. The proportion of persons linked to HIV care, the number who were prescribed ART, and proportion with a suppressed viral load test (<200 copies of HIV RNA per mL) among those tested were stable during the study period. During public health emergencies, delivery of HIV services outside of traditional clinical settings or that use nonclinical delivery models are needed to facilitate access to HIV testing, ART, and PrEP, as well as to support adherence to ART and PrEP medications.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Prueba de VIH
20.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 21: 23259582221144451, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36537589

RESUMEN

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is underused in the southern United States (US), a region with high HIV incidence. Clinical decision support (CDS) tools could increase PrEP prescriptions. We explored barriers to PrEP delivery and views of CDS tools to identify refinements for implementation strategies for PrEP prescribing and PrEP CDS tools. We conducted focus groups with health care providers from two federally qualified health centers in Alabama and analyzed the results using rapid qualitative methods. Barriers to PrEP included providers' lack of training in PrEP, competing priorities and time constraints during clinical visits, concerns about side effects, and intensive workload. We identified refinements to the planned implementation strategies to address the barriers, including training all clinic staff in PrEP and having CDS PrEP alerts in electronic health records sent to all staff. Development and deployment of CDS tools in collaboration with providers has potential to increase PrEP prescribing in high-priority jurisdictions.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Sistemas de Apoyo a Decisiones Clínicas , Infecciones por VIH , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Alabama , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición/métodos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Personal de Salud/educación
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